Early Medieval Europe & Medieval Christianity Effect of Fall - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Early Medieval Europe & Medieval Christianity Effect of Fall

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Early Medieval Europe & Medieval Christianity Effect of Fall of Rome in the West Growth of Individual Kingdoms in West, especially Frankish Kingdom Merovingians ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Medieval Europe & Medieval Christianity Effect of Fall


1
Early Medieval Europe Medieval Christianity
2
Effect of Fall of Rome in the West
  • Growth of Individual Kingdoms in West, especially
    Frankish Kingdom
  • Merovingians Clovis becomes Christian(495)
  • Lombards threaten papacy
  • Carolingians (Charles Martel, Pepin, Charlemagne)
  • Continuation of Byzantine Kingdom in East
  • Relations with Eastern empire church
  • Development of Roman church as key institution
  • Provided unity, ongoing Arian troubles
  • Split with the East

3
Charlemagne
4
The Empire and After
  • Impact of Romes Fall in the West
  • Charles, King of the Franks
  • Pepin III splits kingdom between sons, Charles
    and Carloman in 768
  • Charles sole king after 771
  • Charlemagne and The Empire
  • Personality
  • Expansion
  • Impact

5
Coronation of Charlemagne, 800
6
Charlemagnes Empire (to 814)
7
Charlemagne The Empire
  • Charlemagne (768-814)
  • Expands kingdom of the Franks
  • Succession, wars against Saracens, Saxons
  • Christmas 800, declared Emperor by pope
  • Difficulties Managing Empire
  • Counts (comites or companions)
  • Duties do justice, protect royal domains, raise
    army
  • Vassi, noblemen with a personal bond to king
  • Missi dominici
  • Usually two one lay noble, one bishop
  • Duties supervise counts, distribute capitularies

8
Carolingian Renaissance
  • Relations with the Christian Church
  • Education, cathedral schools
  • Monastic reform
  • Royal monasteries
  • Alcuin, education
  • Greek philosophy, John Scotus Erigena

9
The Empire after Charlemagne
  • Louis the Pious (814840)
  • Partible inheritance four sons
  • Salic Law
  • Treaty of Verdun (843)
  • Recognizes Lothar as Emperor
  • Splits Empire into Thirds
  • Treaty of Mersen (870)
  • Divides Empire in Two

10
(No Transcript)
11
Treaty of Verdun (843)
12
Post Mersen Disorder
  • Nobles within empire press for local autonomy
  • Raids by Vikings, Magyars, and Saracens require
    quick response, counts become hereditary
  • Capitulary of Quierzy, 877
  • Carolingians die out
  • In France Hugh Capet becomes king (988) est.
    dynasty, lasts until 1328 (Capetians)
  • In Germany, Otto I (936-973) establishes Saxon
    Dynasty (Ottonians)
  • Otto II (973-983)
  • Otto III (983-1002)

13
Feudalism
  • Feudalism was a medieval contractual relationship
    among the European upper classes by which a lord
    granted land (a fief) to his man (a vassal) in
    return for military service.
  • Vasslage bound the lord and vassal together
  • Oath of fealty
  • Hommage
  • Mutual duties and obligations

14
Manorialism
  • Manorialism refers to a system whereby the land
    (or manor) owned by the lord was parceled out to
    individual peasants who farmed it.
  • In return for the land, peasants made payments
    to the lord in the form of money, crops, and
    labor services.
  • Manorialism established a social and political
    order that paralleled feudalism.

15
Origins of Manorialism (ca. 4th century)
  • All over Europe, the economy had reverted
    primarily to subsistence farming .
  • Allods, land freely held, thus allodial
    farming.
  • Small farmers found themselves increasingly
    forced to seek the protection of more powerful
    neighbors.
  • In return for this protection, farmers gave up
    certain rights and a portion of their income to
    their more powerful neighbors .
  • Thus, freeholders often became serfs for
    protection from outside threats.

16
Anglo-Saxon Kingdom
  • England divided into several kingdoms
  • Northumbria
  • Mecia
  • Wessex
  • Political traditions based on personal bonds
    rather than office
  • Thegns or liegemen, Earls
  • Shire reeves
  • Hundreds

17
William The Bastard, 1066Battle of Hastings
  • Duke of Normandy
  • Successful Feudal Leadership
  • 1066 Defeats Harold Godwinson at Hastings
  • Adapts Feudalism to English setting
  • Domesday Book (a register for taxation)

18
Rise of New States
  • England
  • Norman overlords, Saxon population
  • Unified political organization
  • Church and State conflict
  • Criminous Clerks
  • France
  • Small area of direct royal control, Île de France
  • Diverse legal and cultural territories
  • Weak central monarchy, strong vassals
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