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Community Policing Implementation Models

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Title: Community Policing Implementation Models


1
Community Policing Implementation Models
  • David L. Carter
  • Michigan State University

NOTE The original research and funding for
development of the material contained herein was
provided by the Police Research Center, Sam
Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, Dr.
Larry Hoover, Director and the Texas Law
Enforcement Management Institute.
The information in this presentation was prepared
for the WSU Regional Community Policing
Institute, by David L. Carter, Ph.D., National
Center for Community Policing, Michigan State
University, East Lansing, MI 48824. The
information may be reproduced with attribution to
both the WSU RCPI and the author.
2
Neighborhood Oriented Programs
3
Fundamentals Neighborhood Oriented Programs
  • PREDOMINANT POLICING PROBLEMS ? Disorder ? Public
    Nuisance ? Burglary
  • CHARACTER OF THE PROBLEMS ? Represent a large
    number of calls for service ? Represents a
    disproportionately large source of
    Heightened fear of crime General citizen
    complaints Lower quality of life

4
Fundamentals Neighborhood Oriented Programs
  • INTENT OF CRIME-SPECIFIC POLICE RESPONSES ?
    Arrest offenders ? Influence citizens to report
    crimes/problems ? Use citizens as
    information/intelligence resource ? Motivate
    citizens as partners to help monitor and
    resolve problems
  • GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ? Greatest obstacle
    Keeping citizens involved ? Key strategy Blend
    community partnering with tactical policing

5
Fundamentals Neighborhood Oriented Programs
  • KEY FACTORS ? Communications between neighborhood
    residents and police must increase ?
    Communications between residents must increase ?
    Residents must have a sense of ownership for the
    entire neighborhood, not just their
    property ? Problems must be addressed on a
    neighborhood basis, not on artificial
    boundaries ? Police must recognize that problems
    which may seem minor are serious to residents

6
Corsicana, Texas Turn Around Texas
  • ORGANIZATION OF TURN AROUND TEXAS ? A
    community-based organization ? Supported by
    the police department ? Police provide
    security and general assistance
  • SITE DESCRIPTION ? 28,000 Documented
    Resident Population ? 14 Square Miles ? 45 Sworn
    Officers ? 12 Non-sworn

7
Corsicana, Texas Turn Around Texas
  • PURPOSE To provide a targeted confrontation,
    mobilization and education process led by
    citizens in conjunction with and support from the
    police department intended to intimidate drug
    dealers and drug buyers to stop displace drug
    transactions.

8
Corsicana, Texas Turn Around Texas
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? Police department
    identifies drug targets ? Citizens go through a
    training program ? Police provide transportation
    and security to marchers ? Marchers stand
    in front of targets house and chant with
    intent to intimidate ? Marchers sometimes paint
    crack house with arrow on street ?
    Citizen involvement and weekly marches are
    necessary

9
Corsicana, Texas Turn Around Texas
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? A commitment by police
    administration to the program, including a
    willingness to participate, devote
    resources, take risks, and permit flexibility
    for officers to participate. ? Officers must be
    present at all marches for safety,
    security, and support. ? Officers working with
    Turn Around Texas must have flexibility.

10
Corsicana, Texas Turn Around Texas
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? Virtual elimination of open air
    drug markets after about one year. ? A
    large number of drug dealers have been
    displaced outside of Corsicanas city limits. ?
    Some reduction in violent crime. ? Very positive
    support for the police from the community
    (including political support.) ? The police
    department has received increased
    information about drug distribution from
    neighborhood sources who were previously
    reluctant to talk with the police.

11
Garland, Texas Apartment Managers Group
  • SITE DESCRIPTION ? 200,000 Resident
    Population ? 57 Square Miles ? 287 Sworn
    Officers ? 119 Non-sworn
  • ORGANIZATION ? The AMG is the
    responsibility of the day shift Patrol
    Lieutenant

12
Garland, Texas Apartment Managers Group
  • PURPOSE The Apartment Managers Group (AMG) was
    formed in 1992 to serve as a problem
    identification, communications, and resource tool
    to reduce crime problems in apartment complexes.

13
Garland, Texas Apartment Managers Group
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? All managers of apartment
    complexes are welcome to join ? Monthly
    meetings are held at the police department
    Give AMG members crime analysis data
    Discuss crime issues, problems and trends
    Guest speaker at each meeting ? Monthly
    newsletter for AMG published by the police
    department ? Police department has a dedicated
    telephone hot line with voice mail for
    AMG members

14
Garland, Texas Apartment Managers Group
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Having meetings on a regular
    basis, regardless of the number of people
    who attend. ? Providing information which is of
    practical use to the managers at the
    meeting, even if it falls outside of the
    law enforcement purview, per se. ? Holding
    monthly AMG meetings at the police
    department provides reinforcement that the
    police are concerned and involved in
    problems faced by the apartment managers.

15
Garland, Texas Apartment Managers Group
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Regular contact with the
    police has increased the quality of the
    relationship with apartment
    managers--particularly evident through NPOs ?
    Having constant and open avenues of
    communications between the AMG members and
    the police department ? Providing information on
    crime and calls for service to apartment
    managers. ? Help the apartment managers to see
    the need to communicate with and cooperate
    with the police.

16
Garland, Texas Apartment Managers Group
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? Crime reduction has been
    recorded in... Auto burglary
    Residential burglary Drug trafficking in
    apartment complexes ? Most recently, auto theft
    has increased and a strategy is being
    developed to address this problem ? While not
    specifically directed toward quality of
    life issues, they have nonetheless improved. ?
    Some reduction in calls for service, most likely
    as a result of eviction or displacement of
    problem residents.

17
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team
  • ORGANIZATION ? SAFE Team is in the
    Investigations Bureau, Special Operations
    Division ? Commanded by a Lieutenant
    who reports to an Assistant Chief ? 19
    sworn officers ? 7 civilians (includes
    attorneys and code enforcement)
  • SITE DESCRIPTION ? 1,100,000 Documented
    Resident Population ? 462 Square Miles ? 2,886
    Sworn Officers ? 700 Non-sworn
  • SAFE Support, Abatement, Forfeiture, Enforcement

18
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team
  • PURPOSE To reclaim, restore, and revitalize
    Dallas neighborhoods adversely affected by crime
    through the use of criminal abatement statutes,
    code enforcement, and civil and criminal
    processes.

19
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? Criminal nuisance cases are
    identified through... Complaints
    Referrals Reviews of special use and
    zoning permit requests

20
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? Case is assigned to an
    investigator to determine if there is a
    statutory basis for a criminal nuisance
    complaint... Drug trafficking and
    consumption of drugs Prostitution
    (manifesting, promotion and compelling)
    Illegal gambling (promotion and communicating)
    Criminal gang activity (combination and/or
    street gang) Random gunfire
    Commercial obscenity (manufacture, distribution,
    exhibition) Commercial
    dancing (sexually explicit) Bull fighting

21
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? If the complaint meets
    requirements, owner meets at the SAFE Teams
    officer hearing room for a formal
    notification (videotaped) ? Owner can sign an
    accord to make reparations or changes
    If so, the property is monitored by the SAFE
    Team ? If owners dont comply, SAFE Team will
    take next appropriate steps Give
    extension File criminal charges Seek
    property forfeiture

22
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Explicit policy-related
    guidelines must be developed to meet
    abatement standards of both criminal and
    civil law. ? Some level of autonomy is needed
    for the SAFE Team because of the legal and
    operational characteristics of abatement. ?
    Selective enforcement of nuisance and related
    code enforcement violations is neither
    operationally nor politically viablea
    zero tolerance policy is strongly
    recommended.

23
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Because the processes deals
    with seizure and control of property and
    the SAFE Team has a degree of autonomy, a
    series of checks and balances is needed to
    ensure accountability and control. ? While it may
    not be feasible for every agency, the
    Dallas SAFE Team has found that an invaluable
    tool is having in-house attorneys whose
    responsibilities are exclusively dedicated to the
    SAFE Team. ? SAFE Team administrators must
    be contemporary managers with a team
    orientation.

24
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? Crime has gone down ? Quality
    of life has increased ? The Teams activities,
    which physically change problem
    environments, coupled with the large number
    of cases the Team has handled in a
    comparatively short amount of time equates to a
    substantial impact on crime and disorder.

25
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit
  • ORGANIZATION ? Supervised by a Lieutenant
    and Sergeant ? Unit is in Patrol Division ?
    Eight officers assigned permanently to
    seven housing complexes ? Officers may
    flex their hours
  • SITE DESCRIPTION ? 120,000 Documented
    Resident Population ? 75 Square Miles ? 265 Sworn
    Officers ? 85 Non-sworn

26
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit
  • PURPOSE In 1994 the presence of gangs and
    growing violent crime in Beaumonts Public
    Housing complexes was a signal that some police
    initiative was needed to deal with the problem.
    With aid from a Federal grant, eight police
    officers were assigned to the newly created
    Public Housing Unit. The units goal was defined
    as improving the quality of life for the
    residents through proactive law enforcement,
    public awareness and education.

27
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? Officers permanently
    assigned to housing units ? Responsible for
    responding to calls and problem solving ?
    Officers investigate the crimes in the units
    rather than have them assigned to
    Detectives ? Essentially, the housing officer
    also becomes the coordinator for all police
    services in the complex

28
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? The public housing complexes
    were fully assessed to determine the crime
    and disorder problems. Assessments
    included Reported crime rates and types
    Analysis of calls received at each complex
    An examination of the physical environment
    of the housing complex and contiguous
    areas ? A youth-oriented approach

29
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Goals clearly established
    Reduce violent crime Reduce calls for
    service Increase citizen-police
    communication to aid in control of crime
    and disorder Develop the best possible
    living atmosphere for residents ?
    Officers must be both tough on crime and
    providing assistance on quality of life
    issues ? Commitment by police management to the
    unit

30
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Officers were given
    Empowerment to take actions and make decisions
    Flexibility in hours and approaches ?
    Permanent assignments to a housing complex ?
    Dedicated officers are critical to
    success--personnel must be self-starters
    who work well with minimal supervision, who
    are creative, people-oriented, and willing
    to take the extra effort in their work

31
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Regular communications and
    cooperation between Housing Unit officers
    and both patrol officers and
    detectives. Officers assigned at each of
    the housing complexes. Officer
    and apartment managers Officers and other
    city departments ? Important tools for the
    housing officers also include Criminal
    trespass warnings and enforcement Curfew
    enforcement (day and night)

32
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? In the 6 months prior to the
    Housing Unit, there were 1,550 offense
    calls in the 7 apartment complexes ranging
    from homicide to disorderly conduct ? After the
    first 6 months of the Units operation,
    crime calls dropped by 13 ? Enforcement of
    trespass laws has been critical ? Awareness calls
    have increased--general information to the
    police to assist in problem solving ? Quality of
    life has increased for residents

33
Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
  • ORGANIZATION ? The Neighborhood Services
    Section is in the Patrol Division ? Section
    includes... Bicycle officers
    Housing officers Neighborhood
    Service Officers Investigators
    Community Oriented Policing Officer
  • SITE DESCRIPTION ? 104,000 Documented
    Resident Population ? 93 Square Miles ? 221 Sworn
    Officers ? 72 Non-sworn

34
Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
  • PURPOSE To use an integrated approach of
    Investigators, Neighborhood Oriented Police
    officers, bicycle officers, Citizens on Patrol,
    and Neighborhood Associations to address crimes
    and quality of life problems within defined Waco
    communities.

35
Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? Officers work cooperatively
    in a team approach both only responding to
    complaints and proactively identifying
    problems ? Officers are assigned to 24 different
    neighborhoods ? Investigators assigned to
    districts overlapping neighborhoods ?
    Partnerships are emphasized--police personnel
    interact with... Neighborhood
    Associations Citizens on Patrol

36
Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? Crime control efforts in
    the neighborhoods rely on Offender
    targeting Identification of crime hot
    spots Crime prediction model ? Concept is
    largely one of holistic policing in the
    neighborhoods

37
Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Commitment by the
    administration to experiment with an
    alternate organizational structure. ? Along with
    commitment, must be flexibility to permit
    non-traditional approaches to deployment
    and service delivery. ? A team management
    approach appears to be most effective.
    This includes A flat organizational
    structure Team (rather than individual)
    goals Sufficient autonomy to make resource
    deployment decisions

38
Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Crime and quality of life
    problems tend to be characterized by
    neighborhoods, thus geographic deployment
    of personnel is most effective. ? Use both
    proactive and reactive policing. ? Targeting and
    analysis of offenders, crimes and community
    problems. ? Developing trust and communications
    is essential. ? There will be internal resistance
    to this change. Supervisors and managers
    are more difficult to change than
    patrol officers.

39
Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? Crime has had an overall drop
    of 54 in one year. ? Arrests have increased
    dramatically mostly adult offenders--these
    are the product of Greater offender
    targeting Neighborhood team assignment of
    investigators More information provided by
    the community ? There are visible signs of a
    notably increased quality of life in the
    neighborhoods.

40
Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? The number of criminal
    nuisance abatement cases brought to trial
    by the police department have increased
    significantly. ? Officers working in the
    neighborhood Services Section have had a
    significant increase in job satisfaction.
    This increase is attributed to Officers
    are seeing positive results of their work
    Officers are receiving positive feedback from the
    community a feeling of appreciation
    Working in productive teams provides a more
    desirable working environment.

41
Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
  • Police departments must look to their communities
    to determine needs--for example... ? Call and
    crime analysis ? Community surveys ? Input from
    officers
  • The department must be willing to take some
    risks--color outside the lines

42
Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
  • Examine alternate management, deployment, and
    leadership methods
  • Determine what changes police personnel will
    accept
  • Determine what changes the community will accept
  • Recognize that new programming can be effectively
    implemented

43
Youth and Gang Programs
44
Fundamentals Youth and Gang Programs
  • PREDOMINANT POLICING PROBLEMS ? Gang membership
    and associated offenses (e.g., graffiti,
    assault, etc.) ? Theft ? Vandalism and nuisance
    offenses ? Drug, alcohol,and tobacco abuse
  • CHARACTER OF THE PROBLEMS ? Gang problems appear
    to grow geometrically ? Problems represent
    underlying social decay ? Costly to
    repair/replace damages ? Lowers communitys
    quality of life

45
Fundamentals Youth and Gang Programs
  • INTENT OF CRIME-SPECIFIC POLICE RESPONSES ?
    Identify and arrest offenders ? Suppress growth
    of endemic problems (notably gangs) ? Prevent
    future youth and gang problems to the extent
    possible
  • GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ? Programs must be
    continuous ? Programs must be proactive,
    frequently non- traditional

46
Fundamentals Youth and Gang Programs
  • KEY FACTORS ? Problem youth appear to have idle
    time which needs to be filled ? Peer
    pressure appears to be have more influence on
    many youth than parents and/or educators ? Many
    problem youth appear to lack a sense of
    belonging to a family or to a constructive social
    group

47
Victoria, Texas Gang Prevention Program
  • YOUTH OFFICERS ? Investigator Assigned to
    Public Housing ? 5 Officers Assigned to
    Schools Sergeant at Alternative
    High School 2 Officers at High
    School 2 Officers at Junior High
    School
  • SITE DESCRIPTION ? 63,000 Documented
    Resident Population ? 35 Square Miles ? 103 Sworn
    Officers ? 39 Non-sworn

48
Victoria, Texas Gang Prevention Program
  • PURPOSE Proactively use a variety of integrated
    approaches to suppress existing gang activity and
    prevent future gang involvement
  • The program has eight integrated elements ?
    Graffiti Education and Eradication ? Gang
    Education (community and schools) ?
    Adopt-A-Gang ? Retaliation Reaction ? Gang Grand
    Jury ? Personal Protection Classes ?
    Schools-Malls-Community Anti-Gang Programs ?
    Promotion of Legitimate Large Gangs

49
Victoria, Texas Gang Prevention Program
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? The most effective tools are
    Building a bond of trust with gang members
    Communicating with gang members (and
    families) Showing respect to the gang
    member
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? Gang violence has decreased ?
    Gangs still exist, but they are less visible ?
    Gangs have taken on a more social character and
    are less involved in criminal enterprises

50
Mission, Texas School-Based Youth Programs
  • SITE DESCRIPTION ? 42,000 Documented
    Resident Population ? 30 Square Miles ? 74 Sworn
    Officers ? 20 Non-sworn
  • YOUTH OFFICERS ? Youth Services Division--3
    School Districts ? 15 Officers (21.6)
    Assigned to Schools 8 SROs (High
    School) 2 GREAT (Jr. High) 5 DARE
    (Elementary)

51
Mission, Texas School-Based Youth Programs
  • PURPOSE Deciding that heavy handed policing was
    not effective, the MPD began an aggressive
    partnership with the school districts to provide
    a program-based police presence in the schools.
  • Officers roles include... ? Teaching (D.A.R.E.
    and G.R.E.A.T.) ? Guest lectures in classes ?
    Answer calls in the schools they are assigned
    to ? Provide counseling to students ? Serve as an
    information/intelligence resource for
    youth-related crime

52
Mission, Texas School-Based Youth Programs
  • POLICIES AND PRACTICES ? School districts pay the
    officers salaries during the academic year
    (177 days) ? During the summers School
    officers receive mandated training Attend
    special assignment-based training (e.g.,
    D.A.R.E. in-service) Assigned to patrol ? A
    review board from the schools selects officers ?
    Supervision Principal supervises for
    curriculum-related matters Sergeant
    supervises all other facets

53
Mission, Texas School-Based Youth Programs
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Officers must be
    self-initiated and communicative ? Officers must
    be given administrative flexibility ? Schools
    must make an officer feel like one of the
    family ? Honesty, sincerity with students is
    essential ? It must be clear that the officer
    will enforce the law when necessary
    He/she is not a soft touch No undue
    influence from schools on crime control
    decisions

54
Mission, Texas School-Based Youth Programs
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? Notably fewer gang problems in
    both the schools and throughout the city
    (largely displaced) ? Fewer reported crime
    problems in schools or on school property ?
    Enhanced communication and liaison with schools
    to help solve crimes and symptomatic
    problems ? Significant increase in communication
    between police and community (students and
    parents alike) ? General increase in the quality
    of relationship with the community

55
Kingsville, Texas Gang Identification
Suppression
  • SITE DESCRIPTION ? 25,300 Documented
    Resident Population ? 16 Square Miles ? 46 Sworn
    Officers ? 17 Non-sworn
  • ASSIGNMENTS ? Two primary officers assigned
    to youth programs ? Other officers used as
    needed ? Chief takes an active role

56
Kingsville, Texas Gang Identification
Suppression
  • PURPOSE Because of the emergence of gangs, a
    program focusing on the schools, parents and
    at-risk youth was developed to suppress current
    gang activity and prevent gang growth.
  • The program was not instituted as a result of a
    specific plan, rather elements were included to
    meet needs or issues as they became apparent to
    the police

57
Kingsville, Texas Gang Identification
Suppression
  • The program has several elements ? Day and
    evening curfews ? School Liaison Officer received
    gang training ? Patrol officer on each shift was
    designated as a gang officer to monitor and
    report gang activity ? A Parents on Patrol was
    developed predominantly work in the
    schools as hall monitors ? A bike clinic was
    established for the summers ? Graffiti
    eradication program ? Police respond to gang
    fights in schools ? Police work with the school
    to ban gang colors ? Tobacco ordinance passed
    as a tool for investigation

58
Kingsville, Texas Gang Identification
Suppression
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Recognition that complete
    eradication of gangs is not a realistic
    goal control is realistic ? Recognize that
    crime problems will change, so new program
    elements must be constantly developed to
    meet the evolving problems ? Be flexible,
    creative, and open to ideas
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? Most serious problems have been
    eliminated ? Wannabe gang participation down ?
    significantly fewer problems in the schools ?
    Better communication with parents

59
El Paso, Texas Drive-By Shooting Response Team
  • DSRT Structure ? Work all gang related
    investigations ? 5 officers ? 24 hour on-call
    basis ? Work straight through
    investigation ? Physically located next to
    Juvenile Probation and Juvenile Service
  • SITE DESCRIPTION ? 614,000 Documented
    Resident Population ? 257 Square Miles ? 1,182
    Sworn Officers ? 230 Non-sworn

60
El Paso, Texas Drive-By Shooting Response Team
  • PURPOSE Following growth in gang activity and
    increasing numbers of drive-by shootings, the
    DSRT was formed as an element of the departments
    gang response. The intent of the DSRT is to
    quickly and effectively identify and arrest
    suspects in gang-related crime.
  • DSRT works closely with ? Gang Intelligence Unit
    which keeps track of gang members and
    trends in gang activities ? Community Response
    Against Street Hoodlums (CRASH) units
    working as proactive enforcement out of the
    patrol commands

61
El Paso, Texas Drive-By Shooting Response Team
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? An immediate frozen crime
    scene and control of witnesses by first
    responding officers ? Fast response by DSRT
    regardless of time ? Ability to work straight
    through a case ? Reliable, on-going
    intelligence ? Investigators getting to know the
    gang members, their families, and showing
    respect to gang members ? On-going, reliable
    confidential informants ? Strong relationship
    with District Attorney ? Support from
    administrators to operate creatively ? Dedicated
    personnel making the extra effort

62
El Paso, Texas Drive-By Shooting Response Team
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? The DSRTs current clearance
    rate is 93 ? Roughly 90 of the DSRTs arrests
    occurred within 24 hours of the call out ?
    The DSRT seized 61 weapons from gang members
    in a 28 month period ? While gangs still exist,
    their presence has become less visible

63
Corpus Christi, Texas Juvenile Enforcement Team
(JET)
  • SITE DESCRIPTION ? 276,880 Documented
    Resident Population ? 140 Square Miles ? 395
    Sworn Officers ? 207 Non-sworn
  • ORGANIZATION ? JET has 10 to 15 officers ?
    Organized in the Special Services
    Division of the Field Services Bureau ?
    Originally part of the patrol division

64
Corpus Christi, Texas Juvenile Enforcement Team
(JET)
  • PURPOSE ? The Corpus Christi Police Department
    systematically enforces both a night-time
    and a daytime juvenile curfew ? A curfew
    center located in a sub-station is the site
    where nighttime curfew violators can be taken,
    while the YMCA operates a truancy center as
    a repository for daytime curfew violators ?
    The police department also fields a Juvenile
    Enforcement Team (JET) that emphasizes curfew
    enforcement

65
Corpus Christi, Texas Juvenile Enforcement Team
(JET)
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? By June 1996 increased
    public concern about gangs and drive-by
    shootings led the police department to
    examine its youth-focused tactics and programs ?
    JET was intended to be a concentrated effort on
    juvenile curfew enforcement ? Assumption was
    that gang activity and gang-related crime
    could be reduced if... Curfews were
    aggressively enforced Parents had greater
    information and accountability

66
Corpus Christi, Texas Juvenile Enforcement Team
(JET)
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? Aggressive enforcement
    followed a 2 week public information
    campaign for students and parents ? Zero
    Tolerance policy ? Some complaints from parents,
    but generally strong public support ? Use
    of curfew center and YMCA cut down on time
    required to enforce curfews

67
Corpus Christi, Texas Juvenile Enforcement Team
(JET)
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Availability of curfew
    centers ? Zero Tolerance policy ? Having a team
    of officers (JET) specifically responsible
    for curfew enforcement ? Inter-related mission of
    JET to also deal with gangs

68
Corpus Christi, Texas Juvenile Enforcement Team
(JET)
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? At the outset, increase in
    number of curfew citations ? Decreased
    victimization of juveniles ? Decreased offenses
    committed by juveniles ? Increased arrests of
    juveniles for offenses other than curfew
    violations

69
Implications Youth and Gang Programs
  • As simple as it sounds, the first stage is to
    identify... ? The existence of youth problems ?
    The character/dynamics of those problems
  • The goals of youth programs are to ? Resolve
    immediate serious problems ? Suppress growth of
    dysfunctional behavior ? Displace crime
    phenomena ? Develop preventive programs
  • Accomplishing these goals requires integration
    of ? Community policing ? Tactical policing ?
    Problem solving

70
Investigations Programs
71
Fundamentals Investigations Programs
  • PREDOMINANT POLICING PROBLEMS ? Pervasive crime
    problem which was getting out of control ?
    Difficulty in prosecuting crimes ? Increased
    public prominence of crimes
  • CHARACTER OF THE PROBLEMS ? Frequently
    multi-jurisdictional ? Multiple criminal
    incidents ? Special assistance needed in
    prosecutions

72
Fundamentals Investigations Programs
  • INTENT OF CRIME-SPECIFIC POLICE RESPONSES ?
    Identify and arrest offenders ? Encourage victim
    assistance ? Provide a coordinated, comprehensive
    approach
  • GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ? Special attention is
    needed to address the unique
    characteristics of each crime type ? Programs
    must be integrate both traditional
    investigative responses and proactive activities

73
Fundamentals Investigations Programs
  • KEY FACTORS ? Problem youth appear to have idle
    time which needs to be filled ? Peer
    pressure appears to be have more influence on
    many youth than parents and/or educators ? Many
    problem youth appear to lack a sense of
    belonging to a family or to a constructive social
    group

74
Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force
  • SITE DESCRIPTION Beaumont is located in East
    Texas, approximately 80 miles east-northeast of
    Houston. The county seat of Jefferson County,
    the city has a resident population of
    approximately 120,000 of which about 40 are
    African-American and around 7 are Hispanic.
    Being the employment and commercial center of the
    area, Beaumont's weekday population is roughly
    350,000. Geographically, the city covers about
    75 square miles. The police department has 265
    sworn officers and 85 non-sworn personnel.

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Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force
  • PURPOSE ? The Family Violence Task Force was
    formed in August 1996 in response to...
    Increasing awareness of domestic violence,
    and The recognition of need for a new
    investigative approach which deals with
    the unusual characteristics of
    victimization and investigation ? The unit was
    charged with Investigating all domestic
    violence incidents Providing education
    and training to local law enforcement
    agencies and civic organizations

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Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? The unit is assigned to
    the Investigations Division of the Police
    Department. Comprised of two Patrolman
    grade Investigators, a supervising
    Detective Sergeant, and 1 civilian Case
    Specialist ? The case specialist functions as a
    liaison with the District Attorneys office
    and other agencies ? Physically located at a site
    completely separate from any police
    facility The intent of this was to make
    it easier for victims to meet with
    police and support personnel

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Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? A site was selected that
    was centrally located at a major
    intersection on the grounds of a large city park
    with a bus stop located in front of the
    offices ? The intent of the unit was twofold
  • Investigate cases of reported family
    violence as quickly as possible in
    order to prosecute the offender and
    prevent future victimization from that
    offender
  • Provide education and intervention
    alternatives in high risk circumstances
    to prevent victimization.

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Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? All cases involving family
    violence (except homicide) reported to the
    police department are forwarded to the Task
    Force for investigation, cases are then
    assigned to individual investigators ? Every
    attempt is made to assign related cases to the
    same investigator ? Investigators work
    closely with shelters and prosecutors

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Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? The units physical location
    must be separate from the police department
    at a location which is easily accessible by
    public transportation ? Investigators need to
    establish a strong working relationship
    with critical support organizations ? Support of
    the District Attorneys office is critical to
    thoroughly review cases and aggressively
    prosecute them

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Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Patrol officers must be
    trained on family violence calls, such as
    Identify all witnesses immediately
    (including name, address, phone, etc.)
    Obtaining witness and victim statements as
    soon as possible Taking
    photographs of victims to demonstrate
    injuries ? Cases need to be assigned to
    investigators immediately because the
    victim is more likely to cooperate

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Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? Increased number of cases
    reported to the police ? Increased number of
    domestic violence cases referred from the
    police to the prosecutor ? During the first year,
    over 82 of the cases investigated were
    disposed of ? Convictions increased by 22.1 ?
    Stronger bond developed between police department
    and both the shelters and victims--greater
    confidence in police

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North Richland Hills, Texas Northeast Street
Crimes Unit
  • SITE DESCRIPTION ? Six agencies participate in
    the NSCU North Richland Hills Police
    Department Richland Hills Police
    Department Haltom City Police Department
    Watauga Department of Public Safety
    Southlake Police Department Tarrant County
    Sheriffs Department ? The jurisdictions are
    basically located within the northeast
    quadrant of Tarrant County between Fort
    Worth and the Denton County line

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North Richland Hills, Texas Northeast Street
Crimes Unit
  • PURPOSE ? The participating agencies have
    entered into a formal agreement to staff
    and utilize a multi-agency street crimes
    unit. ? The unit provides three types of services
    within participating jurisdictions
    Immediate investigative response to major crimes
    Coordinated gang enforcement
    Targeted street crime enforcement

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North Richland Hills, Texas Northeast Street
Crimes Unit
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? Purpose of creation
    Deal with major crime problems likely involving
    multiple jurisdictions More
    efficient use of police resources ? Primarily
    gang enforcement, but includes other street
    crimes ? The relationship between the agencies is
    a formal one supported by an interlocal
    agreement, governed by a Board of
    Directors composed of the Chiefs of Police ? Each
    agency assigns at least one full time officer
    each year

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North Richland Hills, Texas Northeast Street
Crimes Unit
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? The budget is based on
    each citys portion of the area population
    (total 1997 budget was 26,475) ? The unit
    Supervised by a North Richland Hills Sergeant
    Sergeant reports to a NRHPD Captain who
    answers to the Board of Directors ? The NSCU
    provides three services Investigative
    response to major crimes/incidents Gang
    intelligence and enforcement for the area
    Targeted enforcement of emerging crime
    problems

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North Richland Hills, Texas Northeast Street
Crimes Unit
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? The formal agreement between
    the agencies ? All NSCU officers have sworn
    authority in all participating
    jurisdictions ? Careful selection of personnel
    who get along well with others, who can
    accomplish their goals, and not act like
    prima donnas ? Explicit definition of the Units
    mission ? On-going and open communications
    between the members of the Board of
    Directors

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North Richland Hills, Texas Northeast Street
Crimes Unit
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? For arrests made the Unit has
    a 100 conviction rate ? A number of targeted
    enforcement actions have led to successful
    apprehensions ? It is reported that gang members
    fear the Unit ? The Unit appears to be a logical
    and wise use of resources, however a formal
    evaluation has not been done

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El Paso, Texas Auto Theft Task Force
  • SITE DESCRIPTION El Paso has a population of
    approximately 614,000, covers 257 square miles,
    and is bordered on the south by Mexico. Together
    with Juarez, Mexico, it has a metropolitan region
    population of 2.5 million. The police department
    has an authorized strength of 1,182 sworn
    officers and 230 non-sworn positions. The
    department is divided into two major
    divisions--Operations and Administrative
    Services-- as well as five Regional Commands

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El Paso, Texas Auto Theft Task Force
  • PURPOSE ? A county-wide Auto Theft Task Force
    that responds to the high rate of auto
    theft in the area ? The problem is heavily
    influenced by the citys proximity to the
    Mexican border ? The police department has
    implemented several patrol and
    investigative tactics in an effort to reduce
    the problem

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El Paso, Texas Auto Theft Task Force
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? A grant funds 19 sworn
    personnel and one civilian, while the city
    provides 14 additional sworn officers and
    several more non-sworn staff. ? The task force
    is headed by a lieutenant from the El Paso
    Police Department and includes three
    sergeants, nine investigators, 15 patrol
    officers, two crime prevention officers,
    and three officers assigned to abandoned
    vehicle-related duties.

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El Paso, Texas Auto Theft Task Force
  • PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ? The activities of the task
    force fall into four areas
    Enforcement-relies on crime analysis hot spots
    Border Checkpoints-work with Customs
    Investigation-organized crime theft rings
    Crime Prevention-public education

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El Paso, Texas Auto Theft Task Force
  • CRITICAL FACTORS ? Dealing with the proximity to
    Mexico ? Continued grant funding from the Auto
    Theft Prevention authority ? Addressing the
    problem from different dimensions (e.g.,
    enforcement, etc.) ? Cooperation with the Mexican
    police authorities (which is currently
    limited right now)

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El Paso, Texas Auto Theft Task Force
  • PROGRAM EFFECTS ? From the late 1980s to now,
    auto thefts that were once around 5,500 per
    year now typically are around 4,000--better
    than a 25 reduction ? Clearance rates for auto
    thefts have also been improving, albeit at
    slower rates

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Implications Investigations Programs
  • Aggressive investigative techniques frequently
    need innovative twists to resolve special crime
    problems.
  • Effective investigations include problem solving
    strategies
  • Investigations and community policing have a
    hand in glove relationship
  • Effective changes in the crime problem can be
    achieved with innovative programming
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