Kennedy and Johnson Years [1960-1968]: chapter 22 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Kennedy and Johnson Years [1960-1968]: chapter 22 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3bf211-ZjdkZ


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Kennedy and Johnson Years [1960-1968]: chapter 22


Kennedy and Johnson Years [1960-1968]: chapter 22 My fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:348
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 36
Provided by: isiteLps
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Kennedy and Johnson Years [1960-1968]: chapter 22

Kennedy and Johnson Years 1960-1968 chapter 22
  • My fellow Americans, ask not what your country
    can do for you ask what you can do for your
    country. Kennedy

The Election of 1960
  • TV Presidential Debate
  • Nixon - ill, serious, not overly handsome
  • Kennedy - young, relaxed, handsome
  • Kennedy skilled on TV Nixon skilled at using TV
  • debate gave him momentum going into the election
  • Polls showed
  • Those who watched debate on TV selected Kennedy
    as the winner
  • Those who listened to debate on Radio selected
    Nixon as the winner

Election of 1960
  • Kennedy young, energetic Senator, also Roman
  • Nixon seasoned veteran who had lots of
    political experience
  • Kennedy won the popular election by 119,000 votes
    out of 69 million

Kennedys Domestic Programs
  • Kennedys programs and incentives The New
  • Kennedy did not have a mandate (public
    endorsement of his proposals). Difficulty
    getting his bills passed in Congress.
  • The Economy
  • Fought big business price fixing
  • Proposed large tax cut
  • Combating Poverty and Inequality
  • Kennedy - convinced the poor needed direct
    federal aid
  • Congress passed a minimum wage increase and the
    Housing Act of 1961
  • Other Kennedy Initiatives
  • Kennedy began trying to achieve his goals through
    executive order
  • Issued many executive orders

The Space Program
  • In 1961, Soviet Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the
    first man to travel in space
  • Fearing America had fallen behind in
    technological development, Kennedy called for
    more funding and better results

Space Program
  • The United States should commit itself to
    achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of
    landing a man on the moon.
  • The nation accepted the challenge and funding for
    NASA increased

Kennedy Assassination
  • Began his reelection campaign, JFK traveled to
    Dallas, TX with his wife
  • The Governor met them at the airport and together
    they took an open-air limousine through Dallas
  • In the Texas School Book Depository, Lee Harvey
    Oswald took aim and shot Kennedy from the sixth
  • Kennedy was pronounced dead at the Hospital
    shortly after

Nation in Mourning
  • Nation grieved
  • Alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald
  • Oswald shot by Jack Ruby (Dallas night club
  • President LBJ ordered the Warren Commission on
    the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy
  • Concluded Oswald had acted alone

Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) Path to the White
  • LBJ skilled politician
  • youngest minority leader of the Senate
  • later Senate majority leader.
  • very successful

  • Johnson easily won the election over Barry
    Goldwater in 1964
  • Characterized Goldwater as a trigger happy war
    monger who would use nuclear weapons.
  • Presidential Election of 1964 (p. 843)

LBJ in action
  • Famous for his ability to use the political
    system to accomplish goals
  • Johnson inspired fear and awe among his colleagues

The Great Society
  • Johnson began a series of major legislative
    initiatives called the Great Society

Major Great Society Programs
The Great Society
  • Great Society programs included major poverty
    relief, education aid, healthcare, voting rights,
    conservation and beautification projects, urban
    renewal and economic development

The Great Society
  • The Tax Cut
  • Johnson proposed a large tax cut that would pay
    for itself with the increase in the economy
  • War on Poverty
  • He started Head Start (preschool for low income
  • Volunteers in Service to America VISTA
    (volunteers for low income neighborhoods)

  • Figure 28.4 Legal Immigration to the United
    States by Region, 19311984 (p. 828)

The Great Society
  • Aid to Education The 1965 Elementary and
    Secondary Education Act, provided billions of
    dollars in aid to public and private schools.
  • Medicare and Medicaid
  • Medicare - provides low-cost medical insurance to
    most Americans over age 65
  • Medicaid - provides medical and health services
    to poor Americans of any age.
  • Immigration Reform Immigration Act of 1965
    -replaced immigration quotas with overall limits
    from various parts of the world.
  • Immigration rose dramically during the 1960s and

The Warren Court
  • Referred to as the Warren Court because of its
    Chief Justice Earl Warren (1953-1969)
  • Warren Court overturned many old laws and
    established new legal precedents

Major Decisions of the Warren Court
The Warren Court
  • During the Kennedy-Johnson years, the Supreme
    Court, headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren,
    handed down many controversial landmark verdicts.
  • The Court ruled on social issues including
  • Obscenity
  • prayer in public schools
  • use of birth control.
  • Court ruled on the rights of persons accused of
    committing crimes.
  • Miranda rule, a result of the 1966 case Miranda
    v. Arizona, required police to inform accused
    persons of their rights.
  • Court decisions changed the nature of
    apportionment, or the distribution of the seats
    in a legislature among electoral districts.

Warren Court Criticism
  • Correctly or not, much of the criticism of the
    Warren Court during the 1950s and 1960s centered
    on perceptions that the Supreme Court had become
    too activist.
  • Instead of simply deciding what the Constitution
    required, the justices attempted to enforce their
    own notions of justice.

Continued Warren Court Criticism
  • Liberal decisions found many supporters
  • However, such judicial activism stirred
    considerable opposition both on and off the
  • While indicating their own support for the
    liberal direction of Supreme Court decisions,
    such justices as Felix Frankfurter and John
    Marshall Harlan II advocated greater judicial

Warren Court Criticism
  • Criticized for going far beyond the language of
    the Constitution and
  • weakening democracy by usurping the role of the
    people's elected representatives.
  • In 1968, presidential candidate Richard Nixon
    blamed the Court's decisions for rising crime
  • Nixon promised to appoint strict constructionists
    (those who interpret the original intent of the
    Constitution) to the Supreme Court if elected to
    the presidency.

Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961
  • 1959 - Fidel Castro overthrew the U.S. backed
    dictator Fulgencio Batista
  • Castro installed a communist government
  • President Kennedy learned of a plan by outgoing
    President Eisenhower to train exiled Cubans in
    Guatemala to overthrow Castro
  • 1961 - Day of the invasion - air strike was
    limited and missed the Cuban air force
  • 1,500 U.S.-backed invaders captured by Castros
  • Humiliating loss for the US

The Berlin Crisis 1961
  • Soviet Union wanted to stop the flow of East
    German people to West Germany through Berlin
  • Soviet demanded a treaty to make the division

The Berlin Wall 1961
  • JFK felt like the Soviets were going to try to
    take over more of Europe
  • called for a large increase in military spending
  • Army placed on alert
  • Soviets responded by building the Berlin Wall

The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
  • October 1962, American spy plane revealed the
    Soviet Union were building missile bases on Cuban
  • Tension escalated between the US and USSR

Cuban Missile Crisis1962
  • Kennedys response a naval quarantine
    (blockade) of Cuba
  • Soviet ships approached the blockade world
    waited in fear
  • At the last minute Soviet leader Khrushchev
    ordered ships turned around

Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
Cuban Missile Crisis Map 1962
Cuba 1961-1962
  • Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles that
    were already there in exchange for the U.S.
    staying out of Cuba and U.S. missiles being
    removed from Turkey

Limited Test Ban Treaty 1963
  • The Limited Test Ban Treaty also was a result of
    this crisis, it banned nuclear testing above the

JFK Foreign Policy
  • Flexible Response - moved away from the drastic
    stances of Massive Retaliation Less militant
  • Alliance for Progress - Proactive ventures in
    Latin America
  • The Peace Corps

The Peace Corps
  • The Peace Corps
  • Kennedy established program for group of
    volunteers that were sent overseas to help
    developing nations around the world as
  • Educators
  • health workers
  • technicians

Johnsons Foreign Policy
  • Johnsons Foreign Policy
  • The Dominican Republic
  • After Communist rebels attack the country,
    Johnson sent 22,000 marines to ensure the
    government not become Communist and they were
  • Vietnam
  • Johnson became deeply involved in Southeast Asia
  • U.S. backed South Vietnam against forces wanting
    a Communist government