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The Effect of Teacher Intervention of Encoding Strategies Upon Students’ Encoding and Decoding Fluency

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Title: The Effect of Teacher Intervention of Encoding Strategies Upon Students’ Encoding and Decoding Fluency


1
The Effect of Teacher Intervention of Encoding
Strategies Upon Students Encoding and Decoding
Fluency
Linda Lindsey Bridgewater State College 2007
2

Abstract Students reading fluency can be
limited by their encoding and decoding awareness.
The students who will be participating in the
study are struggling readers in the fourth grade.
The school in which they attend is in a small
suburban town in southwestern Massachusetts. The
students will be introduced to strategies that
will enhance spelling patterns and sight word
recognition. The researcher will meet three
times each week with students for eight weeks. At
the beginning of the study, the students will be
given a developmental spelling test to determine
their knowledge of basic spelling rules and
patterns. The measuring instruments that will be
used to assess the students progress are the
Developmental Reading Assessment 4-8 (DRA 4-8),
running records, and written story retellings.
3
Spelling instruction is one of the most debated
aspects of the language arts curriculum
(Heald-Taylor, 1998).
4
Review of Literature
  • A childs deficit in spelling will affect his/her
    ability to read text fluently (Zutell, 1998).
  • Children with poor spelling skills limit their
    exposure to spelling patterns that should be
    encountered in reading of instructional and
    independent level materials (Laframboise, 1996).
  • A child who has a difficult time decoding words
    and is a reluctant reader, may also find writing
    problematic.

5
Efforts to Solve the Problem
  • There has been a substantial amount of research
    in the area of developmental spelling
    instruction.
  • Word study is not a one size fits all program
    of instruction that begins at the same place for
    all learners (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton,
    Johnson, 2004).
  • Learning is a developmental process not everyone
    progresses at the same rate.

6
  • Knowledgeable educators have come to know that
    word study instruction must match the needs of
    the learner.
  • A students spelling provides a window into how
    he/she believes the system works.
  • By interpreting what students do when they spell,
    educators can target a specific zone of proximal
    development (Vygotsky, 1981) and plan word study
    lessons that the student is conceptually ready
    to master.

7
Research has determined six stages of spelling
knowledge
  • Prephonemic (Emergent)
  • Early letter naming (Emergent)
  • Letter naming (Alphabetic)
  • Within-word patterns
  • Syllable juncture
  • Derivational
  • (Bear, et. al., 2004)

8
  • In order for the students to progress through the
    various stages of developmental spelling and
    increase their word knowledge, the educator must
    allow for the manipulation of words through
    sorting activities (Zutell, 1998).

9
  • While the students are building word knowledge,
    the teacher must also increase the students
    ability to recognize the words in text through
    repeated readings, both silent and oral
    (Rasinski, 2003).
  • Oral readings allow the teacher to gain knowledge
    of how the students implement learned strategies.
  • As students become more proficient in their
    reading and spelling their written thoughts
    develop as well.
  • There is a link between reading and writing and
    spelling.
  • Children who have increased word attack skills
    also have better sentence structure and writing
    fluency (Graham, Harris, Chorzempa, 2002).

10
(Bear, et. al., 2004)
Literacy is comprised of different components
orthography, reading, oral language, stories,
and writing. This composition of components is
referred to as the Braid of Literacy (Bear,
Invernizzi, Templeton, Johnson,2004).
Each component of the braid needs to be taught
when the child is developmentally ready.
The strength of the braid becomes stronger as the
child acquires more knowledge.
11
Intervention and Time Line
  • Students are administered a developmental
    spelling inventory to determine the instructional
    spelling level.
  • Developmental spelling groups meet 3 times a week
    for 30 minutes over an 8 week period.
  • Word lists are created to reinforce the spelling
    pattern that is to be internalized.
  • Students complete word sorts and various word
    activities in order to manipulate sounds and word
    patterns.

12
  • Students are involved with repeated readings,
    readers theater, and reading to book buddies.
  • Students are exposed to as much reading and
    writing material as possible.
  • Students produce written story retellings and
    informal writing activities (thank you notes,
    letters, and messages to other students).

13
Materials Used
Words Their Way (Bear, et. al.,2004)
Word Study Lessons (Fountas
Pinnell, 2004)
14
Self-check Spelling Activities
(Pinnell, Fountas, 1998)
Word Sort Activities (Bear, et. al.,
2004)
Games (Fountas Pinnell, 2004)
Spelling Word Trays (Bear, et .al., 2004)
15
Analyzing the Data
  • Educator needs to analyze
  • Change in independent and dependent variable
  • Statistical difference in the data
  • Triangulation of data to distinguish the
    differences of approaches used and effectiveness.
  • How much knowledge was internalized and
    transferred to daily work.

16
References
  • Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S.,
    Johnson, F.( 2004). Words Their Way, NJ Prentice
    Hall
  • Fountas, I.C., Pinnell, G. S., (2004). Word
    study lessons Phonics, spelling, and vocabulary.
    NH Heinemann.

Graham, S., Harris, K. R., Chorzempa, B. F.
(2002). Contribution of spelling instruction to
the spelling, writing, and reading of poor
spellers. Journal of Educational Psychology,
94(4) 669- 686.
Heald-Taylor, B. G. (1998). Three paradigms of
spelling instruction in grades 3 to 6. The
Reading Teacher, 51(5), 404-412 Pinnell,
G. S., Fountas, I. C. (1998). Word matters
Teaching phonics and spelling in the
reading/writing classroom. NH Heinemann.
Rasinski, T. V. (2003). The fluent reader. New
York Scholastic.
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