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The Scientific Revolution

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Title: The Scientific Revolution


1
The Scientific Revolution
  • c.1550

2
What is the Scientific Revolution?
  • In European history the term 'Scientific
    Revolution' refers to the period between
    Copernicus(1473-1543), and Newton (1642-1727)
  • The scientific revolution - a series of changes
    in the structure of European thought itself
    systematic doubt, empirical and sensory
    verification, the abstraction of human knowledge
    into separate sciences, and the view that the
    world functions like a machine.
  • A revolution in the way the individual perceives
    the world.
  • An intellectual revolution -- a revolution in
    human knowledge.
  • The scientific revolutionaries attempted to
    understand and explain man and the natural world.
  • The Scientific Revolution challenged the
    authority of the classical world (Ptolemy,
    Aristotle) and of the Middle Ages The Church.
  • Pre-scientific revolution influences on Europe
    also included Arabic science, math and astronomy
    (Nasir al-Din Tusi, Muayyad al-Din al-Urdi and
    ibn al-Shatir) from the 12th century.
  • Science is faith a belief that science can
    improve our situation here on earth.

3
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)The True
Renaissance Man
  • Dissected bodies to learn human anatomy
  • First to explain the circulation of blood
  • Believed that the earth revolved around the sun.
  • Drew designs for submarines airplanes.
  • Leonardo NEVER published his scientific ideas.
  • One of the western worlds greatest artist (Mona
    Lisa)

4
Beginning of the Scientific Revolution in Europe
  • Began in Europe when Polish scholar Nicolaus
    Copernicus (1473-1543) challenged the Ptolemaic
    concept of an earth-centered universe
    (geocentric).
  • Copernicus demonstrated mathematically that it
    was the sun that was at the center of the
    universe (heliocentric).
  • - His theory was rejected by most experts.
  • - Dutch astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
  • provided evidence through an astronomical
    observatory that supported
    Copernicus theory.
  • - Brahes German assistant Johannes Kepler used
    Brahes data to confirm Copernicuss
    theory of a heliocentric universe.

5
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Kopernik
  • Known as the Father of Astronomy
  • Born in Poland, studied at the University of
    Krakow (Poland) and University of Bologna
    (Italy).
  • Most famous work On the Revolutions of the
    Heavenly Spheres (1543)

6
The Scientific Method of Francis Bacon
(1561-1626)and Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650)
7
The Scientific Method of Francis Bacon
(1561-1626)and Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650)
  • Both rejected Aristotles scientific assumptions.
  • Challenged scholarly traditions of the medieval
    universities that sought to make the physical
    world fit in with Church teachings.
  • Truth is found not at the beginning of research
    but at the end.
  • Bacon wanted science to lead to practical
    technologies that would benefit the lives of
    people.
  • Descartes emphasized the use of reason as the
    best way to understand science. Bacon emphasized
    experimentation and observation.
  • Descartes moved to the Dutch Republic when his
    books were banned in France.

8
Scientific Method
9
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • Born in Pisa, Italy. Lived in Florence.
  • Studied at the University of Pisa.
  • First scientist to publish his studies in
    vernacular (Italian) rather than in Latin.
  • Achievements include
  • Studied the movement of a pendulum that led to
    development of a pendulum clock
  • - improvement of the telescope
  • - Astronomy observed the earths moon,
    four moons of Jupiter the
    phases of Venus.
  • - Earth was one of many planets
    revolving around the sun part of a larger
    Solar System.
  • - Strong supporter of Copernican theory.

10
Trial of Galileo
11
Trial of Galileo
  • 1616 The Catholic Church forbade Galileo to
    teach that the earth moves. 1633 forced to
    appear before the Inquisition for failing to obey
    the Church order.
  • At the Inquisition, he agreed to recant his
    assertions about the earths movement to save
    himself from torture and possible execution.
  • Lived the rest of his life under house arrest.
    Could only publish his work in the Dutch
    Republic. Catholic Church banned his work.
  • After his trial, the Protestant areas in Europe
    dominated scientific discovery.
  • September,1822 publishing books supporting the
    heliocentric model of the universe permitted by
    Pope Pius VII.
  • 1835 Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief
    World Systems is taken off the Vatican's list of
    banned books.
  • 1992 Catholic Church formally admits that
    Galileo's views on the solar system are correct.
  • Modern History Sourcebook The Crime of Galileo
    Indictment and Abjuration of 1633
  • Modern History Sourcebook Index Librorum
    Prohibitorum

12
Galileo Quotes
  • All truths are easy to understand once they are
    discovered the point is to discover them.
  • Where the senses fail us, reason must step in.
  •  
  • I do not feel obliged to believe that the same
    God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and
    intellect has intended us to forgo their use.
  •  
  • In questions of science, the authority of a
    thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a
    single individual.
  • Doubt is the father of invention.
  •  
  • I think that in the discussion of natural
    problems we ought to begin not with the
    Scriptures, but with experiments, and
    demonstrations.
  • "My dear Kepler, what would you say of the
    learned here, who have steadfastly refused to
    cast a glance through the telescope?  What shall
    we make of this?  Shall we laugh, or shall we
    cry?"

13
Breakthroughs in Medicine and Chemistry
  • 1. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564, Belgian) On
    the Structure of the Human Body
    (1543)
  • - Continued and refined da Vincis
    work on the human anatomy.
  • 2. Ambroise Pare (1517 - 1590)
  • - Introduced the use of artificial
    limbs in the 1540s.
  • 3. William Harvey (1578-1657, English)
  • - Published work explaining the circulation
    of blood.
  • 4. Anton Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
  • - Perfected the microscope and was the first
    human to see cells and microorganisms.

14
Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907)
  • Born in Russia.
  • Studied at the University of St. Petersburg.
  • Developed the Periodic Table of Elements in the
    1860s.
  • - By arranging all of the 63 elements then
    known by their atomic weights, he managed to
    organize them into groups possessing similar
    properties.
  • - Where a gap existed in the table, he
    predicted a new element would one day be
    found and deduced
  • its properties.

15
Periodic Table of Elements
16
Science Humor
17
Newtons Theories and Achievements
  • Synthesized astronomy and physics with his law of
    gravitation.
  • Discovered the law of gravity.
  • Deeply religious, he tried to reconcile faith and
    science.
  • Experimented with light and helped establish the
    science of optics.
  • Newtons contributions to physics became the
    foundations for modern science.

18
Impact of the Scientific Revolution
  • One of the supreme achievements of the human
    mind.
  • Science affects practical affairs
  • - changed the size of populations
  • - changed the use of raw materials
  • - changed methods of production, transport,
    business, war.
  • 3. Science has changed the ideas of religion, God
    and man.
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