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10th American History

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10th American History Unit V- A Nation Facing Challenges Chapter 17 Section 3 The Great Society The Great Society Lyndon Johnson Personality Large and intense ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 10th American History


1
10th American History
  • Unit V- A Nation Facing Challenges
  • Chapter 17 Section 3
  • The Great Society

2
The Great Society
  • The Main Idea
  • President Johnson used his political skills to
    push Kennedys proposals through Congress and
    expanded them with his own vision of the Great
    Society.
  • Reading Focus
  • Why was Lyndon Johnsons background good
    preparation for becoming president?
  • Why was Johnson more successful than Kennedy in
    getting Congress to enact Kennedys agenda?
  • In what ways did Johnsons Great Society change
    the nation?
  • What foreign-policy issues were important in
    Johnsons presidency?

3
Lyndon Johnson
  • Personality
  • Large and intense with none of Kennedys good
    looks, polish, or charm
  • Hardworking and ambitious
  • Genuine desire to help others
  • Greater concern for the poor and underprivileged
    than Kennedy
  • Believed in an expanded role for government in
    making Americans lives better
  • Political Experience
  • School teacher in Texas
  • Served as Texas Congressman
  • Served as U.S. Senator
  • Served as majority leader in the Senate after one
    term as senator
  • By 1960, Johnson had more influence in
    Washington, D.C., than any other Democrat.

4
Reputation
  • Bull Dog
  • A Machiavelli in a Stetson.
  • In the shadow of JFK
  • Political assets
  • Tender ego
  • Why dont people like me.

5
The Beginning of Johnsons Presidency
Johnsons mastery of the political process, along
with his years of experience in Washington,
allowed Johnson to make a smooth transition to
the presidency. He vowed to continue to carry on
the New Frontier.
Johnson called on members of Congress to pass
Kennedys programs so that Kennedy did not die
in vain.
Johnson wanted to go beyond the Kennedy
administrations plans he sponsored anti-poverty
programs, tax-cut bills, and civil rights
legislation.
6
Johnson Becomes President
  • Why was Lyndon Johnsons background good
    preparation for becoming president?
  • Explain Why was Lyndon Johnson unhappy as
    vice-president?
  • Make Generalizations In addition to his
    political skills, what other strengths did
    Johnson bring to the presidency?
  • Predict How might President Kennedys legacy
    have been different if Johnson had remained
    Senate Majority leader instead of becoming
    Vice-President?

7
Enacting Kennedys Agenda
  • War on Poverty
  • Kennedy was influenced by Michael Harringtons
    The Other America, a study of poverty that
    shattered the popular belief that all Americans
    had prospered from postwar prosperity.
  • Johnson launched the War on Poverty when he asked
    Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act in
    1964.
  • Economic Opportunity Act
  • Funded several new anti-poverty programs
  • The Job Corps offered work-training programs for
    unemployed youth.
  • VISTA was a domestic version of the Peace Corps.
  • Other programs provided education for adults,
    work for unemployed parents, and help to fight
    rural poverty and assist migrants.

8
Maryland Job Core Trainees Arrive for Training
(0100)
9
What was the War on Poverty?
  • The War on Poverty (1964-1968)
  • a campaign of legislation and social services
    aimed at reducing or eliminating poverty in the
    United States of America. The term was first
    introduced by Lyndon B. Johnson during his State
    of the Union address on Jan. 8, 1964. The
    legislation was designed in response to the
    poverty affecting over 35 million Americans as of
    1964. The poverty line was on a sharp decline and
    not a rise nor fluctuation at the time Johnson
    was campaigning.
  • "This administration today, here and now,
    declares unconditional war on poverty in
    America." - Lyndon B. Johnson
  • Forty programs that were intended to eliminate
    poverty by improving living conditions and
    enabling people to lift themselves out of the
    cycle of poverty.

10
Enacting Kennedys ProgramsOther Initiatives
Passed
  • Johnson pushed for the passage of Kennedys
    tax-cut bill.
  • Congress demanded that the president promise to
    hold government spending to 100 billion.
  • Johnson used the press to help him convince
    Congress to pass the Tax Reduction Act in 1964.
  • The nations economy grew by more than 10 percent
    and unemployment declined.
  • Johnson pushed for the passage of Kennedys civil
    rights bill.
  • After a year of debate, Congress passed the
    landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964.

11
Enacting Kennedys Agenda
  • Why was Johnson more successful than Kennedy in
    getting Congress to enact Kennedys agenda?
  • Recall What two things made it easy for Johnson
    to assume the presidency?
  • Draw Conclusions Why do you think that
    President Johnson retained President Kennedys
    cabinet members?
  • Recall What were the effects of the Tax
    Reduction Act?
  • Contrast What was the difference between VISTA
    and the Peace Corps?

12
President Lyndon B. Johnson
  • 36th President- 1963-1969 - Democrat
  • Who was LBJ?
  • Election of 1964
  • Republicans- Barry Goldwater
  • Democrats- LBJ
  • Issues-
  • Foreign Affairs - Vietnam
  • Civil Rights
  • War on Poverty
  • Nuclear Test Ban
  • Welfare
  • Programs to meet new problems
  • Outcome - LBJ won largest majority in history.
    43 million votes to 27 million and 486 electoral
    votes to 52.

13
(No Transcript)
14
The Great Society
In 1964 Johnson told the nation that he had his
own plans for the United States. He called the
domestic programs of his administration the Great
Society.
  • In order to launch Johnsons Great Society, he
    needed to win the 1964 election.
  • Chose Hubert Humphrey as his running mate
  • Republicans selected Barry Goldwater as their
    nominee.
  • Barry Goldwaters views were very different from
    Johnsons.
  • He suggested using nuclear weapons to end
    Vietnam.
  • Attacked the Great Society with claims that
    people were only equal in the eyes of God and
    that government programs to help people were
    similar to communism

15
The Great Society (0422)
16
LBJs Great Society
  • Great Society- abundance and liberty for all
    end to poverty and racial injustice every child
    can find knowledge renew contact with nature a
    challenge constantly renewed
  • War on Poverty forty programs that were intended
    to eliminate poverty by improving living
    conditions and enabling people to lift themselves
    out of the cycle of poverty.
  • Education sixty separate bills that provided for
    new and better-equipped classrooms, minority
    scholarships, and low-interest student loans.
  • Medicare Medicaid guaranteed health care to
    every American over sixty-five.
  • The Environment introduced measures to reclaim
    our heritage of clean air and water.
  • National Endowment for the Arts and the
    Humanities created with the philosophy that
    artists, performers, and writers were a priceless
    part of our heritage and deserve support.
  • Job Corps provided enabling skills for young men
    and women.
  • Head Start program for four- and five-year-old
    children from disadvantaged families that gave
    them a chance to start school on an even basis
    with other youngsters.
  • Although the Great Society program made
    significant contributions to the protection of
    civil rights and the expansion of social
    programs, critics increasingly complained that
    the antipoverty programs were ineffective and
    wasteful.
  • The Great Society was never fully funded because
    of the Vietnam War, which drained available
    resources.

17
Creating the Great Society
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act - first
    large scale program of government aid to public
    schools
  • The Higher Education Act - created the first
    federal scholarships for needy college students
  • Head Start education program for preschool
    children of low-income parents
  • Omnibus Housing Act created Department of
    Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
  • Medicaid program that provides free health care
    for poor people
  • Medicare health care program for people over
    age 65
  • The Great Society emphasized the environment
    laws were passed to improve water and air
    quality.
  • Lady Bird Johnson worked to preserve the outdoors
    and natural beauty of the United States.
  • Pushed for the Highway Beautification Act (came
    to be called Lady Birds bill)

18
Medicare Bill Signed Truman is Witness of
Historic Event (0101)
19
(No Transcript)
20
Policies
  • July 1965 - Medicare bill
  • citizens over 65 received low-cost hospital
    insurance.
  • Financed by an increase in the social security
    tax.
  • Medical insurance and out-of -hospital expenses-
    govt would pay 1/2
  • Medcaid- from taxes.
  • Provided federal funds to the states that wanted
    to set up their own plans to help needy people
    under age 65..

21
Decline of the Great Society
Between 1965 and 1966, Congress passed 181 of the
200 major bills that President Johnson requested.
Some members of Congress were concerned about the
rapid pace of reform.
The midterm elections of 1966 allowed the
Republicans to gain seats in both houses of
Congresswhich slowed down Johnsons legislative
program.
  • The new Congress did enact some Great Society
    programs
  • Public Broadcasting Act (1967) Corporation for
    Public Broadcasting, Public Broadcasting System
    (PBS), and National Public Radio (NPR).
  • The Truth-in-Lending Act (1967)
  • A 1968 law to establish the nations wild and
    scenic rivers program

22
LBJ Faces Crises (0337)
23
The Great Society
  • In what ways did Johnsons Great Society change
    the nation?
  • Recall How did President Johnson describe
    himself?
  • Analyze What do you think Goldwater meant when
    he said that government programs to help people
    were similar to communism?
  • Explain What was the Elementary and Secondary
    School Act?

24
The Great Society
  • Recall How was Congress able to slow down
    Johnsons legislative program?
  • Evaluate Do you think that PBS and NPR serve as
    important alternatives to commercial television
    in todays society? Explain.

25
LBJs Vietnam
  • Vietnam
  • Undeclared War
  • Domino Theory
  • Tonkin Gulf Incident and Resolution
  • Escalation Bombing
  • Credibility Gap
  • Peace Movement
  • Tet Offensive
  • My Lai Massacre

26
Johnsons Foreign Policy
  • By the end of 1966, some 385,000 U.S. combat
    troops were in Vietnam, and the government was
    spending 2.5 billion a month on the war.
  • We cannot have guns and butter.

Vietnam
  • Policy dictating that revolutions in Latin
    America were more than local concerns if
    communism was involved. The U.S. would intervene.
  • Johnson sent troops to end a revolt in the
    Dominican Republic in 1965.

Johnson Doctrine
27
Johnsons Foreign Policy
  • Continued Kennedys effort to improve relations
    with Soviet Union
  • Signed treaty to protect each countrys diplomats
    from harassment by authorities in the other
    country
  • United States and Soviet Union (along with 58
    other nations) signed agreement to ban weapons in
    outer space.

Relations with Soviet Union
  • In January 1968 North Korea captured a U.S. Navy
    spy shipthe Pueblooff the coast of Communist
    North Korea.
  • The United States claimed it was in international
    waters and called up troops.
  • The North Koreans released the crew, but kept the
    ship.

Pueblo Incident
28
(No Transcript)
29
Johnsons Foreign Policy
  • What foreign issues were important in Johnsons
    presidency?
  • Recall Which war occupied the Johnson
    administration?
  • Describe What were the focal points of
    President Johnsons foreign policy?
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