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Women in the 20th Century – A Short Overview

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Women in the 20th Century A Short Overview AP World History Big Changes for Women Overall, the 20th century brought major changes for women around the world. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Women in the 20th Century – A Short Overview


1
Women in the 20th Century A Short Overview
  • AP World History

2
Big Changes for Women
  • Overall, the 20th century brought major changes
    for women around the world.
  • By the end of the 20th century, most countries
    granted women suffrage.
  • Women still cant vote in Saudi Arabia, UAE, and
    Kuwait
  • Additional voting qualifications for women in
    Lebanon
  • By the end of the 20th century, most countries
    granted women the same economic and property
    rights as men.
  • Exceptions are found in some Middle Eastern
    Countries (lack legal rights to own land)
  • Most land is still officially owned by men
  • Remember, poor women have always worked
  • By the end of the 20th century, the literacy
    rates for women had increased dramatically from
    the 19th century.
  • In Europe and North America more women than men
    pursue secondary education.
  • In poorer nations, few families can afford to
    educate girls they choose to educate their sons

3
Examples of the Roles of women During and After
world wars
4
Role of WWI
  • During the war, many women in Europe went to work
    in factories to support the war effort (and to
    provide much-needed labor).
  • In European colonies (Africa/India) men were
    drafted into the European armies leaving women to
    fill the economic and social roles that men had
    prior to the war.
  • After the war, western countries that had not
    granted women suffrage, began to do so.
  • WWI is a total war and women and children
    suffer in huge numbers

5
World War II
  • Nazis and other fascist regimes stress the role
    of women is to produce more children.
  • In Europe, US, and Canada Men go to war and
    women go back to work in factories. (Yes, there
    are women units however, their numbers are
    small)
  • Rape of Nanking (1937-1938) significant in the
    brutality against women (20,000 women raped role
    of rape in history 250,000-300,000 killed)
  • Comfort Women (in Japanese occupied areas
    China, Korea, Philippines)
  • Women entered the workforce in huge numbers and a
    majority stayed in the workforce after the war

6
Process
  • Note any trends you see in the role of women in
    world wars.
  • Note any details or examples you think you need
    to find to fill in.
  • Do you have any questions?

7
Role of women during/after selected revolutions
8
Russian Revolution (Oct. 1917) and Women
  • After the March Revolution, the provisional
    government of Russia did set up full voting
    rights for women however, women still had few
    social rights.
  • The tenets of communism do not differentiate
    between men and women all work to the best of
    his/her ability and all gets what they need.
  • "To effect her complete emancipation and make her
    equal of the man it is necessary for house work
    to be socialized and for women to participate in
    common productive labor. Then women will occupy
    the same position as men
  • Lenin
  • Women served as soldiers during the Russian
    Revolution (and later WWII). After the
    Revolution, women had equal opportunities to go
    to university and to work in all fields of
    employment. The state provided medical care,
    education, and day-care for all women (and men).
    Feminism was discouraged as communism would
    allow all people of all classes to have equal
    rights (in theory).

9
Soviet Union and Women
  • Under the Soviet Union, women enjoyed the same
    legal, social, and economic rights as men.
  • Efforts were made to ensure these same standards
    in land secured by the Soviet Union.
  • In Central Asia (Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan,
    Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan)
    Soviet policies challenged traditional Islamic
    law relating to women. Soviets banned polygamy,
    bride-price, and raised the minimum age for
    marriage to 16. Women were also educated in the
    law and were trained to take political posts
    however, as in the Soviet Union, rural areas were
    slow or unwilling to accept equal roles for men
    and women, so most fundamental change for the
    sexes occurred in urban areas (minority of the
    population lived).

10
China (Chinese Communism) and Women
  • Prior to the Communist Revolution(s) women had
    very limited legal and social roles. Foot-binding
    had been a common practice (outlawed, but still
    practiced).
  • The 1911 Revolution overthrew the emperor, but
    under the republic women still were denied basic
    equality rights.
  • In 1919 the May Fourth Movement did bring women
    out to protest for equality however, little
    changed until the 1930s when women were granted
    the same property and marriage rights as men.
  • In 1949 the Communist Revolution brought Mao to
    power. In the 1950s laws were formalized
    recognizing the equality of women in marriage,
    voting, and inheritance rights (end of
    primogeniture) . With the redistribution of land
    in the 1950s, both male and female peasants were
    given land.

11
China and Women
  • The education of women greatly expanded. Prior to
    1949, only 10 of women in China were considered
    literate. Throughout the 1950s millions of women
    began to attend schools and universities.
  • Women suffered just as much as men during the
    Cultural Revolution.
  • The role of women in China is limited primarily
    as it relates to rural traditions and family
    preference for male children.
  • There are currently 37 million more men in China
    than women (infanticide).

12
Iranian Revolution
  • Persian women have had a long history of
    education in the early 20th century many women
    were journalists and educators.
  • Shah (King) Pahlavi began to westernize Iran in
    the 1950s-1960s and outlawed the hijab in public
    and promoted womens education
  • Conservative Muslim clerics resisted the secular
    and western policies and led an Islamic
    Revolution in 1979 (with the support of many
    women who were not opposed to traditional Islamic
    traditions such as dress and alcohol). Afterward,
    traditional Islamic dress was mandated, marriage
    and inheritance laws were changed and strict
    gender segregation was strictly enforced. Women
    can still (with male permission) attend school
    and work in a variety of careers (all with
    segregated sections). Currently more women are in
    medical school than men (problem in the future?)
    In the home, most women wear western style
    clothing and do western things TV, music,
    etc.

13
Process
  • Note any trends you see in the role of women in
    revolutions.
  • Note any details or examples you think you need
    to find to fill in.
  • Do you have any questions?

14
Women and Nationalism
15
Turkey
  • In 1919, the Ottoman Empire crumbles.
  • In 1923, Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) becomes the
    first President of Turkey and leads
    western-style changes throughout the Muslim
    country.
  • Ataturk instituted laws that called for the
    equality of women in all aspects of society.
  • Efforts have been made to keep Turkey secular
    (limit influence of Islam). This has led to laws
    against head scarves for women in public. In the
    later 20th century further laws were abolished
    that limited roles of women (permission from
    husband to work), etc. Women gained the right to
    vote in Turkey in 1929 (first elections in 1930).
  • Just as in other countries, law and practice are
    different. Social and religious attitudes do
    restrict the lives of women to certain norms
    fewer in universities and certain professions
    than in others arranged marriages are still
    common

16
Side Note on Islam
  • Remember of all the world religions and belief
    systems, Islam (as written in the Qur'an)
    actually has more protections and rights for
    women than any other (doesnt necessarily mean a
    whole lot since most religious texts clearly
    condone subjugation of women, but). Muhammad
    outlawed infanticide, legalized women-initiated
    divorce, set out clear property rights for women,
    and declared that women as well as men should be
    literate.
  • Many Muslim women enjoy great many rights in many
    countries, including Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan.
    In addition women have been heads of state in
    Islamic countries such as Pakistan, Senegal,
    Turkey, Kosovo, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. There
    was even a female vice president of Iran at one
    time.
  • Most of the ways women are treated in some
    societies are not based upon the teachings of
    Islam, they are based upon cultural traditions
    that existed long before Islam emerged.

17
Independence and Nationalistic Movements
  • In India, Gandhi encouraged women to participate
    in the independence movement Indira Gandhi (no
    relation) served as the leader of India cultural
    issues in some parts of India limit role of women
  • In 1929 women led unrest movements in Nigeria
    and other women were active in other African
    independence movements however, their
    involvement did not translate into great change
    for women in African countries.
  • Most Africans live in rural areas where tradition
    remains firm about gender issues men left the
    countryside to move to cities leaving women and
    children behind to care for themselves polygamy
    is still a common practice in most African
    countries (either legal or not) and AIDS has
    caused huge death tolls for women in most
    countries literacy rates are below 50 for men
    and even lower for women democracy is still a
    challenge in most African nations, but current
    leaders of Mozambique and Liberia are women

18
Vietnam
  • Many women supported the nationalistic movement
    defined by Ho Chi Min.
  • As in other Communist-inspired nations, legal
    treatment of men and women are guaranteed by law.
    Legally women have rights to education,
    inheritance, and suffrage. Culturally women are
    not always treated with the same level of
    equality.

19
Process
  • Note any trends you see in the role of women in
    nationalistic movements.
  • Note any details or examples you think you need
    to find to fill in.
  • Do you have any questions?

20
20th Century
  • What a brief summary of some major trends in
    women in the 20th century.
  • Note any details or examples you think you need
    to find to fill in.
  • Do you have any questions?
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