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The impact of Climate Change on Coastal Areas in Jamaica: The importance of Coastal Zone Management

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Title: The impact of Climate Change on Coastal Areas in Jamaica: The importance of Coastal Zone Management


1
The impact of Climate Change on Coastal Areas in
JamaicaThe importance of Coastal Zone
Management
Ms. Leiska Powell
2
The Impact of Climate Change on the Coastal Areas
of Jamaica The Importance of Coastal Zone
Management
The University of the West Indies and
Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre
Conference
Climate Change Impacts on the Caribbean
June 15-17
  • Presentation by Leiska Powell

3
Outline of Presentation
  • What is causing climate and impacts
  • What are coastal zones?
  • Importance of Coastal Areas is Jamaica
  • Impact of Climate Change on Jamaicas Coastal
    Areas
  • Integrated Coastal Planning and Management
  • Case Study Barbados
  • Conclusion

4
What is causing Climate Change?
  • GHGs such as Carbon Dioxide, Methane and CFCs
    trap heat radiating from the earths surface
  • These GHGs prevent the heat from immediately
    escaping into space.
  • The part of the atmosphere that is closest to the
    earths surface warms, resulting in Global
    Warming.

5
Impacts Resulting from Climate Change
  • The impacts are expected to include the
    following
  • Average temperature rise in the region of
    approximately 3ºC by 2080
  • Average sea level rise of 5 mm/year over the next
    century
  • Increased intensity and potentially increased
    frequency of extreme weather events such as
    hurricanes
  • Changing patterns of rainfall

6
Critical Facts
  • SIDS account for less than 1 of GHG emissions
    (IPCC, 2001).
  • However, SIDS are among the most vulnerable to
    the potential adverse effects of climate change
    and sea level rise.
  • This is because SIDS are
  • 1. Ecological Fragile
  • 2. Small in size
  • 3.Geographic dispersion

7
Critical Facts Contd
  • 4. Vulnerability to natural disasters
  • 5. Limited natural resources
  • 6. Isolation from markets
  • 7. Limited commodities and dependence on
    imports
  • 8. Vulnerability to external economic and
    financial shocks.

8
What are Coastal Zones?
  • Define using two approaches
  • 1. Physical- It views the coast from a
    spatial perspective, incorporating all those
    areas that drain out to the sea and , those
    that are periodically inundated by tides
    This definition embraces the coastal
    watersheds, plains and shoreline the rivers,
    and wetlands that drain them and the
    beaches, seagrass beds, reefs and other
    marine formations.
  • 2. Stresses relationships and interaction
    that are linked by physical, biological or human
    interactions as a result of tides, drainage,
    waste discharge, storms, resource utilization etc.

9
Benefits that Coastal Ecosystems Provide
  • Provide benefits under four categories
  • 1. Regulating- protection of shores from
    storm surges and waves prevention of
    erosion and water quality maintenance.
  • 2. Provisioning- fisheries, medicines and
    construction materials.
  • 3. Cultural- tourism and recreation,
    spiritual and aesthetic appreciation.
  • 4. Supporting- cycling of nutrients, fish
    nursery habitat.

10
Importance of Coastal Areas in Jamaica
  • It is a source of livelihood
  • Generates millions of dollars- eg. Tourism
    foreign exchange earnings in 2000 estimated at
    US1332.6m and approx. 20 (directly and
    indirectly ) of employed labour force.
  • As a result, approx. 2/3 of the population live
    in coastal towns and cities and most commercial
    and industrial activities are concentrated along
    the coast.

11
Contd
  • However, coastal ecosystems undergo stress from
    competing multi-usage demands often result in
    conflicts and the destruction of the functional
    integrity of the resource system.
  • Degradation of coastal resources can increase
    Jamaicas vulnerability to the impacts of climate
    change.
  • Therefore, the marine environment should be
    incorporated into development planning agendas.

12
Impact of Climate Change on Jamaicas Coastal
Areas
13
Selected Hurricanes in the Caribbean and their
Impact- 1988-2005
14
Impacts of Hurricane Ivan
  • Hurricane Ivan impacted on 8 of the countrys
    GDP.
  • All productive sectors agriculture and
    livestock, manufacturing, mining and tourism etc
    were affected.
  • Agricultural Sector- US137.9 mi in damages.
    Approx. 8,000 farmers were out of work during the
    recovery phase as their farms were damaged.
  • Tourism Sector- US25.7 mi damage and losses.
  • Total damage and losses caused by Hurricane Ivan
    US595 mi

15
Integrated Coastal Planning and Management (ICPM)
  • ICPM is dynamic process in which a
    coordinated strategy is developed and
    implemented for the allocation of
    environmental, socio-cultural and institutional
    resources to achieve the conservation and
    sustainable use of the coastal zone
    (Sorensen, 1993).
  • It is an evolutionary and iterative process
  • Responds to changing conditions-effects of
    climate change

16
Goals of ICPM
  • The goals of ICPM are to
  • 1. promote sustainable development of
    coastal areas
  • 2. reduce the vulnerability of the
    coastal zone and their people to hazards
  • 3. maintain essential ecological
    processes, life support systems and
    biological diversity.

17
Functions of ICPM Unit/Agency
  • Area Planning- plan for present and future uses
    of coastal and marine areas, that is, long-term
    vision.
  • Promotion of Economic Development-promote
    appropriate uses of coastal and marine area eg.
    tourism
  • Stewardship of Resources-protect the ecological
    base of coastal and marine areas e.g. preserve
    biodiversity and ensure sustainable use

18
Functions of ICPM Unit Contd
  • 4. Conflict Resolution- harmonize and balance
    existing and potential uses and address conflict
    among the various uses.
  • 5. Protection of Public Safety- protect public
    safety in coastal areas typically prone to nat.
    as well as human made hazards.
  • 6. Proprietorship of Public Submerged Lands and
    Waters-manage govt. held areas and resources
    wisely.

19
ICPM Unit- Barbados
  • ICPM Unit was established in 1996, was seen as
  • 1. best way for maintaining effective
    management of the coastline
  • 2. crucial to Barbados surviving climate
    change impacts.
  • Examples of the functions performed by the Unit
    coral reef monitoring, enforcement of building
    set-backs and zoning of ecologically sensitive
    areas, public education, beach erosion monitoring
    and control and review of coastal projects etc.

20
Results Achieved
  • Preparation of an Integrated Coastal Management
    Plan for the entire island.
  • Training in key specialist areas- coastal
    engineering, GIS, hydrographic surveying.
  • A variety of oceanographic, coastal and
    ecological monitoring programmes established.
  • Design and implementation of appropriate
    solutions to deal with beach and coastal erosion
    problems etc.

21
Conclusion
Relationship between Economy, Society and
Environment
  • There is a close relationship between the
    ecological, economic and social systems.
  • Global climate change will impact on all these
    systems
  • As such, to maximize flexibility and enhance
    resilience and adaptation, appropriate policies
    and national planning much integrate all three
    (3) systems.

22
Recommendations
  • Need to establish an Integrated Coastal Planning
    and Management Unit.
  • Updating Development Orders for the Coastal Zone
  • Enforcement of Coastal Setback Distances

23
  • Thank You

24
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