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Ch 20: Antimicrobial Drugs

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Ch 20: Antimicrobial Drugs Chemotherapy The use of drugs to treat a disease Antimicrobial drugs Interfere with the growth of microbes within a host – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch 20: Antimicrobial Drugs


1
Ch 20 Antimicrobial Drugs
  • Chemotherapy The use of drugs to treat a
    disease
  • Antimicrobial drugs Interfere with the growth of
    microbes within a host
  • Antibiotic Substance produced by a microbe
    that, in small amounts, inhibits another
    microbe
  • Selective toxicity A drug that kills harmful
    microbes without damaging the host

2
  • 1928 Fleming discovered penicillin, produced
    by Penicillium.
  • 1940 Howard Florey and Ernst Chain performed
    first clinical trials of penicillin.

Figure 20.1
3
Table 20.1
4
Table 20.2
5
The Action of Antimicrobial Drugs
  • Broad-spectrum
  • Superinfection
  • Bactericidal
  • Bacteriostatic

6
The Action of Antimicrobial Drugs
Figure 20.2
7
The Action of Antimicrobial Drugs
Figure 20.4
8
Penicillins
Figure 20.6
9
Antibacterial Antibiotics Inhibitors of Cell
Wall Synthesis
  • Penicillin
  • Penicilinase-resistant penicillins
  • Extended-spectrum penicillins
  • Penicillins ?-lactamase inhibitors
  • Carbapenems
  • Monobactam

10
Antibacterial Antibiotics Inhibitors of Cell
Wall Synthesis
Figure 20.8
11
Antibacterial Antibiotics Inhibitors of Cell
Wall Synthesis
  • Cephalosporins
  • 2nd, 3rd, and 4th generations more effective
    against gram-negatives

Figure 20.9
12
Antibacterial Antibiotics Inhibitors of Cell
Wall Synthesis
  • Polypeptide antibiotics
  • Bacitracin
  • Topical application
  • Against gram-positives
  • Vancomycin
  • Glycopeptide
  • Important "last line" against antibiotic
    resistant S. aureus

13
Antibacterial Antibiotics Inhibitors of Cell
Wall Synthesis
  • Antimycobacterium antibiotics
  • Isoniazid (INH)
  • Inhibits mycolic acid synthesis
  • Ethambutol
  • Inhibits incorporation of mycolic acid

14
Antibacterial Antibiotics Inhibitors of Protein
Synthesis
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Broad spectrum
  • Binds 50S subunit, inhibits peptide bond
    formation
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Streptomycin, neomycin, gentamycin
  • Broad spectrum
  • Changes shape of 30S subunit

15
Antibacterial Antibiotics Inhibitors of Protein
Synthesis
  • Tetracyclines
  • Broad spectrum
  • Interferes with tRNA attachment
  • Macrolides
  • Gram-positives
  • Binds 50S, prevents translocation
  • Erythromycin
  • Gram-positives
  • Binds 50S, prevents translocation

16
Antibacterial Antibiotics Inhibitors of Protein
Synthesis
  • Streptogramins
  • Gram-positives
  • Binds 50S subunit, inhibits translation
  • Synercid
  • Gram-positives
  • Binds 50S subunit, inhibits translation
  • Oxazolidinones
  • Linezolid
  • Gram-positives
  • Binds 50S subunit, prevents formation of 70S
    ribosome

17
Antibacterial Antibiotics Injury to the Plasma
Membrane
  • Polymyxin B
  • Topical
  • Combined with bacitracin and neomycin in
    over-the-counter preparation

18
Antibacterial Antibiotics Inhibitors of Nucleic
Acid Synthesis
  • Rifamycin
  • Inhibits RNA synthesis
  • Antituberculosis
  • Quinolones and fluoroquinolones
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Inhibits DNA gyrase
  • Urinary tract infections

19
Antibacterial Antibiotics Competitive Inhibitors
  • Sulfonamides (Sulfa drugs)
  • Inhibit folic acid synthesis
  • Broad spectrum

Figure 5.7
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