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C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology

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C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology 2-hour lectures once per week in both semesters Wednesdays 9am-11am Biology ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: C82SAD: Social and Developmental Psychology


1
C82SAD Social and Developmental Psychology
Welcome!
2
C82SAD Social and Developmental Psychology
  • 2-hour lectures once per week in both semesters
  • Wednesdays 9am-11am Biology A150 (here!)
  • Semester 1 Social psychology
  • Semester 2 Developmental psychology
  • Handouts, glossaries
  • Module resources can be found at
    www.martinhagger.com

3
Social Psychology (Semester 1)
  • Course text

Hogg, M.A. Vaughan, G.M. (2007). Social
Psychology (5th Ed.). Harlow Prentice
Hall Important Look at the chapter headings.
4
What is Social Psychology?
  • Numerous definitions
  • Why? Different strands - based on methods,
    assumptions and questions raised
  • Concerned predominantly with
  • Understanding how we interact/communicate
  • Understanding how our social environment shapes
    our cognitions and judgements/choices
  • Understanding human interaction
  • Different approaches to posing and answering
    questions that arise

5
What is Social Psychology?
  • The scientific investigation of how the
    thoughts, feelings, and behaviours of individuals
    are influenced by the actual, imagined, or
    implied presence of others
  • Allport (1935)

6
Two strands of social psychology
CONTINUUM
c.f. Mr. Spock
c.f. Hercules Poirot
Sociological Social Psychology
Psychological Social Psychology
STRAND
Social constructionist Humanistic
Logical Empiricism
ORIGIN
Social Cognition
PREVAILING PROCESSES
Language and Culture
Inductive/Qualitative e.g. Discourse analysis
Quantitative/ Hypothetico-deductive e.g.
Experimental
METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH
Popper (1968)
Gergen (1973) Shotter (1975)
KEY AUTHOR(S)
7
Social Psychology
Some Important Considerations and Assumptions
  • Social psychologists dont study animals

8
Social Psychology
Some Important Considerations and Assumptions
  • Social psychologists dont study animals
  • People dont behave in a social vacuum
  • The individual is the unit of analysis
  • Other people, social contexts, the groups we
    belong to all affect our decisions and behaviour
    in social contexts
  • Experimental psychologists use ingenious
    experiments to look at social phenomena

9
Social Psychology
Some Important Considerations and Assumptions
  • Observable behavior
  • Non-observable phenomena thoughts opinions,
    attitudes, beliefs, intentions, goals etc.
  • What makes social psychology social is that it
    deals with real or implied presence

10
Social Psychology
Some Important Considerations and Assumptions
Que?
We think with words
Most of us dont drop litter
11
Social Psychology and Questions?
  • What are the questions that social psychology
    intends to answer?
  • Examples
  • How do we make sense of our decisions and
    expectations in the social world?
  • How do the choices we make influence our
    behaviour?
  • What effects do our decisions have on others and
    how do others decisions effect us?
  • How does our membership of a group influence the
    way we behave?

12
Topics of Social Psychology
  • Conformity Discrimination
  • Persuasion Stereotyping
  • Power Crowd behaviour
  • Group norms Group identification
  • Social influence Social conflict/harmony
  • Obedience Social change
  • Prejudice Decision making
  • Intergroup relations Leadership
  • Communication Attitudes
  • Impression management Self-presentation
  • Social facilitation Attraction and friendship

13
Social Psychology
Methodological Issues
  • Scientific methods
  • Hypotheses formed on the basis of knowledge,
    assumptions and causal or systematic observation
  • E.g. hypothesize that a dancer performs better
    before an audience than alone
  • Experimental design

14
Social Psychology
Methodological Issues
  • Experimental methods in laboratory
  • Careful control of independent variables and its
    effect on a dependent variable
  • Example 1 Deci and Ryans (1985) experiments on
    intrinsic motivation
  • Aimed to examine effects of rewards on intrinsic
    motivation

15
Social Psychology
Methodological Issues
  • Dependent variables Amount of time spent on
    puzzle in free choice paradigm and enjoyment
  • Uses one-way mirror room to observe participants
  • Deci and Ryans (1985) experiments on intrinsic
    motivation
  • Effects of rewards on puzzle solving
  • Independent variable Reward, no-reward conditions

16
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17
Results of Deci and Ryans Experiment
Intrinsic Motivation
18
Social Psychology
Methodological Issues
  • Example 2 Bandura et al.s (1961) Bobo Doll
  • Experiment
  • Independent variable Children exposed to two
    models of behaviour
  • aggressive model (e.g. adults punched, kicked,
    hit doll, tossed it in the air, while saying Hit
    him down, Sock him in the nose etc.)
  • nonaggressive adult model (both verbal and
    physical)
  • Dependent variable Amount of aggressive actions
    children performed when freely interacting with
    the Bobo Doll

19
Bobo Doll Experiment
Method
  • Bandura et al. (1961) Children watched an adult
    playing with Bobo doll (5-foot inflated plastic
    doll).

20
Bobo Doll Experiment
Method
Source Bandura Walter (1963)
21
Social Psychology
Methodological issues
  • Experimental methods in field
  • Naturalistic settings outside laboratory
  • Field experiments have high external validity
  • Less control over extraneous variables
  • More difficult to obtain subjective measures
    (usually relies on observed behaviour)

22
Social Psychology
Field Experiment
  • Dutton Aron (1974) examined the
    mis-interpretation of arousal according to
    environmental feedback
  • Method Male participants crossed either
  • a wobbly suspension bridge high over a canyon
    high anxiety
  • OR
  • or a solid bridge only 10 feet above a brook low
    anxiety
  • As each participant crossed the bridge, an
    attractive female research assistant approached
    and
  • administered questionnaire about some ambiguous
    pictures of people
  • gave him her phone number in case he had
    questions about the study

23
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24
Social Psychology
Field Experiment
  • Dutton Aron (1974) Results Participants on the
    suspension bridge found more sexual themes in
    pictures and were also much more likely to call
    the woman
  • Conclusion The arousal that occurred on the
    wobbly suspension bridge was fear, but
    participants misattributed it to sexual arousal
    because of the presence of the attractive
    research assistant

25
Social Psychology
Methodological issues
  • Nonexperimental methods
  • Case studies
  • In-depth analysis of a single case
  • Interviews, questionnaires, behavior observation
  • Rich data but less generalizable to population
  • Survey research and field studies
  • Questionnaire studies and correlations between
    constructs
  • Large samples of respondents looks at group
    responses
  • Generalizable, but cannot infer causality because
    data is CORRELATIONAL
  • Doesnt involve CHANGING variables/conditions of
    people

26
Social Psychology
Theories
  • Behaviourism
  • Neo-behaviourists (e.g., Bandura) need to evoke
    unobservable constructs to explain behaviour
  • E.g. Social Modelling imitation of behaviour and
    shaping by vicarious learning
  • Cognitive psychology
  • Representations and cognitive consistency, E.g.
    Lewins (1951) Field theory representations of
    social environment affect motivation
  • Aronson (1984), Festinger and Carlsmith
    cognitive dissonance (arousal) evoked attitude
    change

27
Social Psychology
Theories
  • Evolutionary social psychology
  • Important behavioural tendencies evoked a
    survival benefit and therefore became part of
    human genetic makeup
  • More recently in the form of sexual selection
    e.g. fitness indicator theory, sensory bias
    theory
  • Personality
  • Stable, generalized, heritable traits that
    influence behaviour in a number of contexts
  • Little evidence for true heritable traits
  • Collectivist theories people behave according to
    social context

28
Social Psychology
Theories
  • Social cognition
  • Information processing is central to the theory
  • Examines the effects of social information on
    decision making and behaviour
  • Assumes all individuals process information in
    the same manner
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