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Chapter 25 The Industrial Revolution 1700-1900

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Title: Chapter 25 The Industrial Revolution 1700-1900


1
Chapter 25The Industrial Revolution1700-1900
  • By Briana Evans
  • World History
  • 1st period

2
Section 1
  • The Beginnings of Industrialization

3
Main Idea
  • The Industrial Revolution started in England and
    soon spread to other countries.

4
Terms To Know
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Enclosure
  • Crop Rotation
  • Industrialization
  • Factors of Production
  • Factory
  • Entrepreneur

5
  • The Industrial Revolution refers to the increase
    of machine goods that began in England in the
    middle 1700s.
  • This Revolution spread from England to
    Continental Europe and North America.

6
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BEGINS IN BRITIAN
  • Enclosures was one of the fenced in fields
    created by the landowners.
  • This enclosure had two important results
  • 1.Landowners tried new agricultural methods.
  • 2. Large landowners forced small farmers to
    become tenant farmers or to give up farming.
  • Wealthy landowners dramatically improved farming
    methods.
  • These new techniques amounted to an agricultural
    revolution.

7
Jethro Tull was one of the first scientific
farmers. He invented the seed drill in 1701. It
allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows.
8
Rotating crops
  • The process of crop rotation proved to be one of
    the best developments by the scientific farmers.
  • As food supplies increased and living conditions
    improved Englands population became larger.

9
Why the Industrial Revolution began in England
  • Four factors contributed to Industrialization in
    Britain included
  • Water and coal
  • Iron ore to construct machines
  • Rivers for island transportation
  • Harbors for merchant ships
  • Britain's highly developed banking system also
    contributed to the countrys industrialization.
  • Land, labor, and capital were known as the
    factors of production.

10
INVENTIONS SPUR INDUSTRILIZATIONChanges in
textile industry
  • Britain's textile industry clothed the world in
    wool, linen, and cotton.
  • In 1733 a machinist named John Kay made a shuttle
    that sped back and fourth on wheels.
  • Around 1764 James Hargreaves invented a spinning
    wheel named after his daughter, spinning Jenny.
    It allowed one spinner to work eight threads at a
    time.
  • Wealthy textile merchants set up the machines in
    large buildings called factories.

11
INPROVEMENTS IN TRANSPORTATIONWatts Steam
Engine
  • James Watt figured out a way to make the steam
    engine work faster while burning less fuel.
  • In 1774 Watt joined with a business man named
    Matthew Boulton. Boulton was an entrepreneur who
    paid Watt a salary and encouraged him to build
    engines.

12
Water Transportation
  • Steam could also propel boats.
  • Robert Fulton built a steamboat called the
    Clermont.
  • The Clermont ferried passengers up and down New
    Yorks Hudson River.

13
Road transportation
  • John McAdam equipped road beds with a layer of
    large stones for drainage.
  • Private investors formed companies that built
    roads and then operated them for profit.

14
THE RAILWAY AGE BEGINS
  • The railroad locomotive drove English industry
    after 1820.

15
Steam Engine Locomotives
  • In 1804 Richard Trevithick won a bet of several
    thousand dollars. He did this by hauling ten tons
    of iron over nearly ten miles of track in
    steam-driven locomotive.
  • George Stephenson created the worlds first
    railroad line. It was to run from Yorkshire coal
    to the port of Stockton.

16
The Liverpool-Manchester Railroad
  • The Liverpool-Manchester Railway opened
    officially in 1830.

17
Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain
  • The invention of the locomotive had four major
    effects
  • railroads spread industrial growth by giving
    manufactures a cheap way to transport materials.
  • The railroad boom created hundreds of new jobs
    for railroad workers and miners.
  • Railroads boosted Englands agricultural and
    fishing industries.
  • Making travel easier.

18
Section 2
  • Industrialization

19
Main Idea
  • The factory system changed the way people lived
    and worked, introducing a variety of problems.

20
TERMS TO KNOW
  • Urbanization
  • Middle Class

21
INDUSTRILIZATION CHANGES LIFE
  • By the 1800s people began to earn higher wages
    on factories than on farms.

22
Industrial Cities Rise
  • Between 1800 and 1850 the number of European
    cities rose from 22 to 47. Most of Europes urban
    areas at least doubled in population.
  • This period was one of the urbanization (city
    building and the movement of people to cities)
  • Britains capital, London, was the countrys most
    important city. It had a population of about 1
    million people.
  • Birmingham and Sheffield became iron-smelting
    cities.
  • Liverpool, Manchester formed the center of
    Britains bustling cotton industry.

23
Living Conditions
  • Because Englands cities grew rapidly, they had
    no development plans, or building codes.
  • Most of the unpaved streets had no drains, and
    garbage collected on top of them.
  • Workers lived in dark, dirty shelters, with whole
    families crowding into one bedroom.
  • Elizabeth Gaskell was a British writer whose
    novels show sympathy for the working class.

24
Working Conditions
  • The average worker spent 14 hours a day at the
    job, 6 days a week.
  • Machines injured workers. A boiler might explode
    or a drive belt might catch an arm.
  • The most dangerous conditions were all found in
    coal mines.
  • Many children and women were employed in the
    mining industry because they were the cheapest
    source of labor.

25
CLASS TENSIONS GROW
  • Middle Class was a social class made up of
    skilled workers, professionals, business people,
    and wealthy farmers.

26
Middle Class
  • Landowners and aristocrats had occupied the top
    position in the British society.
  • Some factory owners, merchants, and bankers grew
    wealthier than the landowners and aristocrats.
  • The upper middle class consisted of government
    employees, doctors, lawyers, and managers of
    factories, mines, and shops.
  • The lower middle class included factory overseers
    and such skilled workers as toolmakers,
    mechanical drafters, and printers.

27
The working class
  • The working class, saw little improvement in
    their living and working conditions.
  • They watched their livelihoods disappear as
    machines replaced them.

28
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIN
  • The Industrial Revolution had a number of
    positive effects. It created jobs for workers,
    contributed to the wealth of the nation, fostered
    technological progress and invention, and greatly
    increased the production of goods and raised the
    standard living.
  • Most important it provided the hope of
    improvement in peoples lives.

29
THE MILLS OF MANCHSTER
  • Manchesters unique advantages made it a leading
    example of the new industrial city.
  • It had available labor from the nearby
    countryside and an outlet to the sea at
    Liverpool.
  • Manchesters rapid, unplanned growth made it an
    unhealthy place for the poor people who lived and
    worked there.
  • Manchesters business owners worked many hours
    and risked there own money.
  • Children as young as 6 joined their parents in
    the factories.
  • To keep the children awake, mill supervisors beat
    them.

30
Section 3
  • Industrialization Spreads

31
Main Idea
  • The industrialization that began in Great Britain
    spread to other parts of the world.

32
Terms to Know
  • Stock
  • Corporation

33
INDUSTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES
  • America had fast-flowing, rivers, rich deposits
    of coal and iron ore, and a supply of laborers
    made up farm workers and immigrants.

34
Industrialization in the U.S.
  • Eager to keep the secrets of industrialization to
    itself, Britain had forbidden engineers,
    mechanics, and toolmakers to leave the country.
  • In 1789 Samuel Slater built a spinning machine
    from memory and a partial design.
  • Young single women flocked from their rural homes
    to work as mill girls in factory towns.
  • They received higher wages and more independence
    but were watched closely inside and outside the
    factory by their employers.

35
Later Expansion of U.S. Industry
  • During the last third of the 1800s, the country
    had experienced a technological boom.
  • These included a wealth of natural resources,
    oil, coal, and iron.
  • Cities expanded rapidly due to their location
    near the railroads.

36
The Rise of Corporation
  • To raise money entrepreneurs sold shares of
    stock, or certain rights of ownership.
  • A corporation is a business owned by stockholders
    who share in its profits.

37
CONTINENTAL EUROPE INDUSTRIALIZES
  • The British miracle was the result of Britains
    profitable new methods of manufacturing goods.

38
Beginnings of Belgium
  • British had rich deposits of iron ore and coal as
    well as fine waterways for transportation.

39
  • Samuel Slater smuggled the design of a spinning
    machine to the United States.
  • A carpenter named William Cockerill illegally
    made his way to Belgium in 1799. He carried
    secret plans for building spinning machinery.

40
Germany Industrializes
  • Germany was politically divided in the early
    1800s.
  • German manufacturers sent their children to
    England to learn industrial management.
  • Germany built railroads that linked its growing
    manufacturing cities, such as Frankfurt.

41
Expansion elsewhere in Europe
  • In Germany , industrialization during the early
    1800s proceeded by region rather than by country.
  • In France industrial growth occurred after 1830.
  • France avoided the great social and economic
    problems caused by industrialization.
  • The accidents of geography held back others. In
    Austria-Hungary and Spain, transportation posed
    great obstacles.

42
THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRILIZATION
  • Rise of Global Inequality
  • Industrialized countries viewed poor countries as
    markets for their manufactured products.
  • Other European countries began seizing colonies
    for their economic resources.

43
Transformation in society
  • Revolutions in agriculture, production, and
    transportation changes the lives of many people.
  • Industrialization gave Europe economic power
  • Population, health, and wealth rose in
    industrialized countries.
  • Middle class created great opportunities for
    education

44
Section 4
  • Reforming the Industrial World

45
Main Idea
  • The Industrial Revolution led to economic,
    social, and political reforms.

46
THE PHILOSOPHERS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • Laissez faire refers to the economic policy of
    letting owners of industry and business set
    working conditions without interference.

47
Laissez-faire Economics
  • Philosophers believed that if the government
    allowed free trade the economy would prosper.
  • Adam Smith was a professor who defended the idea
    of a free economy.
  • Smiths arguments rested on what he called the
    three natural laws of economics
  • law of self interest
  • law of competition
  • law of supply and demand

48
The economics of Capitalism
  • Capitalism is an economic system in which the
    factors of production are privately owned and
    money is invested in business ventures to make a
    profit.
  • Laissez-faire thinkers such as Smith opposed
    government efforts to help poor workers.
  • They thought that creating minimum wage laws and
    better working conditions would upset the free
    market system, lower profits, and undermine the
    production of wealth in society.

49
THE RISE OF SOCIALISM
  • Utilitarianism
  • Jeremy Bentham introduced the philosophy of
    utilitarianism.
  • Bentham believed that in general the individual
    should be free to purse his or her own advantage
    without interference from the state.
  • John Stewart Mill believed it was wrong that
    workers should lead deprived lives that sometimes
    bordered on starvation. He wanted to help
    ordinary working people with policies that would
    lead to an equal division of profits.

50
Utopian Ideas
  • A British factory owner named Robert Owen
    improved working conditions for his employees.
  • He prohibited children under ten from working in
    the mills.

51
Socialism
  • In socialism, the factors of production are owned
    by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
  • Socialists argued that the government should plan
    the economy rather than depend on free-market
    capitalism to do the job.

52
MARXISM RADICAL SOCIALISM
  • The writings of a German socialist, Karl Max
    introduced the world to a radical type of
    socialism called Marxism.
  • While the wealthy controlled the means of
    producing goods, the poor performed backbreaking
    labor under terrible conditions.
  • According to Marx the Industrial Revolution
    enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor.

53
The future according to Marx
  • Believed the capitalist system would eventually
    destroy itself.
  • Factories would drive small artisans out of
    business.
  • Marx described communism as a form of complete
    socialism in which the means of production would
    be owned by the people.

54
LABOR UNIONS AND REFORM LAWSUnionization
  • A union spoke for all the workers in a particular
    trade. They bargained for better working
    conditions and higher pay.
  • Strike was a refusal to work.
  • Skilled workers led the way in forming unions.
  • The combination Acts of 1799 and1800 outlawed
    unions and strikes.
  • 1875 British trade unions had won the right to
    strike and riot peacefully.

55
Reform laws
  • New laws formed some of the worst abuses of
    industrialization.
  • Parliament began investigating child labor and
    passed the Factory Act of 1833. The new law made
    it illegal to have children under 9 years old.
  • Children 9 to 12 could not work more than 8 hours
    a day. Ages 13 to17 could not work more than 12
    hours.

56
THE REFORM MOVEMENT SPREADS
  • William Wilberforce led the fight for the end of
    the slave trade and slavery in the British
    Empire.
  • Parliament passed a bill to end the slave trade
    in the British West Indies in 1807.
  • Women formed unions in the trades where they were
    dominated.

57
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