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Chapter 2. Managing Personal Stress

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Title: Chapter 2. Managing Personal Stress


1
Chapter 2. Managing Personal Stress
2
Diagnostic Surveys For Managing Stress
  • Stress Management Assessment
  • Your answer should reflect your attitudes and
    behavior as they are now, not at you would like
    them to be.
  • Be honest.
  • This instrument is designed to help you
    discover your level of competency in stress
    management.

3
Diagnostic Surveys For Managing Stress
  • Stress Management Assessment
  • (continued)
  • Rating scale
  • 1 strongly disagree
  • 2 disagree
  • 3 slightly disagree
  • 4 slightly agree
  • 5 agree
  • 6 strongly agree

4
  • 1. I use effective management methods such as
    keeping track of my time, making to do list, and
    prioritizing tasks.
  • 2. I maintain a program of regular exercise for
    fitness.

5
  • 3. I maintain an open, trusting relationship
    with someone with whom I can share my
    frustrations.
  • 4. I know and practice several temporary
    relaxation techniques such as deep breathing and
    muscle relaxation.

6
  • 5. I frequently affirm my priorities so that
    less important thing dont drive out more
    important things.
  • 6. I maintain balance in my life by pursuing a
    variety of interests outside of work.

7
  • 7. I have a close relationship with someone who
    serves as my mentor or advisor.
  • 8. I effectively utilize others in accomplishing
    work assignments.

8
  • 9. I encourage others to generate recommended
    solutions, not just questions, when they come to
    me with problems or issues.
  • 10. I strive to redefine problems as
  • opportunities for improvement.

9
Time Management Assessment(Page 107)
  • Frequency with which you do each activity.
  • Fill in each blank with the number from the
    rating scale.
  • 0 never
  • 1 seldom
  • 2 sometimes
  • 3 usually
  • 4 always
  • Asses your behavior as it is, not as you would
    like it to be.

10
Time Management Assessment(Page 107)
  • I read selectively, skimming the material until I
    find what is important, then highlighting it.
  • I make a list of tasks to accomplish each day.

11
Time Management Assessment(Page 107)
  • I keep everything in its proper place at work.
  • I prioritize the tasks I have to do according to
    their importance and urgency.

12
Time Management Assessment(Page 107)
  • I concentrate on only one important task at a
    time, but I do multiple trivial tasks at once
    (such as signing letters while talking on the
    phone).
  • I make a list of short five or ten minute tasks
    to do.

13
Time Management Assessment(Page 107)
  • I divide large projects into smaller, separate
    stages.
  • I identify which 20 percent of may tasks will
    produce 80 percent of the results.

14
Time Management Assessment(Page 107)
  • I do the most important tasks at my best time
    during the day.
  • I have some time during each day when I can work
    uninterrupted.

15
Time Management Assessment(Page 107)
  • I dont procrastinate. I do today what needs to
    be done.
  • I keep track of the use of my time with devices
    such as time log.

16
Time Management Assessment(Page 107)
  • I set deadline for myself.
  • I do something productive whenever I am waiting.
  • I do redundant busy work at one set time during
    the day.
  • I finish at least one thing every day.

17
Time Management Assessment(Page 107)
  • I schedule sometime during the day for personal
    time alone (for planning, meditation, prayer,
    exercise).
  • I allow myself to worry about things only at one
    particular time during the day, not all time.

18
Time Management Assessment(Page 107)
  • I have clearly defined long term
  • objectives toward which I am working.
  • I continually try to find little ways to use my
    time more efficiently.

19
Time Management Assessment(Page 107)
  • Comparison data
  • n 1500 students
  • Mean score 92
  • Top quartile 108 or above
  • Third quartile 93-107
  • Second quartile 78-92
  • Bottom quartile 77 or below

20
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
  • Rate the extent to which each of the following
    statement is typical of your most of the time.
  • Focus on your general way of behaving and
    feeling.
  • There are no right or wrong answers.

21
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
  • Rating scale
  • 3 the statement is very typical of me.
  • 2 the statement is somewhat typical of me.
  • 1 the statement is not at all typical of me.

22
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
  • My greatest satisfaction comes from doing things
    better than others.
  • I tend to bring the theme of a conversation
    around to things I am interested in
  • In conversation, I frequently clench my fist,
    bang on the table, or pond one fist into the palm
    of another for emphasis.

23
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
  • I move, walk, and eat rapidly.
  • I feel as though I can accomplish more than
    others.
  • I feel guilty when I relax or do not nothing for
    several hours or days.
  • It does not take much to get me to argue.

24
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
  • I feel impatient with the rate at which most
    events take place.
  • Having more than others is important to me.
  • One aspect of my life (e.g., work, family care,
    school) dominates all others.
  • I frequently regret not being able to control my
    temper.

25
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
  • I hurry the speech of others by saying Uh Huh,
    Yes, Yes, or by finishing their sentences for
    them.
  • People who avoid competition have low self
    confidence.
  • To do something well, you have to concentrate on
    it alone and screen out all distractions.
  • I feel others mistakes and errors cause me
    needless aggravation.

26
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
  • 16. I find it intolerable to watch others
    perform tasks I know I can do faster.
  • Getting ahead in my job is a major personal goal.
  • I simply do not have enough time to lead a well
    balanced life.
  • I take out my frustration with my own
    imperfections on others.

27
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
  • I frequently try to do two or more things
    simultaneously.
  • When I encounter a competitive person, I feel a
    need to challenge him or her.
  • I tent to fill up my spare time with thoughts and
    activities related to my work (or school or
    family care).
  • I am frequently upset by the unfairness of life.
  • I find it anguishing to wait in line.

28
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
  • Scoring key
  • The type a personality inventory costs of four
    behavioral tendencies
  • 1. Extreme competitiveness.
  • 2. High work involvement.
  • 3. Strong feelings of hostility and anger.
  • 4. Extreme sense of urgency and
    impatience.
  • Score above 12 in each area suggest that you have
  • pronounced tendency.

29
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
Competitiveness
30
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
Work Involvement
31
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
Hostility/Anger
32
Type A Personality Inventory(Page 108-109)
Impatience/Urgency
33
Improving the Management of Stress and Time
  • Managing time and stress is one of the most
    crucial, yet neglected, management skills in a
    competent managers.

34
Improving the Management of Stress and Time
(continued)
  • Stress can produce devastating effects, such as
  • - inability to concentrate,
  • - anxiety,
  • - depression to stomach disorders,
  • - low resistance to illness,
  • - heart disease.
  • - negative physiological,
  • - negative psychological,
  • - negative social reactions.

35
The Role of Management
  • When managers experience stress, they tend
  • to
  • Selectively perceive information and see only
    that which confirms their previous biases.
  • Become very intolerant of ambiguity and demanding
    of right answer.
  • Consult and listen to others less.
  • Etc.

36
Major Elements of Stress
  • Stress produces positive as well as negative
    effects.
  • In the absence of any stress, people feel
    completely bored and lack any inclination to act.

37
Reactions to Stress
  • 1. Aggression,
  • involves attacking the stressor directly.
  • May involve attacking oneself, other people,
    or even objects.

38
Reactions to Stress
  • 2. Regression,
  • the adoption of a behavior pattern or
    response that was successful at some earlier time
    (responding in childish ways).

39
Reactions to Stress
  • 3. Repression,
  • involves denial of the stressor, forgetting,
    or redefining the stressor (ex deciding that it
    is not so scary after all).

40
Reactions to Stress
  • 4. Withdrawal,
  • individuals may engage in fantasy,
    inattention, or purposive forgetting, or they may
    actually escape from the situation itself.

41
Reactions to Stress
  • 5. Fixation,
  • Which is persisting in a response regardless
    of its effectiveness (ex repeatedly and rapidly
    redialing a telephone number when it is busy).

42
Coping With Stress
  • Enactive strategies,
  • create or enact a new environment for the
    individual that does not contain the stressor.
  • Proactive strategies,
  • to initiate action that resists the negative
    effect of stress.
  • Reactive strategies,
  • applied as on the spot remedies to reduce
    temporarily the effect of stress.

43
Coping with Stress
44
Managing Stress(Stressors)
  • Four key sources of stress
  • Time stressors.
  • Encounter stressors.
  • Situational stressors.
  • Anticipatory stressors.

45
Managing Stress(Stressors) (continued)
  • Time stressors,
  • generally results from having too much to
    do in
  • too little time.
  • Work overload,
  • Lack of control,
  • There is significant relationship between
    the
  • presence of time stressors and job
  • dissatisfaction, tension, perceived
    threat, heart
  • rate, cholesterol levels, skin resistance.

46
Managing Stress(Stressors) (continued)
  • Time stressors (continued),
  • The presence of temporary time stressors
    may
  • serve as motivators for getting work done.
  • However, a constant state of time
    pressure, having too much to do and not enough
    time to do it, is usually harmful.

47
Managing Stress(Stressors) (continued)
  • 2. Encounter stressors,
  • Result from interpersonal
  • interactions.
  • Common for managers.
  • Generally arise from three types of
  • conflicts
  • 1. Role conflicts
  • 2. Issue conflicts
  • 3. Action conflicts

48
Managing Stress(Stressors) (continued)
  • 2. Encounter stressors (continued),
  • Role conflicts,
  • In which roles performed by group
  • members are incompatible.
  • Issue conflicts,
  • In which disagreement exist over how to
    define or solve the problem.

49
Managing Stress(Stressors) (continued)
  • 2. Encounter stressors (continued),
  • Issue conflicts,
  • In which disagreement exist over how to
    define or solve the problem.

50
Managing Stress(Stressors) (continued)
  • 2. Encounter stressors (continued),
  • Action conflicts,
  • In which individuals fail to get along well
    because of mutual antagonism.

51
Managing Stress(Stressors) (continued)
  • 3. Situational stressor,
  • Arises from the environment in which a
    person lives or from an individuals
    circumstances.
  • Such as
  • - Unfavorable working conditions
  • - Rapid change

52
Managing Stress(Stressors) (continued)
  • 4. Anticipatory stressor,
  • Potentially disagreeable events that
    threaten to occur, unpleasant things that have
    not yet happened, but might happen.
  • Such as
  • - Unpleasant expectations.
  • - Fear.

53
Eliminating Stressors
  • Eliminating stressors
  • permanent stress reduction strategy.
  • Management Strategies for Eliminating
    Stressors

54
Eliminating Stressors(Effective Time Management)
  • Managing time with an effectiveness approach
  • 1. Individuals spend their time on
    important
  • matters.
  • 2. People are able to distinguish clearly
    between
  • what they view as important versus what
    they
  • view as urgent.
  • 3. Results rather than methods are the
    focus of
  • time management strategies.
  • 4. People have a reason not to feel guilty
    when
  • they must say no

55
Eliminating Stressors(Effective Time Management)
(continued)
  • Important activities
  • Those that produce a desired result.
  • Urgent activities
  • Those that demand immediate attention.

56
Eliminating Stressors(Effective Time Management)
(continued)
  • Types of activities that determine time use

57
Eliminating Stressors(Effective Time Management)
(continued)
  • Types of activities that determine time use

Cell 1, dominate the lives of managers
58
Eliminating Stressors(Efficient Time Management)
  • Effectiveness
  • aligning time use with core personal principles

59
Eliminating Stressors(Efficient Time Management)
(continued)
  • 20 individual strategies
  • Rule 1 Read selectively,
  • Rule 2 Make a list of things to accomplish
    today.
  • Focus on what you want to
    achieve, not
  • just on what you want to do.
  • Rule 3 Have a place for everything and keep
  • everything in its place.

60
Eliminating Stressors(Efficient Time Management)
(continued)
  • 20 individual strategies (continued)
  • Rule 4 Prioritize your tasks.
  • Each day you should focus first
    on
  • important tasks and then deal
    with urgent
  • tasks.
  • Rule 5 Do one important thing at a time but
    several trivial
  • things simultaneously. You can
    accomplish a lot by
  • doing more than one thing at a
    time when the tasks
  • are routine.

61
Eliminating Stressors(Efficient Time Management)
(continued)
  • 20 individual strategies (continued)
  • Rule 6 Make a list of some 5 or 10 minute
    discretionary
  • tasks.
  • Rule 7 Divide up large projects.
  • Helps you avoid feeling
    overwhelmed by large,
  • important, urgent task.
  • Rule 8 Determine the critical 20 percent of
    your task.
  • Paretos law states that only 20
    percent of the work
  • produces 80 percent of the
    results.

62
Eliminating Stressors(Efficient Time Management)
(continued)
  • 20 individual strategies (continued)
  • Rule 9 Save your best time for important
    matters.
  • Rule 10 Reserve some time during the day
    when other do
  • not have access to you.
  • Use this time to accomplish
    important/Non urgent
  • tasks, or spend it just
    thinking.
  • Rule 11 Dont procrastinate.
  • If you do certain tasks
    promptly, they will require less
  • time and effort than if you put
    them off.

63
Eliminating Stressors(Efficient Time Management)
(continued)
  • 20 individual strategies (continued)
  • Rule 12 Keep track of your time
  • Rule 13 Set deadlines.
  • Rule 14 Do something productive while
    waiting.
  • Rule 15 Do busy work at one set time during
    the day.
  • Rule 16 Reach closure on at least one thing
    every day.

64
Eliminating Stressors(Efficient Time Management)
(continued)
  • 20 individual strategies (continued)
  • Rule 17 Schedule some personal time.
  • Rule 18 Dont worry about anything on a
    continuing basis.
  • Rule 19 Write down long term objectives.
  • Rule 20 Be on the alert for ways to improve
    your
  • management time.
  • Read a list of time management
    hints periodically.

65
Eliminating Stressors(Efficient Time Management)
(continued)
  • 20 strategies for manager (continued)
  • Rule 1 Hold routine meetings at the end of
    the day.
  • Energy and creativity levels are
    highest early in the
  • day and should not be wasted on
    trivial matters.
  • Rule 2 Hold short meetings standing up.
  • Rule 3 Set a time limit.
  • Establish an expectation of when
    the meeting should
  • end and creates pressure to
    conform to a time
  • boundary.

66
Eliminating Stressors(Efficient Time Management)
(continued)
  • 20 strategies for manager (continued)
  • Rule 4 Cancel meetings once in a while.
  • Meeting should be held only if
    they are needed.
  • Rule 5, 6, 7 Have agendas, stick to them,
    and keep track of
  • time.
  • Rule 8 Start meetings on time.
  • Rule 9 Prepare minutes of the meeting, and
    follow up.

67
Eliminating Stressors(Efficient Time Management)
(continued)
  • 20 strategies for manager (continued)
  • Rule 10 Insist subordinates suggest
    solutions to problems.
  • Rule 11 Go to subordinates offices for
    brief meetings.
  • Rule 12 Dont over schedule the day.
  • Rule 13 Keep the workplace clean.
  • Minimize distractions and
    reduces the time it takes
  • to find things.
  • Rule 14 Delegate work.

68
Eliminating Anticipatory Stressors Through
Prioritizing, and Goal Setting
  • A model for short term planning and goal setting
  • Figure 2.5. Page 133.

69
Developing Resiliency
  • The development of resiliency
  • To handle the stress that cannot be eliminated
    by balancing life activities (Figure 2.6. Page
    135).
  • Ideal level of development
  • - Physical activities.
  • - Spiritual activities.
  • - Family activities.
  • - Social activities.
  • - Intellectual activities.
  • - Work activities.
  • - Cultural activities.

70
Temporary Stress Reduction Techniques
  • Muscle relaxation,
  • involves easing the tension in successive
    muscle groups.
  • Deep breathing,
  • taking several successive, slow, deep
    breaths, holding them for five seconds, and
    exhaling completely.

71
Temporary Stress Reduction Techniques (continued)
  • Imagery and fantasy,
  • changing the focus of your thoughts.
  • Rehearsal,

72
Homework
  • Answers in detail all question in page 151 (Case
    involving stress management).
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