Phoenicians - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Phoenicians PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3bf092-NzQwZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Phoenicians

Description:

Phoenicians * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Shared & collected ideas with other city-states (they competed with them too) Purple Dye was only for the wealthy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:100
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 65
Provided by: aldworth9
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Phoenicians


1
Phoenicians
2
History of Lebanon
  • 2 Centuries after Hammurabis reign, Babylonian
    empire fell to Nomadic Warriors
  • Fertile Crescent broke into small kingdoms
  • New people moved into the regions

3
Phoenician Location
  • Present day Lebanon
  • 33.50º North
  • 35.50º East
  • Popular cities
  • Tyre
  • Byblos
  • Sidon

4
Geography
  • Narrow coastal planes
  • Beeka Valley separates
  • Borders Israel Syria

5
Climate
  • Mediterranean
  • Mild to cool
  • Wet winters
  • Dry, hot summers
  • Mountains ? heavy rain snow

6
Resources
  • Snails - most valuable dye
  • 60,000 snails to 1 pound
  • Cedar trees- hard, usable wood

7
Wealth from Trade
  • Purple dye
  • Cedar trees

8
Relying on Trade
  • Cedar is other valuable resource
  • Relied on Trade
  • Traded goods from other lands
  • Own colonies too
  • Competed with other city-states
  • Interacted through trade

9
Excellence in Sailing
  • Desired trade
  • Traveled Mediterranean Coasts
  • Narrow, single sailed vessels with longs oars

10
Colonies
  • 1100-700 BCE, founded trading colonies
  • 300 cities in Africas Med. Coast
  • Carthage was greatest

11
The Alphabet
  • Only 22 symbols
  • First appeared around 900 BCE
  • Passed on to other cities
  • Many common people could master
  • Literacy became widespread

12
Culture
  • Shared collected ideas
  • Purple dye for royalty
  • Based on trade ships
  • Alphabet

13
Technology Tools
  • Boats single-sailed vessels with long oars
  • Alphabet started with the Phoenicians
  • Weapons, cloth, wine, slaves, glass, and ivory

14
Peace and War
  • Peaceful society
  • Focused on trade

15
Law Order
  • Hierarchy Status
  • Kings and Priests still had much more power of
    the trades.
  • Alphabet Laws

16
Social Status
  • King Priests
  • Wealthy Commoners
  • Free Commoners
  • Slaves
  • Typical Social Status

17
Summary
  • Most powerful traders in Mesopotamia area
  • Invented alphabet
  • Started the importance of sailing
  • Created the royal purple color

18
Fun Facts
  • Purple dye- made from the squeezing of 60,000
    smelly snail glands
  • Traded- anything and everything believed valuable
  • Later, Carthage rivaled Rome in power.

19
Location
  • Phoenicia was centered in the north of ancient
    Canaan
  • It was a coastal area along the Mediterranean Sea
  • Modern Day Lebanon, Syria, Palestinian
    Territories and Israel

20
Important cities
  • Tripoli
  • Baalbek
  • Carthage
  • Arvad
  • Byblos
  • Berytus
  • Sidon
  • Tyre
  • Caesarea

21
(No Transcript)
22
Government
  • Individual city-states
  • Each city-state had an independent government
  • The king, the temple priests, and the council of
    wealthy merchants were the main sources of power

23
religion
  • They worshipped gods and goddesses sacred to
    specific city-states
  • Each god and goddess represented a different
    aspect of life

24
FAMILY LIFE
  • The men had control over the family
  • Men could sell their wives or the children to pay
    off debts
  • Women were held high in the family
  • Only priests and scribes could read and write

25
Economic system
  • They had a trade-based economy
  • Their main good was a purple dye derived from
    snails found on the Tyre island
  • Due to the dyes scarcity and the time in which
    it took to make, it became very expensive

26
Economic system
  • They established trading colonies along the
    Mediterranean coast
  • They also traded
  • Wine
  • Glass
  • Timber
  • Olive oil
  • Precious metals

27
Social classes
28
Cultural Development
  • Spoke a Semitic language
  • A seagoing culture where trade was the center of
    civilization
  • Were skilled architects
  • Wealthy trading towns whose centers were the
    temples

29
City Structure
  • Urban, small trading towns along the
    Mediterranean coast
  • Temple was the center of the city
  • Built buildings up to 6 stories high

30
Rights of slaves
  • Laws protected slaves from mistreatment
  • Slaves could earn their own money, purchase
    property, and own their own freedom
  • A freed slave could reach high office in the
    community

31
Rights of women
  • No evidence of polygamy
  • In the case of divorce, the woman was given her
    possessions
  • Had fundamental rights
  • Women could press charges, make trading
    contracts, invest in trading, and adopt heirs

32
Technology
  • The Phoenician Empire had many advancements in
  • shipbuilding
  • pottery
  • iron-working
  • literature
  • alphabet

33
Phoenician alphabet
  • First appeared around 900 B.C.
  • Made an alphabet with 22 symbols
  • The Greeks adopted the alphabet and added 4
    symbols

34
Human-environment interactions
  • Phoenicias location on the coast of the
    Mediterranean Sea enabled trade with other
    coastal regions
  • Also, Phoenicias lack of natural resources
    encouraged its people to trade goods for
    necessary items

35
COOPERATION
  • Phoenicians were never interested in conquest
  • They focused on autonomy and trade
  • Became the naval and trading power in the region

36
cooperation
  • The Phoenicians initial trading partners were the
    Greeks
  • Established strategic commercial trading outposts
  • They chose peace over war but were defensive

37
CONFLICT
  • They were successively conquered by the
    Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians,
    Greeks, and Romans
  • The rise of Greece destroyed Phoenicias eastern
    Mediterranean trade routes

38
conflict
  • The Persians then conquered the Phoenicians
    because of the loss of trade power
  • Phoenicians retreated to Carthage
  • There they prospered until the were destroyed by
    Romans in the Punic Wars

39
Fall of Phoenicia
  • The Phoenician empire fell when Alexander the
    Great defeated Persia.
  • Over time all of the city states were conquered
  • Phoenicia and its culture disappeared
  • It later became Syria

40
Summary
  • They failed to use all of their elements of
    national power
  • They succeeded economically, but did not use
    their wealth to protect their own borders
  • They made contributions which were fundamental in
    future civilizations

41
Technology
  • The Alphabet, Bireme, and Glass

42
The Alphabet
  • First used Cuneiform
  • Began using alphabet around 1050 BCE
  • Quicker to learn and easier to use for trading

43
Bireme
  • Ships important to Phoenician society
  • Made improvements on Unireme to make the Bireme
  • 1st appeared in 8th century BCE

44
Glass
  • Egyptians first to use glass beads,
    produced naturally
  • Phoenicians developed techniques
    make it artifically
  • Developed even better technique,
    glass-blowing, under Roman rule

45
Economy
  • Maritime Trade, Trade Empire, Exports

46
Maritime Trade
  • Most of trade conducted across Mediterranean Sea
    at ports
  • Many colonies became trade centers, such as
    Carthage

47
Trade Empire
  • Phoenicians controlled trade around Mediterranean
    between 1200-800 BCE
  • Many city-states continued to be predominant
    powers long after this

48
Exports
  • Main Export Tyrian Purple powder
  • Manufactured in Sarepta and Mogador from the
    Murex snail shells
  • Trading Partners with Greece
  • Traded slaves, wood, glass and purple powder

49
Human-Environment Interaction
  • The Sea, Dyes

50
The Sea
  • The Phoenicians were particularly good when it
    came to the sea
  • Because of this they became a strong naval and
    trading power of the region

51
Dyes
  • The Phoenicians became famous and wealthy for
    their dyes, specifically for
  • Reds- from kermes, tiny bugs that live in oak
    trees
  • Blues- African indigos
  • Royal Purple- most famous and important, came
    from the Murex sea-snail's shells

52
Important Individuals
  • The Kings of the Phoenicians

53
The Kings of the Phoenicians
  • Many kings stood out in the Phoenician empire
  • Hiram I developed the city Tyre into one of the
    most important cities of the Phoenician empire
  • Ithobal I expanded much of the Phoenician
    empire and established colonies overseas

54
Kings (cont.)
  • Elulaios Assyria captured Tyre under his riegn
    but he headed many revolts against the Assyrians
  • Baal-Eser II was ruler when Phoenicia was at
    its height of influence and exceeded any other
    empire
  • Pygmalion built the colonies Kition, Cyprus,
    and Carthage also shifted Phoenicias trade from
    the middle east to the Mediterranean

55
Social Instiutions
  • Religion and Sciences, Government

56
Religion and Sciences
  • The Phoenicians were polytheists and they built
    many temples to worship their gods
  • They were also great administrators, accountants,
    and engineers.
  • They built the first temple in Jerusalem in the
    mid-900s

57
Government
  • The Phoenicians had three different power bases
    to maintain control
  • First came the kings
  • Followed by the temple and the priests
  • And finally the councils of elders

58
Conflicts
  • Early Wars, The Punic Wars

59
Early Wars
  • Phoenicia was split into many city-states, which
    fought for control of the seas and trade
  • In 675 and 640 BCE, the Assyrians invaded and
    defeated the city-states Tyre and Sidon on the
    Eastern Mediterranean
  • The Babylonians attacked Tyre in 585 BCE ,13
    years of fighting, ended with compromise in 572
    BCE

60
Early Wars
  • The Eastern Phoenicians allied with Greeks
    against Persia and Egypt
  • Persia and Egypt won the fighting in 539 BCE
  • The Eastern city-states thus went under control
    of Cyrus the Great, emperor of Persia

61
The Punic Wars
  • The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought
    between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BCE
  • In 813 BCE, the Phoenicians founded Carthage, a
    colony in North Africa which became a predominant
    city-state
  • Carthage and Rome were powerful cities in the
    200s and 100s which led to their conflicts in the
    Punic Wars

62
The Punic Wars
  • The First Punic War was a conflict
    over the control of Sicily between
    264 and 241 BCE
  • The Second Punic War was a series
    of campaigns led by Hannibal,
    leader of Carthage, against Roman
    Italy from 218 to 201 BCE
  • The Third Punic War was the Siege of Carthage by
    the Romans from 149 to 146 BCE

63
Bibliography
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenicia
  • http//phoenicia.org/trade.html
  • http//phoenicia.org/cities.html
  • http//www.geocities.com/soho/lofts/2938/histcult.
    html
  • http//www.democracyinlebanon.org/Documents/CDL-Do
    cumentaries/Phoenicians(NatGeo).htm
  • http//store.fantazpets.com/images/puzzles/boats/p
    hoenician.jpg
  • http//www.oldandsold.com/a1photos/grecian_urns_ar
    ticles15_pottery_rs.jpg
  • http//www.unrv.com/provinces/syria.php
  • http//www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0860355.htm
    l
  • Saggs, H.W.F. The Babylonians
  • Heath, D.C. World History

64
Bibliography
  • Gore, Rick, and Robert Clark. "Who were the
    Phoenicians?" National Geographic. National
    Geographic. 11 Nov. 2008 lthttp//ngm.nationalgeogr
    aphic.com/ngm/0410/feature2/?fswww3.nationalgeogr
    aphic.comgt.
  • "Lebenon." The World Factbook. 6 Nov. 2008.
    Central Intelligence Agency. 11 Nov. 2008
    lthttps//www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worl
    d-factbook/geos/le.htmlgt.
  • Phoenician. Merriam-Websters Collegiate
    Encyclopedia. Steven, Mark A. ed. 1 vol.
    Massachusetts Springfield 2000.
  • Khalaf, Salim G. "A Bequest Unearthed,
    Phoenicia,." Phoenician Encyclopedia. Sept. 1996.
    Encyclopedia Phoeniciana. 11 Nov. 2008
    lthttp//www.phoenicia.org/gt.
About PowerShow.com