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Mineral Supplementation for Beef, Goats & Sheep

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... Sulfur (S) Micro Copper (Cu) Selenium (Se) Zinc (Zn) Manganese (Mn) Cobalt (Co) Iron (Fe) Chromium (Cr) Molybdenum (Mo) Iodine (I) Nickel (Ni) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mineral Supplementation for Beef, Goats & Sheep


1
Mineral Supplementation for Beef, Goats Sheep
2
Macro Micro Minerals
  • Macro
  • Salt (NaCl)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Phosphorous (P)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Sulfur (S)
  • Micro
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Selenium (Se)
  • Zinc (Zn)
  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Cobalt (Co)
  • Iron (Fe)
  • Chromium (Cr)
  • Molybdenum (Mo)
  • Iodine (I)
  • Nickel (Ni)

3
General Functions of Minerals
  • Nutrient Metabolism
  • Reproduction
  • Immune Function
  • Nerve Function

4
Deficiencies
  • Difficult to assess. May be lower weight gains,
    reduced milk and/or decreased repro without
    visable signs. Also decreased immune function.

5
Factors Influencing Mineral Utilization from
Forage
  • Dry matter intake
  • Forage mineral content
  • Forage mineral availability
  • Antagonists

6
Beef Cow Req vs. Fescue ()
Varies with production High risk grass
tetany (22 g/d)
7
Beef Cow Req vs. Fescue (ppm or mg/kg)
CHAPA, 1996
8
Availability from Forage
9
Relative Bioavailability of Sources
10
Mineral Antagonists
  • Feed
  • Water
  • Mineral supplement

11
Mineral Review
  • A look at individual minerals and their
    importance to cattle

12
Salt (NaCl)
  • Electrolyte balance
  • Need for sodium
  • (they will consume minerals to meet the need
    for salt)

13
Calcium (Ca)
  • Least likely to be deficient in forage
  • Legumes contain high level
  • Cheap
  • Dont use high levels in supplement for grazing
    cattle

14
Phosphorous (P)
  • May be def. esp. w/high production
  • Forage content decreases w/maturity
  • Grain is high in P
  • Expensive

15
Pasture
Higher Ca (esp. Clover) Lower P
16
CaP ratio
  • Dietary ratio 11 to 71
  • In supplement
  • 31 to 21 grass
  • 21 11 mixed
  • 12 clover

17
Magnesium (Mg)
  • Associated with Grass tetany
  • High K and N reduce absorption

18
Potassium (K)
  • Weaned or newly received calves need short term
    suppl.

19
Iron (Fe)
  • Assoc with RBC (hemoglobin)
  • Anemia unlikely unless parasite, disease
  • High levels can interfere with other minerals.


20
Sulfur (S)
  • Levels above 0.25 can be antagonistic to Copper


21
What about the water?
  • Consider mineral levels in water especially
    antagonists
  • Sulfur
  • Iron

22
Micro (Trace) Minerals

23
Copper (Cu)
  • Supplementation is needed
  • Affected by Mo, S, Fe, breed
  • Necessary for growth, repro, immunity
  • Varying availability in supplement
  • Simmental/Charolais have higher req.

24
Copper deficiency
  • Physical appearance
  • Reddish appearance on black animals behind
    shoulders and lower qtrs.
  • White ring around eyes
  • Liver biopsy best to assess

25
Copper Supplementation
26
Selenium (Se)
  • Need in supplement
  • Se/Vit E interrelated
  • Regulated (3 mg/hd/da)
  • Increased sulfur will increase req.

27
Selenium Deficiency
  • Increase in early, embryonic death
  • Retained placentas
  • Weak calves at birth
  • Compromised immune system

28
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29
Manganese (Mn)
  • Very poorly absorbed
  • Involved in enzyme systems
  • High Ca and P can increase req.
  • Deficiency
  • Deformed calves knuckle-over
  • Increase in cystic ovaries
  • Abortions, delayed estrus

30
Zinc (Zn)
  • Enzyme function
  • Effects repro esp. males
  • Late stage spermatozoa

31
Iodine (I)
  • Component of thyroid hormones
  • Goitrogenic compounds may increase need
  • Foot Rot

32
Consumption
  • Salt level (dont feed separately)
  • MgO level
  • Water in forage
  • Location
  • Man!

33
Beef Formula
  • Not intended for
  • Goats
  • Sheep
  • Dairy (especially Jerseys)

34
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35
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36
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37
CTC ??
  • Only one approved formula for free-choice feeding
    - an outside company owns the rights to that
  • Anaplaz - use commercially available products

38
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39
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40
MINERALS
  • Most forages are good sources of
  • Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium
  • Most forages will be deficient in
  • Salt and most trace minerals
  • Sometimes magnesium tetany occurs in lactating
    does, but it is not as common as in cattle

41
MINERALS
  • Goats are quite sensitive to selenium deficiency
  • Goats are also commonly deficient in copper,
    primarily because of common "red salt" and "sheep
    and goat" minerals on the market
  • Many producers use cattle minerals, although
    mineral supplements designed for goats are
    available

42
Copper Toxicity In Goats
  • Meat goats may be more susceptible than dairy
    goats.

43
Toxicity Levels of Dietary Intake
  • Cattle dietary levels gt 100 ppm
  • Goats (?)
  • Sheep dietary levels 20-25 ppm

44
Tolerance of Goats to Copper
  • Research at N. Carolina State for the last 3
    years on copper supplementation of goats
  • Treatments were 0, 10 or 30 ppm added dietary
    copper in year 1 and 0, 1000 and 3000 ppm
    mineral supplement copper in year 2 and 3
  • Source was copper sulfate

45
Liver Copper (ppm, dry basis) after 112
days Initial values 123 ppm
L P lt .02
Supplemental Cu level (ppm)
46
Liver Copper, mg/kg DM Kids at Market Study 2
L P lt 0.01
Supplemental Cu, mg/kg DM
47
Reasons For High Cu Load
  • Over feeding complete feeds
  • Feeds with lt1 ppm Mo and S
  • Feeds with low Fe, Zn, Cd
  • Over feeding ionophores, monensen, lasalocid
  • Stress
  • Doe post weaning
  • Change in weather
  • Change in feed
  • Poor nutrition
  • Transportation
  • Handling
  • Showing
  • Liver damage

48
MILK FEVER - HYPOCALCEMIA
  • PREVENTION
  • Limit calcium intake from legumes or minerals 3
    weeks prior to kidding
  • Forces animal to start mechanism to mobilize
    body stores
  • Balance lactation ration

49
URINARY CALCULI
  • Obstruction of urinary tract
  • Due to excessive grain in diet
  • Mainly in young males and
  • show bucks

50
URINARY CALCULI
  • Ca P ration 2 1 to 4 1
  • Keep diet P lt0.35
  • don't feed too much high phosphorus feeds
  • Urinary acidifiers
  • ?10 g ammonium chloride per head per day
  • ?Ammonium chloride at 2 of concentrate ration
  • ?Ammonium sulfate at .6 to .7 of the total
    ration

51
Minerals for Sheep
  • Specifically for sheep
  • Free-choice, year-round

52
Minerals for Sheep
  • Spring Summer (high quality clover)
  • Trace Mineral Salt (TMS) w/ Selenium
  • Rest of Year
  • Complete mineral mix

53
Minerals for Sheep
  • Concern Copper Toxicity
  • Sheep more sensitive than cattle
  • Result of accumulation in liver over time
  • Generally Sheep require about 5 ppm Copper (Cu)
    in diet toxicity at levels above 25 ppm in diet
  • CuMO ratio is important
  • If MO is low (lt1ppm) sheep are more susceptible

54
Minerals for Sheep
  • Problem
  • Distillers grains and Soybean Meal (SBM) can be
    variable in Cu

55
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