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Anthropometry An Introduction

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Title: Anthropometry An Introduction


1
Anthropometry An Introduction
  • Lecture Module
  • FK Unsri
  • 2008

2
Stretch of the MeasuringJohann Wolfgang von
Goethe, 1779
Stadiometer
3
What is Anthropometry?
  • Greek
  • Anthro- man
  • -pometry measurements
  • Literal meaning measurement of humans
  • The study of measurements or proportions of the
    human body according to sex, age, etc. for
    identification purposes
  • Dimensions of bones, muscles, and adipose (fat)
    tissues

4
History of Anthropometry
  • 1883- Alphonse Bertillon system of
    identification depending on the unchanging
    character of certain measurements of parts of the
    human body
  • 1884 241 multiple offenders were identified
  • Bertillonage- first adapted by the French
    police
  • 1887 introduced in the United States by Major
    McClaughry, the translator of Bertillon's book,
    when he was the warden of the Illinois State
    Penitentiary at Joliet.

5
Alphonse Bertillon Forensic Anthropometry
6
History of Anthropometry
  • 1888 Francis Galton starts research on Finger
    Prints to further anthropometry
  • 1892 Francis Galton publishes Finger Prints
  • 1894 England adopted the system.
  • 1903 Will West William West

7
Galtons Discovery because of Anthropometry?
  • My attention was first drawn to the ridges in
    1888 when preparing a lecture on Personal
    Identification for the Royal Institution, which
    had for its principal object an account of the
    anthropometric method of Bertillon, then newly
    introduced into the prison administration of
    France. Wishing to treat the subject generally,
    and having a vague knowledge of the value
    sometimes assigned to finger marks, I made
    inquiries, and was surprised to find, both how
    much had been done, and how much there remained
    to do, before establishing their theoretical
    value and practical utility.
  • Enough was then seen to show that the subject
    was of real importance, and I resolved to
    investigate it all the more so, as the modern
    processes of photographic printing would enable
    the evidence of such results as might be arrived
    at, to be presented to the reader on an enlarged
    and easily legible form, and in a trustworthy
    shape. Those that are put forward in the
    following pages, admit of considerable extension
    and improvement, and it is only the fact that an
    account of them seems useful, which causes me to
    delay no further before submitting what has thus
    far been attained, to the criticism of others.
  • Excerpt from Galtons Finger Prints

8
Applications of Anthropometry
  • Identification of repeated criminals
  • Cesare Lombroso's Criminal Anthropology (1895)
    murderers have prominent jaws and pickpockets
    have long hands and scanty beards.
  • Eugene Vidocq identification of criminals by
    facial characteristics
  • Prevention of impersonation
  • Differentiation between the races
  • Eugenics in Europe
  • Aryans from Jews The Bureau for Enlightenment on
    Population Policy and Racial Welfare recommended
    the classification of Aryans and non-Aryans on
    the basis of measurements of the skull and other
    physical features, craniometric certification,
    required by law. The consequences for not meeting
    requirements included denial of permission to
    marry or work, and for many it meant the death
    camps
  • Intelligence tests became associated with
    Anthropometry

9
Debate over Anthropometry
  • General Problems with Anthropometry
  • Cost and error of the instruments used
  • Education needed to be able to take the
    measurements
  • Error in calculation and measurements
  • Slow
  • Will West Case

10
Body Identification using Anthropometry
  • Bertillon used 5 basic measurements
  • head length
  • head breadth
  • length of middle finger
  • Length of left foot
  • length from the elbow to the extremity of the
    middle finger
  • Today that list is more extensive
  • Gender
  • Height
  • Weight
  • Age
  • Bicep circumference, buttock depth, chest
    breadth, elbow circumference, eye height, forearm
    to hand, ear breadth, head circumference, head
    length, hip breadth sitting, hip breadth
    standing, sitting height, waist depth, wrist
    breadth, wrist circumference to name a fewthere
    are currently 107 measurements

11
Anthropometric Measuring Tools
Tape
Anthropometer
Goniometer
Medical scale
Sliding Calipers large and small
Spreading Caliper
12
Anthropometric Measuring Techniques
  • Weight
  • Stature
  • Posture
  • Standing
  • Frankfort
  • Sitting
  • Arm Span
  • Head Length
  • Head Breadth
  • Ear-to-Head Height
  • Nasal Length
  • Nasal Breadth
  • Skeletal Index Sitting Height x 100/Stature
  • Cephalic Index Head Breadth x 100/Head Length
  • Nasal Index Nasal Breadth x 100/Nasal Length
  • Span/Stature Index Arm Span x 100/ Stature
  • Cranial Capacity

13
Anthropometric Measuring Techniques
14
Basic Chart of What is Measured
15
Basic Areas of Where to Measure
16
Basic Anthropometric Measuring Examples
17
Basic Anthropometric Measuring Examples
18
Anthropometry Today
  • Biometrics
  • Nutrition and wellness
  • Weight Training
  • Ergonomics
  • dynamic anthropometry Measurements taken on and
    around the figure when it is in any position
    other than the fixed ones.
  • Everyday life
  • Evolutionary Significance
  • Changes in humans overtime
  • Monitor growth in children
  • Cranial Anthropometry

19
Biometrics
  • the automatic identification of a person based on
    his/her physiological or behavioral
    characteristics
  • Verification vs. identification
  • Verification Am I whom I claim I am? involves
    confirming or denying a person's claimed identity
  • Identification Who am I?

20
Biometrics Applications
  • Forensics criminal identification and prison
    security
  • Prevention of unauthorized access to ATMs,
    cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs,
    workstations, and computer networks
  • Automobiles replace keys with key-less entry and
    key-less ignition
  • Border control and national ID cards

21
Biometrics Programs
  • Fingerprint Identification
  • Hand Geometry geometric shape of the hand for
    authenticating a user's identity
  • Face Location an arbitrary black and white,
    still image, find the location and size of every
    human face
  • Multibiometrics integrates face recognition,
    fingerprint verification, and speaker
    verification in making a personal identification

22
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23
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24
Biometrics in Use
Heathrow Airport- Iris
BenGurion Airport Hand Geometry
FacePass Face Verification
Grocery Store Payment Fingerprint
US- Visit Program
INSPASS Hand Geometry
25
Cranial Anthropometry
  • Also known as Craniometry
  • measurement of the skull and face
  • 3 ways to categorize the skull
  • dolichocephalic long and thin
  • brachycephalic short and broad
  • mesocephalic intermediate length and breadth

26
Terminology
  • Frankfort Horizontal (FH)
  • A plane passing through three points of the right
    and left porion and the left orbitale.
  • First proposed at the Craniometric Congress held
    in Munich, Germany, 1877.
  • An orientation of skull in a consistent and
    reproducible position.
  • Comparisons natural head position horizontal
    visual axis and horizontal plane.

27
Frankfort Horizontal
28
Cranial Anthropometry 16 Facial Zones
  • en (endocanthion)
  • eu (eurion)
  • ex (exocanthion)
  • ft (frontotemporale)
  • fz (frontozygomaticus)
  • g (glabella)
  • gn (gnathion)
  • obi (otobasion inferius)
  • op (opisthocranion)
  • po (porion)

29
Cranial Anthropometry 16 Facial Zones (cont.)
  • n (nasion)
  • sn (subnasale)
  • t (tragion)
  • tr (trichion)
  • v (vertex)
  • zy (zygion)

30
Cranial Anthropometry Facial Zones
Maximal cranial breadth
Maximal cranial length
31
Terminology
  • Basion the midpoint of the anterior margin of
    the foramen magnum.
  • Gnathion the most anterior and lowest median
    point on the border of the mandible.
  • Glabella the most forward projecting point in
    the midline of the forehead at the level of the
    supra-orbital ridges and above the nasofrontal
    suture.
  • Opisthocranion the most posterior point on the
    skull not on the external occipital protuberance.
    It is the posterior end point of maximum cranial
    length measured from glabella. It is determined
    instrumentally.
  • Euryon the two points on the opposite sides of
    the skull that form termini of the lines of
    greatest breadth. The two points are determined
    instrumentally.
  • Zygion the most lateral point of the zygomatic
    arch. It is determined instrumentally.
  • Orbitale the lowest point in the margin of the
    orbit one of the points used in defining
    Frankfort Horizontal.

32
Terminology
  • Porion the uppermost lateral point in the margin
    of the external auditory meatus. The right and
    left porion with the left orbitale define the
    Frankfort Horizontal
  • Mastoidale the lowest point of the mastoid
    process
  • Gonion the midpoint of the angel of the mandible
    between body and ramus.
  • Bregma the intersection of the coronal and
    sagittal sutures in the midline.
  • Lambda the intersection of the sagittal and
    lambdoidal sutures in the midline.
  • Nasion the intersection of the nasofrontal
    suture with the midsagittal plane. Nasion is the
    uppermost landmark for the measure of facial
    height.
  • Menton the lowest median point of the chin.
  • Pogonion the most anterior point in the midline
    of the chin.

33
3- D Anthropometry
  • 3D anthropometry, the measure of humans, can be
    greatly aided by the use of accurate digital
    humans. We'll take a look at how to create these
    types of accurate digital humans and how they can
    be used for the measurement of entire populations
  • Programs
  • Cyberware
  • DigiSize
  • CySlice
  • Ear Impression 3-D Scanner
  • SizeUSA 3D measurement system, a body scanner
    feeding data into measurement extraction
    software.
  • CAESAR generate a database of human physical
    dimensions for men and women of various weights,
    between the ages of 18 and 65
  • Virtual Models virtually try on clothes, makeup
    etc.

34
Future Endeavors of Anthropometry?
35
Standing Height
36
Sitting Height
37
Upper LegLength
38
Knee Height
39
Arm Length
40
Circumferences
Buttock
  • Abdominal/waist

41
Skin Fold
Subscapular
  • Triceps

Suprailiaca
42
Questions?
  • Thank you for your time!
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