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DOT-Mandated Drug and Alcohol Testing

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DOT-Mandated Drug and Alcohol Testing Reasonable Suspicion Supervisory Training * Illicit Drugs Testing for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, opiates, and PCP Drugs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DOT-Mandated Drug and Alcohol Testing


1
DOT-Mandated Drug and Alcohol Testing
  • Reasonable Suspicion
  • Supervisory Training

2
Workplace Impacts of Substance Abuse
  • 3.5 X more workplace accidents
  • 2.7 X more absences
  • 3 X more medical benefits usage
  • 10-20 decreased productivity
  • Increased loss/shrinkage
  • Higher incidence of workplace violence

3
DOT Drug Alcohol Rules
  • Prohibited conduct
  • Use of controlled substances/illicit drugs and/or
    alcohol while on company property or while
    on-duty
  • Testing positive for drugs or alcohol
  • Refusing to test (including adulterating or
    tampering with a drug/alcohol test)
  • Use of alcohol 4 hr. before duty (8 hrs. for
    flight crew)
  • Use of alcohol after an accident prior to alcohol
    test (8 hrs. )

4
Consequences of DOT Violation
  • Immediate removal from safety-sensitive duty
  • Applicants cannot be hired
  • Referral information on Substance Abuse
    Professionals must be provided by employer
  • Must complete return to duty process prior to
    resuming safety-sensitive duties
  • For an alcohol test result of .02-.039 BrAC,
    employee must be temporarily removed from duty
  • 24 hrs. for CDL employee 8 hrs. for FRA 8 hrs
    or retest of lt0.02 for all others
  • Additional disciplinary actions are up to
    employer

5
DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing
  • Pre-employment drug testing
  • Post-offer alcohol testing is authorized, not
    required
  • Reasonable cause/suspicion drug/alcohol testing
  • Based on behavior, conduct or appearance
  • Post-accident drug/alcohol testing
  • For DOT defined work-related accidents.
  • Random drug/alcohol testing
  • PHMSA USCG do not have random alcohol testing
  • Return to duty and follow-up drug/alcohol testing
  • as part of DOT return to duty process

6
Testing Procedures
  • Urine drug testing
  • Evidential breath alcohol testing for alcohol
  • Employees will complete custody and control forms
    to document every test
  • Tests will be conducted by qualified, trained
    personnel
  • Drug test results will be reported to the MRO and
    then to designated Company contacts
  • Alcohol test results are reported by the alcohol
    technician to the Company representative

7
Drug Testing
  • Urine specimen provided by employee in private
    toilet enclosure
  • Specimens poured into two bottles-labeled and
    sealed in employees presence
  • Analyzed at a SAMHSA-certified laboratory2 tests
    performed on the specimen before reporting it as
    positive
  • Laboratory results reported to physician MRO
  • MRO will contact employee and conduct interview
    to determine if prescription medications or other
    medical factors explain the test result
  • MRO reports final result to Company
    representative
  • Employee has the right to have the split
    specimen tested at a second laboratory to
    reconfirm the original findings.

8
Alcohol Testing
  • If initial test detects alcohol (0.02 BAC), a
    confirmation breath test is conducted after 15
    minutes. If second test is 0.04 or greater it is
    a positive test.
  • DOT rules allow use of a saliva or non-evidential
    breath device for the initial test.
  • Confirmation test must always use an EBT
  • Any test result less than 0.02 is a negative.
  • Mouthwash, cough syrup, cold medicines, breath
    sprays, if used according to directions, will not
    produce a positive confirmation test
  • Breath alcohol test will not detect acetone,
    ketones, and other biologically produced
    substances
  • Breath alcohol test is equal to a blood alcohol
    test

9
Reasonable Suspicion Testing Procedures
  • Observe employee isolate him/her away from work
    area and coworkers
  • Request another supervisor/manager to
    observe/interact with employee
  • Complete supervisory checklist/reasonable
    suspicion documentation
  • Escort employee to testing site
  • Retain copies of testing forms
  • Arrange to have employee transported home
  • Employee cannot return to work until negative
    test results are received.

10
Reasonable Suspicion Testing
  • Supervisory Training
  • Dr. Donna Smith
  • dsmith_at_firstlab.com
  • 727-343-0283
  • 727-204-8549

11
Reasonable Suspicion - Definition
  • Reasonable suspicion
  • is based on observations of an individual
  • Contemporaneousjust before, during, or after
    duty period
  • What the supervisor sees, hears or smells
  • is based on objective, documented criteria
  • Capable of being expressed as signs or symptoms
    of possible use of drugs/alcohol
  • Reasonable suspicion testing
  • is used to rule out or eliminate alcohol or
    drug use as a cause of the individuals behavior
    or appearance
  • is not a diagnostic tool

12
Reasonable Suspicion
  • Decision to test must be based on supervisors
    observations (whenever possible 2
    supervisors/managers should observe employee)
  • Supervisor making observations must have
    completed training in RS testing
  • Observations must be specific, contemporaneous
    and articulable, and must be documented on the
    Supervisors Checklist
  • Should test within 2 hours, discontinue after 8
    hours

13
The Problem Employee
  • Workplace signs of alcoholism or alcohol abuse
    include
  • chronic lateness
  • excessive absences
  • decreased productivity
  • poor performance
  • problem interactions with others
  • Time and attendance problems and changes in
    performance and productivity levels cannot
    trigger a reasonable suspicion test

14
Supervisors Role
  • Identify the specific observations of employee
    behavior and appearance
  • Confront the employee concerning the
    requirement to undergo a test
  • Fully explain the consequences of the
    employees refusal to comply
  • Supervisor does not need to identify the specific
    drug associated with the behavior or appearance
  • Supervisor should be alert to changes in the
    employees usual behavior and appearance

15
Confronting the Employee
  • Confronting the employee is the most difficult
    task
  • Confrontation should remain focused on employee
    behavior and appearance
  • RS test should be explained as a means to rule
    out prohibited drug/alcohol use
  • Do not accuse the employee of being drunk ,
    high or under the influence of alcohol or drugs

16
Alcohol Misuse
  • Signs and Symptoms

17
Effect of Alcohol
  • Alcohol is a drug
  • Alcohol acts as a stimulant
  • Alcohols overall effect is a sedative or
    depressant
  • Alcohols effects vary from individual to
    individual
  • Alcohols effects on an individual vary from
    occasion to occasion
  • One drink metabolizes in approximately 1 1/2
    hours
  • The higher the BAC, the more pronounced the
    effects of alcohol

18
Alcohol Facts
  • BAC is based on individuals body weight, amount
    of alcohol consumed, and the time period over
    which it was consumed
  • A 160-lb. person metabolizes approximately 1½
    drinks per hour, or BAC decreases at a rate of
    0.015 per hour
  • One Drink
  • 12 ounces of beer
  • 4½ ounces of wine
  • 1 to 1½ ounces of 80-86º liquor
  • Alcohol concentration is measurable during
    absorption, peak, and elimination phases

19
Alcohol Concentrations
  • Peak BAC based on alcohol drinks per hour

20
Alcohol Elimination
  • 170 lb male eliminates .015 g/mL per hr
  • 2 drinks per hr for 7 hrs
  • Stops drinking at 1 AM
  • 2 AM .190 BAC asleep
  • 3 AM.175 BAC
  • 4 AM.160 BAC
  • 5 AM .145 BAC
  • 6 AM .130 BAC alarm goes off
  • 7AM .115 BAC drives to work
  • 8 AM .100 BAC starts work
  • 12 Noon .040 BAC Under the influence violation
    of policy

21
Alcohol Elimination Number of hours to 0.00 BAC
  • This is the approximate number of hours to zero
    BAC from the time drinking began.

22
  • Discussion
  • Part of brain with different responses to
    alcohol
  • General slowing of various functions, some
    earlier than others

23
  • Mental functions affected by Alcohol Use
  • Cognitive functions are first effected
  • Individual is unaware of impact at low levels
    (.02-.04)
  • Judgment, computation, decision making, short
    term memory retrieval

Mental (.02 - .04)
24
Alcohol affects sensory perception Vision -
decreased object tracking, night an peripheral
vision background Hearing - diminished acuity,
ability to sort background noise Smell -
decreased sensitivity and selectivity Taste -
decreased sensitivity and selectivity
Sensory (.04 - .06)
Mental (.02 - .04)
25
Psychomotor Functions Speech is one of the
earliest motor skills to be affected Speech
changes may include over-enunciation, slurring,
or exaggerated speech patterns Coordination,
reflexes and fine motor dexterity are
diminished Reaction times are slower, movements
appear delayed or retarded
Speech Fine Motor (.08 - .10)
Sensory (.04 - .06)
Mental (.02 - .04)
26
  • Gross Motor Skills
  • Gross motor skills are one of the last
    categories of functioning to be effected
  • Most noticeable area is gait
  • Head movements, spatial relationships and torso
    movements are effected

Speech Fine Motor (.08 - .10)
Gross Motor (.10 - .25)
Sensory (.04 - .06)
Mental (.02 - .04)
27
  • Balance and Navigation
  • Balance is controlled by the inner ear
  • Alcohol intoxication vertigo (room spin)
  • Nausea and vomiting

Gross Motor (.10 - .25)
Speech Fine Motor (.08 - .10)
Balance (.25 - .35)
Sensory (.04 - .06)
Mental (.02 - .04)
28
  • Life Threatening BAC Levels
  • Brain stem involvement
  • Slowing of autonomic nervous system functions
  • Coma (respiratory and cardiovascular function
    depressed)
  • Death (respiratory and cardiovascular systems
    failure)

Gross Motor (.10 - .25)
Speech Fine Motor (.08 - .10)
Balance (.25 - .35)
Sensory (.04 - .06)
Mental (.02 - .04)
Brain Stem (.35 - .45)
29
Signs of Alcohol Intoxication
  • 0.02 - 0.08
  • Odor of alcohol on breath
  • Poor judgment, increased risk taking behavior
  • Decreased reasoning ability, forgetfulness
  • Slower reflex reactions

30
Signs of Alcohol Intoxication
  • 0.08 and above
  • Clumsiness, staggering, unsteady gait
  • Poor coordination, slowed reflex, diminished
    reaction times
  • Bloodshot eyes, impaired tracking ability
  • Slurred speech patterns
  • Exaggerated emotion, excitement, belligerent
    attitude
  • Disheveled clothing, poor personal grooming
  • Flushed complexion, sweating

31
Alcohol Odor
  • Alcohol beverages have a characteristic, distinct
    odor
  • Odor of alcohol persists on the breath following
    alcohol use
  • Individuals often try to mask the odor by using
    breath fresheners

32
Multiple Signs and Symptoms
  • Many signs and symptoms of alcohol or drug use
    can be due to other causes
  • A good rule of thumb is document at least two
    symptoms
  • odor of alcohol on breath is the most definitive
    sign of recent alcohol use
  • If signs and symptoms are associated with either
    alcohol or drug use, you should conduct both
    urine and breath tests

33
Reasonable Suspicion Testing
  • Signs Symptoms of Drug Use

34
Illicit Drugs
  • Testing for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines,
    opiates, and PCP
  • Drugs are detectable in the urine long after the
    acute intoxication phase
  • Marijuana is detectable for several days after
    use and is cumulatively stored in the body
  • Positive thresholds ensure that passive exposure
    or unknowing ingestion does not produce a
    positive drug test

35
Impact of Illicit Drugs
  • Mental and motor functioning are affected for
    many hours after use of the drug
  • Some studies show measurable motor and mental
    functioning impact for up to 24 hours after
    marijuana use
  • Stimulant drug use (cocaine, amphetamines) often
    contributes to sleep deprivation which impacts
    mental and motor functioning
  • Sedative drugs slow motor and mental functioning
    for hours after use
  • Observable effects (physical signs and symptoms,
    speech, motor functioning)of drug use are often
    not present for more than a few hours after use.
    .

36
Appearance Signs and Symptoms
  • Appearance changes due to drug use range from
    subtle to extreme
  • Personal grooming often deteriorates or dramatic
    changes in hairstyle, clothing may occur
  • Eyes are very susceptible to the effects of
    drugs
  • eye movements such as tracking ability are
    affected
  • pupil size is altered
  • bloodshot, watery or unfocused eyes
  • Profuse sweating, the chills, flushed or pallid
    complexion may be dues to the effects of the
    drugs
  • Marijuana has a distinct odor when smoked that
    clings to the users breath and clothing

37
Personality Changes
  • Personality changes are the most difficult to
    specify
  • Supervisor needs to be alert to changes in the
    employees usual personality traits or
    expression
  • Personality changes due to drug use often are
    sudden and dramatic

38
Speech Patterns
  • Stimulants create rapid, pressured speech
    patterns
  • Narcotics produce slow, thick, slurred speech
  • Hallucinogens may produce nonsense, fantasy speech

39
Social Interaction Changes
  • Changes in social interaction are not specific to
    the drug
  • Changes in social interaction vary from
    individual
  • Supervisors should be alert to changes in the
    employees usual patterns of interacting with
    others

40
Psychomotor Changes
  • Stimulants speed up the bodys motor activity
  • Sedatives or narcotics slow down motor functions
  • Hallucinogens may produce bizarre motor movements
  • Marijuana delays reaction times, impairs eye-hand
    coordination and creates unsteadiness
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