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Manufacturing Materials

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Engineering Drawing and Design Seventh Edition Chapter 12 Manufacturing Materials * * * * * * * * * * * * Cast Irons & Ferrous Metals Ferrous Metals: Iron and the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Manufacturing Materials


1
Engineering Drawing and Design
Seventh Edition
Chapter 12
Manufacturing Materials
2
Cast Irons Ferrous Metals
  • Ferrous Metals Iron and the large family of iron
    alloys called STEEL are the most frequently
    specified metals.
  • Cast Iron Low cost but its properties can vary
    greatly depending on how it is manufactured (rate
    of cooling, thickness of casting, how long it
    remains in mold)
  • Ductile (nodular) iron is used when higher
    ductility or strength is required than is
    available in gray iron. (crank shafts, heavy-duty
    gears, automobile door hinges)
  • Grey iron is a supersaturated solution of carbon
    in an iron matrix and is widely available.
    (automotive blocks, flywheels, brake disks
    drums, machine bases, gears)
  • White iron is produced by chilling which prevents
    the graphite carbon from precipitating out. Wear
    resistant(mill liners, shot-blasting nozzles)

3
Cast iron continued
  • High-Alloy irons ductile, gray or white iron
    that contain over 3alloy content
  • Malleable iron (ferric and pearlitic) is produced
    by a 2-stage heating process and is strong and
    ductile, has good impact and fatigue properties,
    and excellent machining characteristics

4
Carbon Steel is an iron-carbon alloy with small
amount of other elements
  • Cast or wrought into different mill forms
  • Wrought steel is either poured into ingots or
    sand-cast
  • Carbon and low-alloy cast steels lend themselves
    to the formation of streamlined, intricate parts
    with high strength rigidity
  • High-alloy cast steel (minimum 8 nickel and/or
    chromium)

5
Carbon steels account for over 90 of total steel
production
  • The conditions under which the steel solidifies
    have a significant effect on its properties
  • Steel specification chemical or mechanical
    properties, by its ability to meet a standard
    specification, or by its ability to be fabricated
    into an identified part.

6
Chemical Composition of steel
  • Carbon the principal hardening element in steel
    (.85 gives greater hardness, less ductility)
  • Manganese increasing manganese increases the
    rate of carbon penetrations during carburizing
    but decreases weldability
  • Phosphorus
  • Silicon
  • Sulfur
  • Copper
  • Lead

7
MANUFACTURING MATERIAL
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A BLAST FURNACE
8
MANUFACTURING MATERIAL
FLOWCHART FOR STEELMAKING
9
MANUFACTURING MATERIAL
FLOWCHART FOR STEELMAKING
10
Classification Bodies
  • SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
  • AISI American Iron and Steel Institute
  • ASTM American Society for Testing Materials
  • ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers

11
SAE and AISI System of steel identification
  • Four numbered code
  • First number major class of steel
  • Second number subdivision of major class
  • Third Fourth numbers Carbon content
    (hundredths of one percent)
  • Example SAE 2335 is a nickel steel containing
    3.5 nickel and .35 of 1 carbon

12
MANUFACTURING MATERIAL
CARBON STEEL DESIGNATIONS
13
MANUFACTURING MATERIAL
AISI DESIGNATION SYSTEM FOR ALLOY STEEL
14
Steel forms
  • Carbon-steel sheets flat rolled sheets made
    from heated slabs that are progressively reduced
    in size as they move through a series of rollers
  • Hot-Rolled Sheets
  • Cold-Rolled Sheets
  • Carbon-Steel plates
  • Hot-rolled bars
  • Cold-finished bars
  • Steel Wire
  • Pipe specified by OD and wall thickness
  • Tubing specified by OD, ID or wall thickness

15
Structural-Steel shapes
  • Beams channels specified by depth and weight
    per length (lb/ft)
  • Angles specified by length of legs thickness
    (or lb/ft)
  • Tees
  • Zees
  • Wide-flange sections specified by depth, width
    across flange, lb/ft

16
More types of Steel
  • High-Strength Low- Alloy (HSLA)
  • Low and Medium- Alloy steels
  • Stainless steels corrosion resistance
  • Free-Machining

17
MANUFACTURING MATERIAL
COMMON METHODS OF FORMING METALS
18
Nonferrous Metals
  • Aluminum 1/3 density of steel, but some alloys
    are stronger than steel corrosion resistant
  • Copper good conductor, corrosion resistant
  • Nickel
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc
  • Titanium
  • Beryllium
  • Refractory metals
  • Precious metals

19
MANUFACTURING MATERIAL
WROUGHT ALUMINUM ALLOY DESIGNATIONS
20
Plastics nonmetallic materials capable of being
formed or molded with heat, pressure, chemical
reactions, or combination
  • Disadvantages of metals corrode or rust, need
    lubrication, working surfaces wear readily, cant
    be used as electrical or thermal insulators,
    opaque noisy, when they flex they fatigue
    rapidly
  • Plastics (many) are chemical resistant, corrosion
    resistant, need no lubrication, quiet running,
    light weight, range of colors, adaptable to mass
    production methods, low cost
  • Thermoplastics soften or liquefy and flow when
    heat is applied
  • Thermosetting Plastics undergo an irreversible
    chemical change when heat is applied or a
    catalyst or reactant added
  • Can be machined

21
MANUFACTURING MATERIAL
COMMON TERMS
22
Rubber
  • Elastomers are derived from either natural or
    synthetic sources
  • Has Elastic properties. Withstands large
    deformations and quickly recovers shape
  • Mechanical rubber (tires, belts, bumpers)
  • Cellular rubber (pads, weather stripping, foam
    rubber)
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