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Chapter Nine


Chapter Nine The Use and Abuse of Psychoactive Drugs The Process of Addiction Addictive behavior has some common aspects Reinforcement: physical and psychological ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Nine

Chapter Nine
  • The Use and Abuse of Psychoactive Drugs

The Process of Addiction
  • Addictive behavior has some common aspects
  • Reinforcement physical and psychological with
    regards to pleasure or reduction of negative ones
  • Compulsion time, energy, and money are spent to
    pursue the behavior. Normal behavior has already
  • Loss of Control addicted people lose the ability
    to control their behavior and results in
    addiction to more than one drug or behavior
  • Escalation more of the substance is required
    over time to produce the desired effects
  • Negative Consequences the behaviors continues,
    regardless of the outcomes

Development of Addiction
  • There is no single cause of addiction, however,
    the following factors can play a role with this
  • Characteristics of the person
  • Environment of where the person lives
  • Heredity
  • Nature of the substance or behavior in question

What is a Drug?
  • Substance, other than food, that alters structure
    or function in a living organism
  • psychoactive drug alters the mind (feelings,
    behaviors, mood)

What is Drug Abuse?
  • Substance Abuse involves one or more of the
  • Recurrent drug use, resulting in a failure to
    fulfill major responsibilities
  • Recurrent drug use in situations in which it is
    physically hazardous
  • Recurrent drug-related legal problems
  • Continued drug use despite persistent social or
    inter-personal problems caused or exacerbated by
    the effects of the drug

Drug Dependence
7 specific criteria the APA uses to diagnose
substance dependence
  • Developing tolerance to the substance
  • Experiencing withdrawal
  • Taking the substance in larger amounts or over a
    longer period than was originally intended
  • Expressing a persistent desire to cut down or
    regulate substance use
  • Spending a great deal of time obtaining the
    substance, using the substance, or recovering
    from its effects
  • Giving up or reducing important social, school,
    work, or recreational activities because of abuse
  • Continuing to use the substance in spite of
    recognizing that it is a problem

Who Uses Drugs?
  • The use and abuse of drugs occur at all income
    and educational levels, among ethnic groups, and
    at all ages
  • There are no clear prediction methods for
    potential drug users, however, the following
    characteristics do place people in higher risk
    for trying illicit drugs
  • Being male
  • Poor self image
  • Risk taking personality
  • Peer or family group that partakes in this
  • Dysfunctional or chaotic lifestyle at home

Why Do People Use Drugs?
  • Curiosity
  • Imitation of adults (modeling)
  • Spiritual experience
  • Alter moods
  • Remove emotional pain (coping mechanism)
  • Provide a temporary escape
  • Peer pressure

How Drugs Affect the Body
  • Stimuli converted into electrical impulses
  • Signals are converted into neurotransmitters
  • Messages are sent between neurons
  • Synapses are the result of message sent
  • Psychoactive drug can change or enhance reactions
    of the cell site

Drug Factors Which Influence Different Effects
  • The pharmacological properties of a drug
  • The dose-response function
  • The time-action function
  • The persons drug use history
  • The method of use

User Factors Which Influence Different Effects
From Drugs
  • The physical and psychological characteristics of
    the drug user
  • Size/weight
  • Pregnancy
  • General health
  • Genetics
  • User expectations (placebo effect)

Effects can also be manipulated by particular
social settings
Six Classifications of Psychoactive Drugs
  • Stimulant
  • Depressant
  • Hallucinogen
  • Cannabis
  • Narcotic
  • Inhalant

Narcotics (Opioids)
  • Effects relieves pain, euphoria
  • Examples opium, morphine, heroin

Depressants (Sedatives/Hypnotics)
  • Effects slows down the CNS and possibly causes
  • Examples barbiturates, rohypnol, alcohol,

  • Effects elevates sensory function of the CNS
  • Examples cocaine, amphetamine, caffeine, ritalin

  • Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug in
    the United States
  • Active ingredient Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
  • Effects variety of psychoactive results
  • Examples hashish, marijuana

  • Effects alters perception of the CNS
  • Examples LSD, PCP, peyote, MDMA

  • Tends to be the highest among younger adolescents
  • Effects volatile chemicals producing drunk-like
    effects or aggression
  • Examples gasoline, paint, aerosol cans

Drugs, Society, and Families
  • Americans spend over 50 billion annually on
    illegal drugs
  • The criminal justice system is inundated with
    drug related crimes
  • Healthcare issues are involved with drug use with
    regards to hospital visits, treatment programs,
    and deaths
  • Drug abuse takes a toll on families, creating
    long term health problems, unemployment, and

Drug Testing
  • It is estimated that 10 of the workforce use
    psychoactive drugs
  • Dangers are great in specific job assignments
    that all workers should be tested regularly
  • Most drug tests involve a urine test
  • Due to the accuracy of tests improving over the
    years, there are fewer opportunities to cheat or
    to yield false results
  • The FDA now has approved home kits for parents to
    check their children for drug use

Treatment For Drug Dependence
  • Community programs
  • Hospital facilities
  • Private facilities
  • Self-help groups/Peer counseling
  • Medication assisted treatment

Preventing Drug Usage
  • Developing persuasive anti-drug educational
    programs offer the best hope for solving the drug
    problem in the future
  • Direct approaches targets non-users (education)
  • Peer counselors promote that the majority of
    people do not use drugs

Societal Response to Drug Use
  • Increased incarceration time
  • Early prevention programs
  • Drug testing
  • Nationwide organizations to increase awareness

Other Drug Terminology
  • Dependence refers to the need to continue using
    a drug for psychological or physical reasons
  • Withdrawal illness toxic response of the body as
    it attempts to regain control (abstinence
  • Tolerance acquired reaction to a drug in which
    the continued intake has diminished effect

  • Applies to those who are close to the individual
    who is addicted to something
  • Focused upon protecting or coping with the addict
  • Lose their sense of identity due to becoming
    unaware of their own feelings

Chapter Nine
  • The Use and Abuse of Psychoactive Drugs