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Title: Life in New France


1
Life in New France
by grade 6T students
next
2
Life in New France Table of Contents
The Fall of New France By Dietrich Lifestyles
in New France By Stephanie C By Adam By Alyssa By
Gabrielle By Hailey By Matthew By Ruth By
Alison By Edwin By Justin By Stephanie C By
Venico By Daniel By Lynn By Steven
click on a name to read an article right arrow gt
to advance left arrow lt to go back one
  • French Native
  • Relationships
  • By Erik
  • By Goran
  • By Alison
  • By Bray
  • By James
  • Samuel de Champlain
  • By Edwin
  • By Jon H
  • By Jon W
  • By Liane
  • By Nathanael
  • Jean Talon
  • By Gabrielle
  • By Goran
  • By Nic
  • Seigneurial System
  • By Jon W
  • By Alyssa
  • By James
  • By Stephanie N
  • By Venico
  • By Olga
  • By Steven
  • Fur Trade
  • By Alex
  • By Adam
  • By Bray
  • By Jon H
  • By Liane
  • By Nathanael
  • By Justin
  • By Nic

3
Etienne Brule
Etienne Brule was born in the year of 1592 in
Chamingy near Paris. He arrived in Quebec in the
year of 1608 with one of his closest European
friends Nicolas Marsolet. He began living with
the Huron because Champlain told him so. Brule
was a man that wanted to discover, and that led
him to be the first European to see lake
Superior, lake Huron, and lake Erie. He also went
to discover areas along the Susquehanna river.
He also went to search the copper mines the
Indians told him about. When Quebec fell to
English hands in !629 Brule fled to his Huron
friends. After Henrietta de France was married to
the English king Charles I England gave back
Quebec but no new settlers where allowed to go to
new France except the Jesuit Priests, while
Etienne was in the Huron Country being good
Friends with them.
next
4
When the Huron found out that Etienne left
Champlain they killed him in a dispute. Brule was
the fist man to discover present day
Pennsylvania. Etienne Brule was no good Man that
you can rely on because when he went to Huronia
he worked half for the English and Half for the
French.After Quebec was took in by the English in
1629 Champlain suspects that Etienne led the
English to the mouth of the St. Lawrence. After
his betrayal the Huron Indians killed him. This
is what Champlain said I will not seek justice
for a death of a Traitor. Brule was not a
responsible guy because he only thought of
adventure.
By Dietrich Neufeld
back to Contents
5
The Story of Cartier
by Matthew
The king of France sent Jacques Cartier to find
a route to the east in 1534. Twenty days after
Cartier left St.Malo he sighted Newfoundland. He
entered what is now called the Gulf of
St.Lawrence. He then turned south exploring all
the bays that might lead west. Cartier found
nothing so he went north again. On the Gaspe
peninsula, he and his crew built a 10m high cross
with a shield saying Vive le Roi de France and
three fleurs-de-lis. Cartier did not bring any
gold or silver home with him. Nor did he discover
the way through America to China and Japan. But
he did bring the two young Indians and stories of
the fish and the forest. That was enough to make
the king of France happy and send Cartier again.
On his second voyage, Cartier took three
ships and 110 men. Later on Cartier reached the
village of Stadacona and returned the two Indians
to their father.
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6
The Indians told Cartier about a village further
up the river called Hochelaga. They also told him
the river he was following goes so far no man
has never been to the end Later on Cartier
climbed a hill ha named Mount Real (Royal
Mountain) so he could see along the river.He
realized he could not follow this river sense it
was so skinny and returned to Stadacona to
prepare for winter. During winter, illness
came over all of them. Men suffered with bleeding
gums, swelling in their legs, arms, and high
fever.. The natives showed Cartier the cure for
the strange disease called scurvy. But many died.
The next spring he left for home.
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7
Samuel de Champlain
Champlain was a important person in New France.
He played a big roll in building the colony in
1608. The colony it self wasnt big, and the
population wasnt big either. That meant that the
defense of the settlement wasnt very strong. In
1608 there were only twenty-eight men at the
colony. By 1609, fourteen of the men died of
scurvy and other strange diseases. However, more
French arrived at Quebec that spring. Both the
French and the English wanted to get as much furs
as possible. The French set up a trading
partnership with the Huron and Algonquin. Champla
in married Helene Bouelle, a twelve year old girl
when he was forty-three. He married in 1610 in
France. In 1620 Helene came to Quebec. Taught the
Indians, who loved her for her beauty and
kindness. But she found life too lonely in
Quebec. In 1624 she returned to France because of
homesickness and stayed there forever. Some of
Champlains wishes came true. People came from
France and started farms along the river banks.
by Edwin
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8
The first person interested in farming the land
rather than trading for furs,Louis Hebert was New
Frances first real settler. An apothecary, or
druggist, by trade, was hired by the fur-trading
company which controlled the St. Lawrence region
in 1617. For the next ten years he cared for the
sick of the colony, both French and Indian, And
tilled his soil by hand in his spare time. Some
of Champlains wishes didnt come true. The first
French colony and the first English colony in
North America were built at about the same
time.But, hundred fifty years later, more than 2
000 000 people lived in the English colonies.
Only 60 000 people lived in the French colonies.
The French colonies would always need help and
support from France. The English colonies could
survive on their own. And when the time came for
war between France and Britain, it would be the
British who would win. Champlains hope of French
colonies would be over.
ByEdwin
Prochorow
next
9
back to Contents
10
Samuel de Champlain
by Jonathon H
The first year Samuel de Champlain came to
Canada was in 1603 when he went to the settlement
of Taddoussac. The next year he came back and
attempted to start a settlement at St. Croix.
Over winter many of his men died of scurvy. By
spring 35 of his 79 men had died. In spring they
sailed across the Bay of Fundy and started a
settlement called Port Royal later called Acadia.
Again during the winter many of his men died of
scurvy and they were forced to return to
France. But Champlain was determined to start a
settlement. In 1608 he returned to Canada. On the
St. Lawrence River where the river narrowed
Champlain found the perfect spot. But this place
brought bad memories to the French.This was the
place where Cartier had tried to build Staddacona
but during the winter his crew suffered badly
from scurvy. Champlain named this place Quebec
which means where the river narrowed. It was made
as a fur trading post. This was Frances first
settlement in Canada.
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11
By 1609 14 of his 28 men had died of scurvy and
other diseases. Champlain that year helped the
Huron fight the Iroquois and he shot three
natives with his gun. From then on the Iroquois
were at war with the French for almost one
hundred years. In 1610 Champlain married a 12
year old girl named Helen Boulle. At this time
Champlain was 40 years old. They didnt know each
other very well when they married. In 1620 Helen
went to live with Champlain in Quebec. She was 22
and he was 50. 4 years later she left and went
back to France. Champlain died 11 years later in
1635 on Christmas day. Hundreds of Indians
attended his funeral. Jonathon Harder

back to Contents
12
Samuel de Champlain
by Jonathon W
The Huron and Montagnais gave him fur and in
return he helped them fight in all of their wars.
When Champlain sailed the St.Lawrence River about
fifty years later to trade furs no one at all
lived in Stadicona. Champlain found only
meadows when he went up the St.Lawrence River
to Stadicona. Donaconna is a man that had died
there after not seeing his home land again. In
1608. Champlain came to Quebec to build a
habitation. On the good will of Champlain's
native allies Quebec survived. Twenty-eight of
Chaplains men lived and four-teen died because of
scurvy Champlain is known as the father of
Quebec. Champlain went west to trade fur as well
as help the Indians in the war.Samuel de
Champlain set up a fur trade partner ship so the
Indians wouldnt trade with the English. The
people he set up a fur trade partner ship were
the Huron and Algonquians.
next
13
Samuel de Champlain
back to Contents
When Champlain agreed to help the Huron fight the
Iroquois the war almost destroyed all of New
France
next
14
Samuel de Champlain
by Liane
For 60 years, memories of bitter winter and
deaths kept France from trying to settle in
America. Some traders came to test, Lawrence to
speack furs. Some fisherman made they early trip
to load their ships with cod. But no France come
to live in Canada. Other countries
continued to explore. To the north, English
explorers sought a north west passage to
China.The English claimed New found land as an
English colony. They wanted abase from which they
also wanted a share of the riches, whether furs
sor gold, to be found in the New land.
In 1604, a new French expedition, headed by the
sieur de monts, witch Samuel de Champlain as one
of the ships! Captains and mapmaker for the trip,
set out , from France. They dropped an chor in
what is now called the Bay of Fundy. They decided
to winter on an Island near the mouth of the St.
Croix River.
back to Contents
15
Samuel de Champlain
by Nathanael
He was born at Brouage, France 1570. He diet at
Quebec on Christmas day. Samuel de Champlain
built the first colony at St. Lawrence River. It
was the first successful settlement in Canada.
Thats way he was often called Father of New
France. Samuel de Champlain wanted land to
farm and so he get settlers from France to farm
the land. The land was very good,there are
growing nun trees, vines, and other fruits. The
French Where friends with the natives, and
Micmacs and they helped each other. Samuels wife
was 12 when she married Samuel and Samuel was 40
when they married Her name was Helene Boulee.
When she was was 22 she comes with Champlain to
Quebec. In 1624 Helene Boulee went back to France
and stay there till her death. Samuel
was an excellent Map maker.
next
16
Samuel wants to do trade posts in Canada. But for
that he needed settlers to trade and slowly the
posts grow. In 1606 French fur traders made
several attempts. Samuel and his mans helped the
natives and Huron to fight against the Iroquois.

back to Contents
17
The Fall of New France
by Dietrich
During the Years of 1758-1763 there was war
between England and France . The wars where
fought in Europe and in North America.when the
English came to Louisburg they attacked the
mighty fortress and destroyed it. Then they went
along the shores of the St. Lawrence and stopped
supplies from being shopped in. Then in 1759 they
went over to Quebec and fired cannons at the
walls and burned some of the house inside of the
walls.
next
18
Then one night General James Wolfe led them to
the bay named Lanse au Foulon and started to
climb the cliffs. Montcalms army noticed the
English where on the Plains of Abraham so
Montcalm sent out his army and they attacked.
They attacked the as usual forming two lines
being one side the English and the other side
French. They got ready and attacked with their
guns. After 15 minutes the war ended and the
French fled the English won and it lasted only 15
minutes! The sad part is that both Generals died
in the Battle. After the battle on the Plains of
Abraham the treaty of Paris was signed . Now
Canada has two Official languages French and
English.
By Dietrich Neufeld
back to Contents
19
Fur trade
by Alex
When New France was just beginning they depended
on the fur trade. They had people that would go
trade(mostly soldiers )for furs . Some people
that traded without a licence are called courier
de bois. They would get away with trading without
a licence because people never enforced the law
enough. The people that went to New France were
mostly trying to get furs . Furs were the best
riches of New France. New France used beaver furs
to make beaver hats, coats and robes. The fur
traders of New France made fur forts where they
could trade furs with the Indians. The fur
traders made fur trading posts along lake
Winnipeg and along the Mississippi river. Each
year the fur brigade left to these fur trading
posts to trade for furs with the Indians .

20
The things that the fur traders traded were
liquor . Bishop Laval tried to stop liquor in the
fur trade . Governor Frontenac was in charge of
the fur trade and stopped Bishop Laval from
stopping the liquor use in the fur trade. The
people in the fur trade also traded kettles and
knives and guns and other weapons. The natives
really liked these thing that the the fur traders
were giving them. The natives were glad to be
able to trade with them.
back to Contents
21
The Fur Trade
by Adam
Most of the explorers who went to the west were
seeking furs. The best riches of New France were
the furs, furs for beaver hats, furs for robes
and coats, furs to clothe the people of Europe.
These could only come from North America. The
French built fur forts where they could stay and
trade for furs with the Indians They establishes
a chain of trading posts to Lake Winnipeg and
along the south to the Missippi. Each year the
fur brigade would leave the St. Lawrence for
these forts carrying trade goods. The french
desire furs made alliances with the Indians
nssesary. Without such alliances the fur rich
areas beyond such wealth.
back to Contents
next
22
The Fur
Trade By Bray Marten, Muskrat, Otter, and
other furs. At certain fur trading forts the
fur trading is done only once a year. The French
had also traded clothes. Food, water, and other
small goods to the Indians. The trading values
are different at different times and at different
areas.
next
23
The most important animal of the fur trade is the
beaver. Lots of the French have build fur forts
to stay and trade with the Indians. Once a year
the Indians come and trade their furs and other
goods to the French. There are a chain of fur
forts that reached from the St.Lawrence river to
the lake Winnipeg. The beavers fur that the
French had got from the Indians and pressed it
down into felt for very nice hats for their
heads. The Europeans also traded for Here are
examples of fur trading in the 1784
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24
Number of beaver skins
Trade goods 1
34 kg
beads 1
12 needles 1

1 unruffled shirt 1
2
hatchets 1
2 pairs of scissors
1
1 pair of shoes 1

1 blanket 2
1 plain hat
6
1coulerd striped blanket
10 to 12
1 gun
type text here
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25
Fur Trade
by Jonathon H
The first couriers des bois was Etienne Brule.
After a few winters with nothing happening in
Quebec, he begged Champlain to let him live with
the Indians. Champlain let him go and after a few
years with the Indians Brule learned their ways
and went out on his own. This was the start of
the fur trade. In 1678 the population of the
colony was 9000 and 600 of these people were
courier des bois. All of these people were
breaking the law because only in 1681 did the
government start giving out trading licenses.
They didnt give out licenses before that because
the of King of France said that if all the people
were out trading there would be nobody to defend
the colony. There are two types of hair on a
beaver pelt, long skinny hairs and short thick
hairs. The French found out that the short hairs
were better for making things such as hats, robes
and coats. To use the short hairs they had to
first rub out the long hairs and then pour a
special liquid over the pelt so that they could
pull the short hairs off the pelts.
next
26
There are also two types of beaver pelts,
Castor gras (greasy) and Castor sec (dry).Castor
gras had already been worn by the Indians the
long hairs had been worn out and from their sweat
combined with the smoke of their lodges the
French didnt have to pour the liquid on the
pelts. Castor sec had been freshly trapped and
the French had to rub out the hair etc. So the
Castor gras pelts were more valuable to the
French. Every year 400-600 Indians come to
trade with the French. It was a noisy, festive
occasion with lots of drinking. The Indians came
with huge canoe loads of furs and after the trade
they had little to show for what they had
brought.The French got many times what they gave
the Indians when they sold the furs in
France. The fur trade played an important role
in New France an was the main source of wealth.

Jonathon H.


next
back to Contents
27
New France
by Liane
Food The people of New France had to produce as
much of their own food as possible. The farmers
were called habitants. They ate a lot of meat
from farm animals such as cattle and pigs, and
from wild animals such as birds, fish, moose,
rabbits, and porcupines. Else are long fish that
look a little like snakes. In their gardens,
habitants grew such vegetables as corn, beans,
peas, asparagus, cabbage, and cucumbers.
They also grew fruit trees, berries, and nuts.
Most meals in duded milk and cheese. To prevent
it from going bad, meat and fish had to be eaten
as soon as the animal was killed, or else smoked,
salted, or dried. In the winter meat could be
left out in the cold until frozen, then kept in a
small shed attached to the house. Berries could
be cooked with sugar to make jam. Clothing In
the early years of New France, there were few
sheep to provide wool for clothing.
next
28
Cloth was made from of woven line or hemp, both
of with are made from plants that could be grown
in New France. This clothing was lined wit
leather or fur for warmth. When the habitants
began to raise sheep, the women spun the wool and
woven cloth. Woolen under clothes kept them warm
in Winter. Women wore long dresses. They might
wear several skirts for warmth. Over the dresses
they sometimes wore aprons and shawls.They wore
small with caps or bonnets on there head. Men
wore leather breaches, woven shirt, and leather
jackets. Thy often wore wool caps called toques.
In Quebec, some wealthy people wore the fine
silk and long wigs that were fashionable in
France. Homes Most houses in New France had
stone foundations. Walls of house build in the
1600s were of square -cut timbers space between
the limbers, were filled with mortar house build
the 1700s often had walls of stone were covered
with pine boards, witch were with washed. The
roofs, made of thatch or overlapping boards, were
with washed. The roofs boards, were sleepy sloped
so snow would slide off.
next
29
Until the 1740s, when glass became available,
windows were made of greased paper or skin. These
windows let in a little light ,but no one could
see out them. The house of the habitants often
had only one room with an attic above for
sleeping. The seigneur usually had a large
house. The most Important part of the house, was
the large stone fireplace, witch gave heat and
light. Wealthy people might have an iron stove as
well. Church The Church was very important in
life of New France.Every day began and ended with
prayers. The priest was expected to advise
people who were not behaving as they were
expected to do. The priest was asked
to bless the crops. The people prayed together a
good harvest. The people in New France were
not work on Sundays. There were many other
religious holidays and saints day during the
year. Prayers and religious studies were
an important part of every school day.
back to Contents
30
Fur Trade

The mans how go trading where just the riche mans
and they where called the coureur de bois
runners of the woods. The coureur the bois did
long distances with there bark canoes. The
women's would do pemmican what the fur traders
would carry with them on there long trips. In
1743 explorers first found the foothills on there
fur trade trip. The young mans where exited to
go trading but but they had to work on the farm
But they doesn't wont to work on a farm they
wanted to go trading. The main reasons from
1600s to 1800s was the fur trade. The most
important fur was the beaver and it was used for
hats, clothing, robes, and coats. The fur just
come from America.The fur was pressed into felt
and and out of the felt they make fashionable
hats for Europe. They also traded for marten,
muskrat, otter, and other furs. The trading is
one time a year and it would last one or two
weeks. The Indians would set up a camp to
trade. By Nathanael Bergmann
next
31
back to Contents
next
32
Fur Trade
by Justin
From the early 16oos until the 1800s the
main business in Canada was the fur trade carried
on between the Indians and the English or french.
The most important fur was the beaver. Beaver
fur was pressed into felt to make hats that were
fashionable in Europe. As Europeans traveled
inland they also traded for marten,muskrat,otter
and other furs. The fur most wanted by the
traders or the pacific coast was that of the sea
otters. Indian and metis women made pemmican the
food that the fur traders carried with them on
their long trips. Women also made the warm
skin and fur clothing that the traders needed
to keep them warm in the winter and snow shoes
that they needed to travel over snow. Many fur
traders married Indian women and learned to speak
cree or other Indian languages. These women
learned to speak the European language of their
husbands. They became interpreters between the
Indian and the traders. Indian and metis
women often knew the travelling routes of western
Canada. Some European explorers were guided
by their Indian or metis wives and their
relatives.
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33
These women learned to speak the European
language of their husbands. They became
interpreters between the Indian and the
traders. Indian and metis women often knew
the travelling routes of western Canada. Some
European explorers were guided by their Indian
or metis wives and their relatives.
back to Contents
34
The Fur Trade
by Nic
The people of New France used the beaver fur for
warmth. In the 1500s the beaver fur was a symbol
showing if a person was rich or poor. They use
the beaver fur because their work is half done.
The pelts of a beaver which were brought
downriver by craft to the French trading posts
were of two types, castor grass, and castor sec.
The beaver fur was very important to France. The
competition is so great for the furs that traders
from many different nations have settled along
the pacific. Other traders followed them hoping
to get quick profits. The Nor'easters seemed to
be most determined and successful.
35
The French desire for Canadian furs is which
made the alliances with the Indians happen.
Without alliances rich fur areas beyond Quebec
and Montreal would be closed to the French.
Without on the fur trade. The demand for
Canadian furs was created by fashion in Europe.
The fur trade was a very profitable business.
Each year ships with supplies from France would
bring provisions for the colony and goods to be
used in the trading with the Indians. The trade
items were of two types, those which are useful,
like iron goods, fire arms and blankets, and
those which werent very useful, like beads, a
variety of colored trinkets and brand. The
impacts of these products of a more
technologically advanced society was profound.
36
type text here
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37
Francois De Laval
by Alex
When Francois De Laval was a small boy he wanted
to be a missionary. He also liked to explore
different places. He liked to learn about the
bible. When he became older he became a Jesuit
priest. He also tried to increase the power of
the catholic church, and in 1658 he became a
bishop of the catholic church.The next year he
went to lead the church in New France. He lived
by the strict rules of piety . He slept on a hard
bed and ate simple food.He also chose to live in
poverty.In 1663 he started a minary for training
priests. He also brought missionaries to New
France.He didnt like makeup, fancy clothes
,parties or games. He lived a holy life.





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He liked to help people in the hospital. He
worked day and night caring for the sick and
hungry. He even made their beds for the sick and
hungry .In 1674 Francois De Laval became the
first bishop of New France. He also started
schools in New France.And in 1812 they made Laval
university. Their was also many other schools
named after him.


He even tried to stop liquor in
the fur trade, but governor Frontenac stopped him
from taking away liquor in the fur trade. In 1688
Francois De Laval retired as bishop of New
France. He lived the rest of his life in Quebec .
Before he died he gave away all that he
owned. He even shared his last meal with the
hungry . Francois De Laval died in 1708 at 81
years old.
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39
Bishop Laval
by Hailey
Bishop Laval was the first official
bishop at New France. His full name was Bishop
François de Laval. Bishop Laval first came to New
France in in June. 1659.Later he was appointed
bishop. The job Bishop Laval had was not an
easy one. First he had to be appointed Bishop.
Then he needed to show that he was a good leader
of the church. Then he needed to be kind to the
people of the colony. He did a lot for New
France, under the government the king had set up.
Some of the things he did were he started a
school, and a hospital, he also cared for the
sick.
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40
He also encouraged many priests to go to New
France. Some other things were he started a
school to teach the people of New France, the
trades so they could help the colony. Bishop
Laval enforced strict morals. He Also was a big
opponent of the sale of brandy to the native
people. He was the founder seminary of Quebec.
In 1663 Bishop Laval trained the new priests for
work among the colony and the people of New
France, and natives.He also helped the new
priests around the colony. He over ruled the
authority of the king of France. Something else
he did was
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41
the not only reported to the king of France, but
he reported the Rome as Well. When he was in New
France he never got married. After he started
schools, and hospitals he worked in them for a
while. Because he was the best Bishop of New
France, and he did so much for New France He is
going to be remembered for a long time in
Canadian history.
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42
Bishop Laval
by Stephanie N
In New France, the first bishop was Francois de
Laval. Francois de Laval, or known as Bishop
Laval, had done a lot for his little town of New
France in Quebec, which became big with the help
of the governor and intendant. Bishop Laval had
a lot of jobs to make New France a bigger place.
Laval represented the church, was in charge of
missionaries, of the churches, hospitals, the
schools and missions to the Natives. Bishop Laval
thought that missionary work was very
important. He started a college in New France so
that priests could be trained to work in the
churches. .He helped nuns who nursed and taught
people. He also started schools and hospitals.
The schools taught people a lot of different
trades that could help the colony.
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43
In the Jesuit college taught people courses in
training priests, mathematics for surveyors, map
makers, navigators and engineers, hydrography,
arts painting, sculpture, gliding, cabinet
making, trades carpentry, joinery, slating
(roofing) shoe repairing, tailoring, building
construction, tool-making lock smithing and
agriculture. Francois de Laval was very active
in political matters. This caused conflict among
the certain officials of the colony. In the 1665,
the influence started to decrease. The bishops
of New France were Francois de Laval,1674-1688,
Jean Baptiste de la Croix Cheveriere de
Saint-Valler,1688- 1727, Louis Francois Dupless
de Mornay1727-1733, Pierre Herman Dosquet,
1733-1739, Francois Louis Pourroy de
Lauberiviere, 1739-1740, and Henri-Marie Dubreuil
de Pontbriand, 1741-1760.
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by Stephanie C
In the early years of New France, there was
barely any sheep to provide wool for clothes.
Cloth was made of linen and hemp. Both of these
types of cloth is made from a plant that could be
grown in New France. Most of their clothes had
fur or leather inside for more warmth. When the
habitants began to raise sheep, the women spun
the wool and wove the cloth. Woolen underclothes
kept the people warm in winter, and absorbed
perspiration in summer. Womens
Clothing Women wore long dresses. They sometimes
wore several skirts under their dress for
warmth.Over the dress they wore an apron and a
shawl.On their heads they wore small white caps
or bonnets.
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Mens Clothing The men wore leather
breeches,woven shirts and leather jackets. They
often wore woolen caps called tuques. The shoes
they wore were made of leather, which were called
moccasins, and wooden clogs. In Quebec, some of
the rich people wore fine silks and long wigs
that were very fashionable in New France.
By Stephanie Christiuk
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Life Styles By Adam B
They produce as much of their food as possible.
They eat lots of meat from farm animals such as
cattle, pigs, and wild animals such as birds,
fish, moose, rabbits, porcupine and eels. The
eels were a major part of New Frances food. In
New France they eat bacon twice a day. They eat
no veal or sheep. When sheep die the pigs eat the
remains. The people of New France eat lots of
vegetables not including asparagus and
artichokes. They grow hard cabbages and turnips.
They also grow fruit trees, berries, and nuts.
The habitants made whole wheat bread out of the
wheat the grow. There breakfast would be pancakes
and milk Early in New France there were few
sheep to provide wool for clothing. Clothing was
made of woven linen or hemp. They grew plants
that they could get it from. The clothing had
leather or fur for warmth When a habitant begins
to raise sheep women spun the wool and wove
cloth. The woolen underclothes kept them warm in
the winter and absorbed perspiration in the
summer.
Women wore long dresses they might wear several
skirts for warmth. Over the dresses they might
wear aprons or shawls. They wore small white caps
or bonnets. Men wore leather breeches woven
shirts and leather jackets they often wore woolen
caps called tuques. Shoes were leather moccasins
or wooden clogs
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Women wore long dresses they might wear several
skirts for warmth. Over the dresses they might
wear aprons or shawls. They wore small white caps
or bonnets. Men wore leather breeches woven
shirts and leather jackets they often wore woolen
caps called tuques. Shoes were leather moccasins
or wooden clogs. Most homes in New France had
stone foundations. Walls of houses built in the
1600s were square cut timbers. Houses built in
the 1700s often had walls of stone sometimes the
stones were covered with pine boards which were
whitewashed. The roofs made of thatch or
overlapping boards. The roofs were steeply sloped
so snow would fall off the roofs. Until the
1740s when glass became available windows where
made of greased paper skin, these windows let in
A little light but no one could see out of them.
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When the first french colonists arrived in New
France various Ameridin communities already
occupied the territories and practiced there own
religion. Based on the unit, and coherence. The
catholic clergy organized itself early on. In
1763 at the time of conquest, French Canadians
maintained the free exercised of the religion of
the church.
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Lifestyles in New France
by Alyssa
Food- The habitants ate four meals a day. They
rose early and worked for several hours, then
came to the house for a breakfast consisting of
wheat pancakes, whole wheat bread and creamy
milk. They also ate three other meals, lunch at
noon, a light dinner a four and a large dinner at
eight. For the meals other than breakfast the
habitants enjoyed food such as cheese, milk,
whole wheat bread, tourtiere or meat pie and
sipaille or wild game pie. If you were invited to
someone elses house for supper, you had to bring
your own knife.
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Clothing-In summer, the women wore long dresses
and shawls. In the house, women wore aprons for
housework like cleaning and baking. A bonnet was
worn at all times when a woman was outdoors. Men
wore deerskin pants and moose skin jackets. In
winter, they wore a fur or woolen hat called a
tuque. Deerskin and moose skin was made into
leather for warm mittens and boots in
winter. Men wore moccasins in summer and boots
in winter. Women wore wooden clogs in summer and
boots in winter.
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Shelter-A habitants home was usually one room.
The fire provided all the heat and light, as well
as being the only source of heat for
cooking. The homes were made of stones from the
ploughed field. To hold the stones together they
used mortar. Boards then covered the house to
protect the mortar from the rain. If the
habitants were lucky to have a separate bedroom,
they would probably have a canopy style bed. A
habitant made all of his own furniture. He made
chairs, benches, tables and beds. The floors of
the home were wood, and in winter they could be
very cold. Hooked or woven rugs helped to keep
the habitants feet warm.

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Religion- Most of the habitants of New France
were Catholic. They went to church at least once
a week. The Catholic church was very important to
the people of New France. There were many priests
and missionaries that came from France to New
France to live among the natives to try and
convert them. Sainte Marie among the Hurons was
the first Native-French settlement.
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Lifestyles in New France
by Gabrielle
In New France, the clothing was made from
woven or hemp, both of which are made from plants
that could be grown in New France. The habitants
life started to change when they began to raise
sheeps, the women spun wool and wove clothes.
The woolen under clothes kept them warm in the
winter and absorbed perspiration in the summer.
Women wore
long dresses. They might wear several skirts for
warmth. Over their dresses they sometimes wore
aprons or shawls. They also wore small white caps
or bonnets on their heads. Men wore leather
breeches, woven shirts, and leather jackets. They
often wore woolen caps called toques. The women
and men shoes wore leather moccasins or wooden
clogs. Some wealthy people wore fine silks and
long wigs that were fashionable in New France.

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Homes and Furniture in New France In New
France habitants built their houses using logs,
excellent insulations against the wind and the
cold. Most houses had stone foundations.
Sometimes the stones were covered with pine
boards, which were white washed. The walls of the
houses built in the 1660s were of square- cut
timbers. Some houses that are built in the 1770s
of ten hard walls of stones. The roofs made of
thatch or overlapping boards, were steeply sloped
so snow would slide off easily. When the glass
isnt available yet, the habitant used greased
paper or skin for their windows. This windows let
in a little light, but no one could see out of
their houses. .
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The houses of the habitants often had only
one room with an attic above for sleeping. The
most important part of the house was the large
stone fireplace which gave heat, light, and used
for cooking The habitants also made their
own furniture, usually of birch or pine. It would
include a table, chairs, benches with backs,
cupboards, cradles, bench-bed and cots made by
their hands, during the long winters. Some
habitants often painted their furniture with
homemade paint and most of them painted their
furniture red. In the 1660s, some people
make their beds with walls and with a door,
making them like tiny rooms. In the 1700s, bed
sometimes had curtains.
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The floors of the habitants were usually
made from wood and have homemade rugs woven,
braided, or hook from rags. Hand hooked rugs made
the room cozy and comfortable.
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New Frances Religion
by Hailey
The religion of New France was very important.
Most of the settlers were roman catholic. In New
France there were three main religions Roman
Catholic, Muslim, and there were
protestants. There were many protestants also.
Protestants were prohibited from settling in New
France. Protestants from France did want to
settle in New France, but the Roman Catholics did
not want to have protestants churches.
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They wanted to keep Roman Catholic the main
religion. Many protestants did settle in the end.
Protestants were permitted with there families
in New France. They got jobs at New France and
work along side with the other settlers. Roman
Catholic was very important to the people of New
France, because they brought with them when they
left France. Muslim was also brought from
France, when some of the Muslims settled in New
France. The church was very powerful Priests
taught stern moral teachings.
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Missionaries were brought to New France first,
then priests, and then nuns. Religious orders
owned much of the land. They helped and ran
schools ,and hospitals. Catholic
organizers were in charge of spreading catholic
faith. In 1653 Marguerite Bourgeois came to New
France. She taught both French and Indian girls.
Before that the girls were taught by the Ursuline
sisters,Before Marguerite came to New France. New
France and she taught at Notre- Dame. They also
helped Marguerite at Notre- Dame. The End
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Life Style
by Matthew
New France ate cheese and milk for their yummy
dairy products that they got from the farmers
cows. Cabbage was grown in the summer time by the
farmers (habitants). Eels came from the fishermen
who battled the seas in their ships and fought
the weather. Meat pie must have been on of their
healthiest meals and tastiest meals but you cant
call it dessert. Pancakes for breakfast would
have been a hardy meal and Canadian maple syrup
(the best syrup in the world) for an extra kick
of energy. For the clothes in New France
they wore moccasins made of fur and leather from
animals caught by the natives and traded to their
Courier de bois and given to the French. When
Jean Talon became intendent he introduced sheep
so they used wool for clothes like sweaters. They
have jackets made of leather, fur and at the
sides of the hood they hade wool from the sheep.
They had gloves made of leather on the outside
and fur in the inside. Their gloves had wool
too.
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They had furniture like beds with a roof and
curtains so they wouldnt get dirty while
sleeping. They had pine wooden floors. They had
it rough because they needed to make their own
furniture. They had stone fire places (must have
been cozy). Their houses had really steep roofs
so rain could drip off easily. They had stone
foundations. They used birch or pine wood for
their furniture. Life in New France was tough.

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Lifestyles of New France
by Ruth
The Food The people of New France had a regular
schedule for meals.At dawn they got and after a
few hours of work sat down to a breakfast of
wheat pancakes, bread (baked at the bake oven)
and a bowl of creamy milk. At noon a light lunch
was eaten. A small meal was eaten at fouro clock
and the main meal, supper, was at eight o clock.
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They ate meat from moose, caribou, porcupine,
hare, wild fowl, fresh and salt water fish, eels,
domestic animals and more. They also ate
vegetables they grew in their gardens which
consisted of cabbages, cucumbers, melons, peas,
beans, asparagus, Indian corn and more. Most
meals included milk, cheese, and bread. Two
favourites were tourtiere (meat pie) and
sipaille (a wild game pie). Dessert was nuts,
fresh currants, cranberries and jams made with
strawberries, raspberries or blackberries.
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Religion The first bishop of New France was
Francois de Laval. When the company of One
Hundred Associates was started by Cardinal
Richelieu, he decided that only members of the
Roman Catholic Church could live in the colony.
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In 1635, Jesuits were sent to Quebec to teach a
school for boys. The Ursuline Congregation of
nuns was sent to do the same for the girls. In
New France all hospitals were staffed by nuns and
started by a bishop. There was a church with
priests and nuns in every town. In New France,
being a priest or nun was not easy or comfy.
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Lifestyles in New France
by Alison
HOUSES IN NEW FRANCE Houses were built of wood
but towards the end of the XVII century more
stone houses were being built. Most houses were
one or two-story, and there was at least one
chimney to heat the house and cook the food. It
wasnt possible to ship big windows yet so ships
imported from France small panes of glass that
could be assembled into light windows. People who
did not have them, put up waxed or oiled paper in
the panes. It wasnt transparent but it let in a
little light. Candles or lanterns burning whale,
seal, or porpoise oil provided light. The houses
were cold in winter so they had to increase the
burning of wood, but that increased fire hazards
which happened often.
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Some of the first cast iron stoves were imported
from France at the end of the XVII century, but
still only rich families could afford them. And
when it was really cold, they would gather around
the hearth. Pioneers built their own furniture
like beds, cupboards, tables, chests, benches,
and chairs. FOOD Early settlers had to produce
almost all their food, farm families had to grow
enough food for them and their animals, to last
them for the winter. In their gardens they
planted peas, beans, asparagus, onions, and
carrots. Cucumbers were sliced and eaten with
salt, they also ate fresh melon with sugar. Cows
were important for meat and milk. Milk was
sometimes made into butter or cheese. Meals
mostly consisted of milk and cheese. They ate
four times a day. (More pictures are on the next
page)
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More Pictures
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Life In New France
by Edwin
Living in New France wasn't easy. If you were a
girl, you would learn how to cook, bake and spin.
If you were a boy you would learn how to run a
farm, or if you would become a coureur de bois.
You would need to learn how to hunt, trap and
survive. Clothing Flax stems can be made into
linen, which farm families used along with wool
from their sheep. The women spun the wool from
and wove cloth. Woolen underclothes kept them
warm in winter and absorbed perspiration in
summer. Women wore long dresses. They might wear
several skirts for warmth. Over the dresses they
sometimes wore aprons and shawls. They wore small
white caps called bonnets on their heads. Men
wore leather breeches, woven shirts and leather
jackets made from moose or deer skin. They often
wore caps called toques. Shoes were leather
moccasins or wooden clogs. In the city of Quebec,
some rich people wore the fine silks and long
wigs that were modern in France.
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Homes Most houses in New France had stones
foundations. Walls of houses built in 1600s were
of square-cut timber. Spaces between the timber
were filled with mortar. Houses built in the
1700s often had walls of stone. Sometimes the
stones were covered with pine board. The roofs,
made of thatch or overlapping boards, were
steeply sloped so snow would slide off. Until the
1740s, when glass became available, windows were
made of skin. These windows let in a little
light, but no one could see out of them. The
houses of the habitants often had only one room
with an attic above for sleeping. The seigneur
usually had a larger house. The most important
part of the house was the large stone fire place,
which gave heat and light.
ByEdwin
Prochorow
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Food
by Justin
The people of New France had to produce as much
of their own food as possible. The farmers were
called habitants. They ate a lot of meat from
farm animals such as cattle and pigs and from
wild animals such as birds fish moose rabbits and
porcupines . Two favorites dishes were
tourtiere (meat pie) and sipaille (wild game
pie). . The people of New France were also
very fond of eels. . Eels are long fish that look
a little like snakes They were caught in
baskets in the river. They were often salted
smoked or dried In their gardens habitants grew
such vegetables as corn , beans, peas, asparagus,
cabbage and cucumbers. They also grew fruit
trees,berries and nuts. Habitants made whole
wheat bread from the wheat that they grew on
their farm and ground at the mill.
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Most families had large out door ovens built of
stones held together with clay. Once or twice a
week these large ovens were heated with wood
fires. The habitants got up early and put in
about two hours of work before breakfast.At about
eight oclock they would have a breakfast that
might be bread pancakes and milk. they ate
again at noon and around four oclock but the
biggest meal was after they finished the days
work at about eight oclock in the evening. Most
meals included milk and cheese. The people of
New France had to learn how to preserve food so
they would have something to eat during the
winter mouths.
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Food in New France
by Stephanie C
In New France, most meals included milk and
cheese. The habitants( those were the farmers),
and everyone else woke up at around 6 oclock in
the morning, and ate at around 8 oclock in the
morning. For breakfast they had milk ,bread and
wheat pancakes. The next meal was at around
noon, and also at 4 oclock.The biggest meal was
at around 8 oclock. To keep their food fresh,
the meat and fish that they caught were eaten
once the animals were killed. Most of the food
that they ate was from the farm animals. Some of
the animals they ate were, cow, and pig. Wild
animals they ate were, bird, fish, moose, rabbits
and porcupines. Two of their favorite foods
were, tourtiere (meat pie), and sipaille (wild
game pie). They also liked eels. They caught the
eels by using baskets and putting the baskets in
the rivers. After they were caught, they often
salted, smoked, or dried the eels. In a
habitants garden, you can find vegetables
growing. You can find corn, beans, peas,
asparagus, cabbage, and cucumbers. jam was made
by mixing berries and sugar together.
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People made whole-wheat bread by using the wheat
that grew on farms. Then they grounded the wheat
in the mill. Most people,(families) had an
outdoor oven, that was made of stone and patched
with clay. New France learned how to preserve
food, so they would have food for the winter.
Also. In winter they leave their food outside
until the food was frozen. Then they moved their
food to a shed that is attached to their house.
By Stephanie Christiuk
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Lifestyle in New France
by Venico
Clothing In New France, there were a few
sheep to provide wool for clothing. Cloth was
made of linen or hemp, both of which are made
from plants that could be grown in France. The
women spun the wool and wove cloth. The Habitants
began to raise sheep to provide wool for
clothing. Women wore long dresses. They
might wear several skirts for warmth. Over the
dresses they sometimes wore aprons and shawls.
They wore small white caps or bonnets on their
heads. Men wore leather breeches, woven
shirts, and leather jackets. They often wore
woollen caps called toques.
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Food Shoes were leather moccasins or wooden
clogs. Men wore clothing made of moose and deer
skins. In Quebec some wealthy people wore the
fine silks and long wigs that were fashionable in
France. Food The people in New France had
to produce most of their own food for the family.
The people in New France ate a lot of meat such
as cattle and pigs, and wild animals such as
birds, fish, moose, rabbits, and porcupine. Eels
were caught in baskets in the river. They were
often salted, smocked, or dried. Habitants grew
foods such as vegetables as corn, beans, peas,
cabbage, and cucumbers. They also grew fruit
trees, berries, and nuts. Most families had large
outdoor ovens built of stones held together with
clay. At about eight oclock they had breakfast
that might be bread, pancakes, and milk. They ate
again at noon and around four oclock, but the
biggest meal was after they finished all the days
work at about eight oclock in the evening.
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The most meals they ate included milk and cheese.
The people of New France had to learn how to
preserve food so they would have something to eat
during the long winter months. To prevent food
from going bad, meat and fish had to be eaten as
soon as the animal was killed, or else it would
be smoked, salted, or dried. In the winter meat
was stored outside until it was frozen, then kept
in a small shed attached to the house. Berries
could be cooked to make jam.
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French-Native Relationship By Erik Wiebe The
Huron and the Iroquois were enemies. So when the
French befriended the Huron they too became
enemies with the Iroquois nation (Iroquois means
rattle snake). The French and Huron friendship
grew but with the Iroquois they had many
conflicts, here is one of them In July 1609
Samuel de Champlain agreed to help his Huron
friends fight the Iroquois. He and two men
wearing steel breastplates and helmets and
carrying arquebuses (a type of musket) were led
by Huron braves to what is now Vermont and New
York States. There they found an Iroquois
village. A party of two hundred Iroquois who had
never seen guns attacked the Huron. Champlain
took aim with his musket and shot one of the
chiefs and wounded another , who later died.
Seeing their chiefs dead the Iroquois lost hope
and abandoned the field and their fort, fleeing
deep into the forest. Another conflict was the
Battle at Long Sault. When Dollard des Ormeaux
heard that the Iroquois were gathering to attack
Ville Marie, he volunteered to take a small
amount of men up the Ottawa river and attack the
Iroquois before they could organize an attack.
This would give the colony time to prepare its
defences. When the government of Ville Marie
agreed to his plan, Dollard chose sixteen
unmarried men and went up the river to meet the
gathering enemy.
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On May 1 1660 they reach an abandoned fort at
the Long Sault rapids, located 500km north of
Montreal, and prepared to defend it. When an
Iroquois scouting came down the river, Dollard
and his men killed all but one brave who managed
to warn the main war party of 300 men. Dollards
men beat them off during the first attack. The
Iroquois retreated back to the forest and waited
for five days. On the fifth day reinforcements of
800 Iroquois arrived. They waited three more days
then with the new numbers they launched a full
scale attack, coming from all sides they lit the
walls on fire. Dollards men were forced to use
their guns as clubs in hand to hand combat.
Dollard quickly made a bomb of gunpowder, lit it
and tried to throw it over the wall. It bounced
off the barricade and blew up in their faces.
Several men were killed, others were burned or
blinded. In the confusion the Indians swarmed
over the walls and killed everyone. The Iroquois
gave up attacking Ville Marie because they
already had lost one third of their force. The
French and Iroquois remained enemies and never
really stopped fighting.
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The Battle
at Long Sault
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The French And Native
Relations The French depended on the Hurons and
Algonquins to help them over winter from a
disease called scurvy. When Jacques Cartier
landed in landed in Canada, the Hurons taught him
how to make a drink by boiling the bark of a
Cedar tree to cure scurvy. The Hurons and
Algonquins gave them seeds to grow vegetables
like corn and squash. They showed the French how
to make toboggans, snowshoes, and canoes. The
French began wearing some parts of Indian
clothing,and especially Moccasins. When Samuel
de Champlain started up New France, he made an
alliance with the Hurons and Algonquians. He
started a war between the Hurons and the Iroquis
and this meant that the Iroquis became their
enemies. Since the Iroquis joined the British
they had even more reason to be enemies with the
French. The Iroquis and French have fought many
battles. These battle were fought close to
peoples homes. Several Iroquis villages have
been burnt down to the ground during the
fighting. The settlers were unable to wander
by Goran
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French and Native Relationships.
by Alison
When the French came, what better friends to
make, they thought, then with the aboriginal
people, the Huron. See, the French needed
Indians in fur trade and defense against the
British and the Iroquois, so they made alliances
with the Huron people. Also making friends with
the aboriginal people made the French hope that
they would follow the religious ways of the
French and the French society. French men were
married to aboriginal woman, and soon it became
very common. The French traders had advantages if
they married aboriginal woman because it was a
strange land to the French and the aboriginal
woman knew this land well.
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Also the woman could help make beaver pelts for
the market. And we shall be be one people,
Champlain said about the French men and the
native woman getting married. The French needed
goodwill from the aboriginal people very badly,
and they thought it would be a good idea to help
the fur trade. The aboriginal people thought it
would help make military alliances. This
relationship was not to be taken lightly because
the French really needed them as friends and
allies in fighting with the Iroquois and British,
and fur trade. So they werent sure if they
should treat the aboriginal people as allies or
subjects with the colonists of New France.
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But obviously it was a good trade off, because
when they were fighting with the British, the
British had the Iroquois Indians working
alongside them, and the French had the Huron to
thank for working alongside them.
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The French and the Iroquois By Bray When
Champlain agreed to help the Huron's fight the
Iroquois in war, that war almost destroyed all of
new France. After the war the Iroquois decided
that they needed allies and guns from the allies
to fight. Soon the Iroquois became allies of the
Dutch, the English and they both supplied the
Iroquois with guns and help for in war. Mean
while the Huron's where getting guns and help for
in war from the French.
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After that the wars became more serious then
before. Both the Herons and the Iroquois both had
guns. The Iroquois never had attacked Quebec and
never will. Many of the Herons farmers got killed
when the Herons got defeated by the Iroquois. The
Indians often paint symbols on trees when they
had defeat a another Indian tribe. The most
important groups in the area are the
Algonquians, the Huron, the Ottawa's, and the
Iroquois.
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There are five Indian nations in the Iroquois
group the Mohawks, the Seneca , the Cayuga's, the
Oneidas , and the Onondagas. The wars between the
French and the Iroquois lasted off and on for at
least one hundred years. The Iroquois attacked
houses and barns, they burned all the French's
crops, and killed all the animals. They killed
many women, men, and children. The French did the
same back to the Iroquois when they had the
chance to. The French had buil
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