BAESI Workshop: Exploring for Oil and Gas Angela Hessler, Chevron Energy Technology Company Ellen Metzger, San Jose State University Jonathan Hendricks, San Jose State University Tim McHargue, Chevron, retired (field) Will Schweller, Chevron, retired - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – BAESI Workshop: Exploring for Oil and Gas Angela Hessler, Chevron Energy Technology Company Ellen Metzger, San Jose State University Jonathan Hendricks, San Jose State University Tim McHargue, Chevron, retired (field) Will Schweller, Chevron, retired PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 3be6d4-NGQ3M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

BAESI Workshop: Exploring for Oil and Gas Angela Hessler, Chevron Energy Technology Company Ellen Metzger, San Jose State University Jonathan Hendricks, San Jose State University Tim McHargue, Chevron, retired (field) Will Schweller, Chevron, retired

Description:

BAESI Workshop: Exploring for Oil and Gas Angela Hessler, Chevron Energy Technology Company Ellen Metzger, San Jose State University Jonathan Hendricks, San Jose ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:188
Avg rating:3.0/5.0

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: BAESI Workshop: Exploring for Oil and Gas Angela Hessler, Chevron Energy Technology Company Ellen Metzger, San Jose State University Jonathan Hendricks, San Jose State University Tim McHargue, Chevron, retired (field) Will Schweller, Chevron, retired


1
BAESI Workshop Exploring for Oil and
GasAngela Hessler, Chevron Energy Technology
CompanyEllen Metzger, San Jose State
UniversityJonathan Hendricks, San Jose State
UniversityTim McHargue, Chevron, retired
(field)Will Schweller, Chevron, retired
(field)
Chevron Headquarters San Ramon, CA May 8,
2010 830am Introductions, paperwork,
breakfast Oil and Gas Where and Why 850 Oil
and Gas Industry Update 900 EXPERIMENT
Build Your Own Oil Reservoir 920 DISCUSSION
Recipe for Oil -- Source, Reservoir, Seal,
Trap 950 Revisit Experiment Results Californi
as Oilfields 1000 Intro to the Geologic Map of
California (Paul) 1015 Break 1030 Oil and
Gas in California (Jon) 1100 ACTIVITY Rocks
of the Bay Area (Ellen) 1130 PUTTING IT
TOGETHER Discover Your Own Oil Field
12pm Lunch Mt. Diablo Field
Trip 1230pm Carpools leave for Mount
Diablo 130 STOP 1 Rock City OVERVIEW
Mt. Diablo Geology Oil Seeps near
Diablo ACTIVITY Outcrop observations, rock
identification DISCUSSION POINTS Source
versus reservoir Depositional
systems Miocene Environment Source and
Reservoir 230 Carpools leave for
Summit 245 STOP 2 Summit Trail
(0.7 miles) OVERVIEW
Franciscan Complex and Diablo Uplift
(faults) ACTIVITY Making
notes on maps, rock identification DISCUSSION
POINTS Seals and Traps Tectonic
forces Transform Setting Seals and
Traps 400 STOP 3 (optional) Summit
Visitors Viewpoint
2
Oil and Gas Exploration Update 2010
  • SUPPLY
  • The world has produced 1 trillion barrels of oil
    may produce 2 trillion more by 2100
  • Add unconventional resources heavy oil ,
    bitumen, shale gas, ultra-deepwater
  • Oil production from a deepwater well may not
    begin for 6-10 years after its discovery
  • Tahiti Field, one of deepest in Gulf of Mexico,
    has to date cost 2.7 billion (125,000 bpd)
  • Exploration discovery rate (i.e. not a dry well)
    is superior at Chevron at 57
  • Hubbarts Peak In 1956, M. King Hubbart used
    bell-curve statistics to predict US conventional
    production . World production has been predicted
    using the same math.
  • OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting
    Countries) may overestimate reserves.
  • TECHNOLOGY

3
Oil and Gas Exploration Update 2010
  • EXPLORATION-PRODUCTION BUDGETS 2010
  • Exxon 28 billion liquified natural gas in
    Qatar, Australia, Papua New Guniea Athabasca
  • Oil sands West Qurna-1 field in Iraq Eagle
    Ford shale gas, TX Marcellus shale gas, US
  • Chevron 17.3 billion Gorgon natural gas
    project in Western Australia deepwater Gulf of
  • Mexico offshore western Africa Gulf of
    Thailand gas offshore Brazil China gas
    Athabasca
  • Marathon 1 billion Deepwater Gulf of Mexico
    (370 million), Indonesia U.S. oil shales
  • DEMAND
  • US National Petroleum Council, 2008
  • 2030 Projections
  • Global energy consumption will rise 33
  • If renewable energy use triples, well use
  • oil/gas for 80 of energy needs
  • Fuel prices 80/barrel expected to rise

4
EXPERIMENT Build Your Own Oil
ReservoirInstruction sheet
  • Supplies for each team
  • 1 bottle (4 oz) gravel 1 graduated cup w/ 2oz
    blue water
  • 1 bottle (4 oz) crushed coral 1 graduated cup w/
    2oz black oil
  • 1 bottle (4 oz) sand 1 dixie cup gravel
  • 1 bottle (4 oz), empty 1 dixie cup crushed coral
  • 1 funnel 1 dixie cup sand
  • instruction sheet watch/clock/timer
  • calculation sheet calculator
  • graph sheet paper towels
  • observation sheet
  • Purpose Fill the sediment reservoirs with oil
    and water, and observe what happens!
  • Inquiry What do you think will happen when you
    pour the oil and water into the sediment?

5
EXPERIMENT Build Your Own Oil
ReservoirCalculation sheet
6
EXPERIMENT Build Your Own Oil ReservoirGraph
sheet
0 minutes
Travel Time (minutes)
0
Relationship between Reservoir Porosity () and
Fluid Travel Time (minutes)
Porosity ()
7
EXPERIMENT Build Your Own Oil
ReservoirObservation sheet
  • Observations

8
DISCUSSION Recipe for Oil Source, Reservoir,
Seal, Trap
  • OIL AND GAS COME FROM SOURCE ROCKS
  • Oil and gas are from the hydrocarbon family of
    chemical compounds
  • Hydrocarbons form by combination of carbon (4)
    and hydrogen (1) atoms
  • Methane (CH4) (natural gas) is the lightest
    hydrocarbon, a gas at Earths surface
  • Titan, Saturns largest moon, has methane lakes
    on its surface
  • Hexane (CH3(CH2)4(CH3) is common in gasoline, the
    lightest HC liquid at Earths surface
  • Oil and gas come from hydrocarbons in
    organic-rich sediments that
  • A. were buried and turned into source rock prior
    to significant aerobic decay
  • Low-energy, oxygen-poor environment, steady
    sedimentation rate
  • Organic matter deposited with mud ----burial----gt
    organic-rich shale
  • B. were buried and heated to 50-180C (called
    the oil window, kitchen)
  • Too cool, and the hydrocarbon will be trapped in
    sticky kerogen
  • Too hot, and the hydrocarbon will burn away
    (thermal cracking)
  • Oil and gas do not come from dinosaurs mostly
    from plankton and algae
  • Most organisms that ultimately become oil and gas
    are smaller than this .

TYPE 3 from terrestrial plants in river
floodplains, deltas (coal- and gas-prone)
TYPE 1 from algae in low-energy, anoxic lakes
(gas-prone)
TYPE 2 from marine plankton in low-energy,
anoxic ocean (oil-prone)
9
DISCUSSION Recipe for Oil Source, Reservoir,
Seal, Trap
  • ACTIVITY Use the diagram below to answer these
    questions about source rocks.
  • 1. If the Earth gets hotter with depth at a rate
    of 10C per 1 km, which layer(s) on
  • the diagram is/are in the oil window?
  • 2. How long did it take LAYER C to be buried to
    4km , if Layers A and B were
  • deposited at a rate of 0.1 mm/yr? (this includes
    the effects of burial compaction).
  • 3. Which layer would be the best oil-prone
    source rock?

Earths surface 10 C
0 km
LAYER A deep marine shale
2 km
LAYER B shallow marine limestone
4 km
LAYER C organic-rich deep marine shale and
sandstone
6 km
LAYER D organic-rich lacustrine shale
8 km
10
DISCUSSION Recipe for Oil Source, Reservoir,
Seal, Trap
  • Once oil and gas are generated in the kitchen,
    they migrate up toward Earths surface. Most
  • hydrocarbons leak close to or onto the surface
    and are easily biodegraded and made useless.
  • Better yet, oil and gas may encounter a seal on
    their way up an impermeable rock layer that
  • prevents or slows upward migration. The
    permeable rocks through which oil more readily
  • migrates are called reservoirs.
  • RESERVOIRS
  • permeable rocks that allow fluid flow through
    connected pore space between grains
  • permeable rocks that allow fluid flow through
    connected pore space along faults/fractures
  • permeability measure of the ability of a
    material (i.e. rock) to transmit fluids
  • porosity percentage of pore space in a volume
    (i.e. rock)
  • high porosity does not always equal high
    permeability
  • faster fluid flow means easier extraction of oil
  • pore or fracture spaces are normally very small
    (ltlt1mm)
  • high pressure at depth helps fluid flow in
    reservoirs
  • SEALS
  • impermeable rocks that inhibit fluid flow due to
    non-connected or very small pore spaces
  • in general, smaller grain size smaller pore
    size lower permeability (unless fractured)
  • clays have a high porosity but a low permeability
    due to small pores and polar attraction

11
DISCUSSION Recipe for Oil Source, Reservoir,
Seal, Trap
  • ACTIVITY
  • Supplies California Rocks kit syringe dixie
    cup of water
  • Take the rock samples out of your California
    Rocks kit. Drop water on each sample and
    observe which samples absorb water fast and
    which ones do not. Divide the samples into two
    piles

Earths surface 10 C
0 km
LAYER A deep marine shale
2 km
LAYER B shallow marine limestone
4 km
LAYER C organic-rich deep marine shale and
sandstone
6 km
LAYER D organic-rich lacustrine shale
8 km
12
DISCUSSION Recipe for Oil Source, Reservoir,
Seal, Trap
  • Petroleum traps are geologic structures that
    prevent oil migration and allow oil pooling
  • Without a trap structure, oil will spread
    laterally beneath seal rocks will not be
    economic
  • Timing traps must form BEFORE or DURING
    hydrocarbon generation
  • Charge Traps may be charged with oil that has
    migrated from a local or distant source

STRUCTURAL TRAPS --associated with faults and
folds These traps are normally larger and
easier to see on seismic cross sections
STRATIGRAPHIC TRAPS
--associated with permeability changes
related to deposition, grain
size These traps are normally
smaller and difficult to
resolve with seismic data
ANTICLINE
UNCONFORMITY
many anticlines are also faulted these are
called faulted anticline traps
FAULT
PINCHOUT
REEF
SALT DOME
13
DISCUSSION Recipe for Oil Source, Reservoir,
Seal, Trap
  • ACTIVITY
  • Label each trap type below on the fake geologic
    cross section. Oil accumulations are shown in
    green. Gas accumulations are red, and reservoir
    water is blue.

14
Geologic Map of CaliforniaPaul Henshaw and
Donald Lewisprovided by American Association of
Petroleum Geologists
  • California CGS Map Presentation Guideline
  •  
  • This brief guide is meant to help pre-college
    teachers use the Geological Map of
  • California in their classroom.
  •  
  • A geological map is one that shows the type and
    distribution of rock and sediment at Earths
    surface. This geological map, published by the
    California Geological Survey (CGS), is a
    compilation of work by thousands of geologists
    since the late 1800s.
  •  
  • The map is colorful and patterneda work of art,
    almostbut someone with training in geology can
    learn a lot about the current geology and also
    the past geologic history of California. Even a
    little training can be very instructive, so were
    going to highlight several features of the map
    and suggest some questions that could be used
    with students you made need to modify the
    questions according to grade level.
  •  
  • Note that the sheet includes the geological map
    (color), the map legend (upper right), and an
    inset map showing Californias geographic
    provinces (grayscale).
  •  
  • FEATURE 1
  • The legend shows the general classes of rocks in
    California according to their age the oldest
    rocks are at the bottom, and the youngest rocks
    are at the top. The younger rocks are show in
    light pastel colors, and older rocks are shown in
    deeper, darker colors.
  •  
  • Sample questions based on Feature 1
  • Which geographic feature has older rocks at the
    surface the northern Coast
  • Ranges (between Ukiah and Eureka) or the
    Central Valley?
  • Are the oldest rocks in the Sierra Nevada older
    or younger than the oldest rocks in

15
Geologic Map of CaliforniaPaul Henshaw and
Donald Lewisprovided by American Association of
Petroleum Geologists
  •  Sample questions based on Feature 2
  • a. Are mantle rocks and serpentinite more
    abundant in the Coast Ranges or in the
  • Mojave DesertDeath Valley region?
  • b. Are granitic rocks more common in the Sierra
    Nevada or in the Coast Ranges?
  •  
  • FEATURE 3
  • California is cut by hundreds of faults, most of
    which run NWSE. Not all of these faults are
    still active most faults in the Klamath
    Mountains, Modoc Plateau, and Sierra Nevada
    havent produced an earthquake in millions of
    years and are thought to be abandoned. However,
    faults in the western part of the state (Coast
    Ranges, western Mojave Desert, Peninsular Ranges,
    Colorado Desert) comprise an active transform
    boundary between two large tectonic plates the
    Pacific plate to the west, and the North American
    plate to the east. No single fault is the plate
    boundaryif your textbook claims that the
    boundary is the San Andreas fault, its wrong.
    Dozens of different faults make up the plate
    boundary the San Andreas is the most active, but
    definitely not the whole story. In fact, even
    the faults in the Basin and Range (eastern CA)
    are part of the boundary..
  •  
  • Sample questions based on Feature 2
  • a. Which city is likely to feel more earthquake
    shaking Fresno or San Bernardino?
  • Monterey or Alturas?
  • b. The San Andreas fault cuts California from the
    Salton Sea north to the latitude of
  • Ukiah. In the central Coast Ranges around
    the San Francisco Bay Area, how are
  • rocks on the east side of the fault
    different from rocks on the west side of the
    fault?
  •  

16
PUTTING IT TOGETHER Discover Your Own
OilfieldIntroduction Sheet
  • The first oil well in the San Joaquin Valley was
    hand-dug along the Kern River in 1899. Four
    years later, California was the top oil-producer
    in the United States, 70 of its production
    coming from Kern River alone. Today, Kern River
    produces 66 of Californias oil and 1 of the
    worlds oil. Steamflooding is used to flush the
    remaining heavy oil from SJV oilfields. Before
    injection, steam turns turbines to generate
    enough electricity to power 1.5 million homes.
    In this exercise, you will pretend that oil is
    yet undiscovered in this area, and you will use
    what you have learned about exploring for oil to
    pick promising sites for exploration wells in the
    San Joaquin Valley.

MIOCENE 10 Mya
MESOZOIC 100Mya
17
PUTTING IT TOGETHER Discover Your Own
OilfieldQuestion Sheet 1
Things you will need Handouts (5
Introduction/images question sheets rock
chart cross section ) Rock samples
(6 conglomerate/breccia. sandstone, greywacke,
shale, chert, granite) Colored pencils
  • ROCK IDENTIFICATION Common rocks of the
    Southern San Joaquin Valley
  • As a geologist, you have recently returned from
    a sampling and mapping trip from the southern San
    Joaquin Valley. In front of you on the table are
    6 rock samples from your survey. Below, list
    each rock type you see. Also describe each
    sample as reservoir, source,and/or seal.
  • 1. ____________________________ 4.
    _________________________
  • 2. ____________________________ 5.
    _________________________
  • 3. ____________________________ 6.
    _________________________
  • GEOLOGIC MAPPING Is there initial evidence for
    good petroleum traps?
  • On your survey trip, you noticed oil seeps in
    the San Joaquin Valley. You decide to look
    carefully at the geologic maps you made, to see
    if there is evidence for possible petroleum
    traps. On the west side of the San Joaquin
    Valley, you have mapped an interesting structure
    near Paso Robles (see map below). You draw a
    cross section to check for a trap.
  • 1. Along the cross section
    line, place an angled tick mark below every rock
    contact.
  • Be sure the
    tick mark dips in the correct direction and at
    the correct angle.
  • 2. Extend the tick marks
    below the surface line, so that matching rock
    types meet.
  • Do not cross
    lines.
  • 3. Do you see a petroleum
    trap? If so, what kind is it? ___________________
    ____

Geologic Map, Paso Robles area, Western San
Joaquin Valley
N
E
W
S
Geologic Cross Section of the Paso Robles Area
W
E
18
PUTTING IT TOGETHER Discover Your Own
OilfieldQuestion Sheet 2
  • C. SEISMIC ANALYSIS Common traps in the
    Southern San Joaquin Valley
  • Based on your initial observations from the rock
    sampling, geologic mapping, and oil seep survey,
    you feel fairly confident that a petroleum system
    exists beneath the valley floor. You have
    decided to invest 10,000,000 for an initial
    low-resolution 3D seismic survey. This will
    allow you to get a view of the geology beneath
    the surface, to see if there are good traps for
    oil. Look at the seismic image called 3D
    Seismic Inline 743 below. What style of trap
    would be drilled at each hypothetical well (1
    6)? (hint traps can be a combination of styles)
  • TRAPS
  • 1. _________________________
  • 2. _________________________
  • 3. _________________________
    4.
    _________________________
  • 5. _________________________
  • 6. _________________________
  • DETAILED ANALYSIS A working petroleum system?
  • The initial seismic survey was a success, and so
    you plan to invest 120,000,000 for
    high-resolution 3D seismic surveys of several
    target areas (100,000,000), to hire geologists
    and geophysicists to interpret the data
    (5,000,000), and to drill an exploration well
    (15,000,000).
  • 1. Complete the rock chart, indicating
    source, reservoir, and/or seal in the empty
    boxes.
  • 2. Next to rocks labeled source, indicate if
    hydrocarbons would be oil-prone or gas-prone.
  • 3. On the cross section, use color to highlight
    reservoirs, seals, and source.
  • 4. Are the source rocks in the oil window (2
    4 km deep)? ___________________________

1
2
3
4
5
6
19
Rocks of the Southern San Joaquin Valley, CA
20
WEST EAST Cross Section Across the South San
Joaquin Valley, CA (Mercer, 1996)
21
Mount Diablo State Park Field Trip
Take your students on a virtual field trip with
photographs and maps
  • Mount Diablos summit is 3849 above sea level
    (only Mt. Hamilton in Bay Area is higher at
    4213). It has the most expansive vista in all
    the contiguous United States.
  • The area has been populated for 5,000 years, by
    the Bay Miwok Indians (1700).
  • They subsisted off of acorns from the Blue,
    Valley, and Coast Live oaks.
  • The mountain was named Diablo around 1850.
    Spanish troops were searching for
  • Indians who had run away from the San Jose
    mission. Despite encircling their camp,
  • the Spanish did not see the Indians slip away in
    the night. Embarrassed, they
  • blamed the devil, for what had happened at the
    Monte del Diablo.
  • Mt. Diablo was the northern CA site for a series
    of night-aviation beacons built in the
  • 1920s. Charles Lindbergh turned on the beacon
    in 1928 from Denver, by remote
  • control. The tower has been removed the beacon
    remains at the museum.
  • Chevron set a precedent in 1998 by voluntarily
    removing its rather enormous communications tower
    from the North Peak.

22
Mount Diablo State Park Field Trip
Geologic resources
  • OIL AND GAS
  • Domengine Formation is a prominent gas reservoir
    in the southern Sacramento Valley
  • Oil is produced from the Martinez Formation to
    the north and from the Tesla Formation
  • near Livermore (slightly older than and
    equivalent to the Domengine, respectively)
  • COAL
  • Mined from the Domengine Formation at Black
    Diamond Mines Regional Park
  • Now closed, it was Californias largest coal
    deposit, worth 15-20 million
  • WHITE SANDS FOR GLASS
  • Also from the Domengine Formation at Black
    Diamond Mines, Ione Sands
  • The Ione Sands extend across the Central Valley
  • TRAVERTINE FOR CEMENT
  • Travertine is the same composition as limestone,
    but usually formed near hot springs
  • Mined north of Mt. Diablo at Lime Ridge
  • Recently precipitated on Domengine Formation
    from CaCO3-rich waters percolating
  • upward through the porous Domengine sandstone

23
Mount Diablo State Park Field Trip
Geology Overview
These names are unofficial, coined just for
this workshop!
24
Mount Diablo State Park Field Trip
Geologists ability to interpret the subsurface
comes from the field
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
IGNEOUS, METAMORPHIC ROCKS
Miocene silicic intrusive rocks
Quaternary surficial deposits
Jurassic-Cretaceous melange (Franciscan Complex)
Quaternary landslide deposits
Jurassic chert, basalt, shale graywacke
(Franciscan Complex)
Miocene-Pliocene nonmarine sandstone, siltstone,
conglomerate
Jurassic basalt, diabase (Coast Range Ophiolite)
Miocene marine fossiliferous sandstone, shale
(Briones, Monterey)
Eocene pebbly sandstone, shale (Domengine)
Jurassic serpentinite (Coast Range Ophiolite)
Cretaceous shale, limestone, sandstone (Great
Valley Group)
FAULTS
Jurassic-Cretaceous shale, sandstone
thrust
strike-slip
inferred
A
Preliminary Geologic Map Emphasizing Bedrock
Formations in Contra Costa County, CA USGS Open
File Report 94-622
N
A
1 km
25
Mount Diablo State Park Field Trip
Source, Seal, or Reservoir? Rock City
OBSERVATIONS Description of Outcrops INTEPR
ETATIONS Rock type Source, Seal, and/or
Reservoir Rock Depositional Setting
A
A
DIABLO ANTICLINE
TASSAJARA ANTICLINE
SACRAMENTO SAN JOAQUIN DELTA
SYCAMORE VALLEY SYNCLINE
Lawlor Tuff
Lawlor Tuff
NE
SAN RAMON VALLEY
Kirker Tuff
SW
FRANCISCAN COMPLEX
0
Recent alluvium
Serpentinite
Briones Formation
Roblar Tuff
Roblar Tuff
Domengine Formation
COAST RANGE FAULT
Neroly Formation
5
Depth below sea level (km)
MT DIABLO THRUST FAULT
Modified from
Coupling of early Tertiary extension in the Great
Valley forearc basin with blueschist exhumation
in the underlying Franciscan accretionary wedge
at Mount Diablo, California Unruh, Jeffrey R.
(William Lettis Associates, Walnut Creek, CA,
United States) Dumitru, Trevor A. Sawyer,
Thomas L. In Geological Society of America
Bulletin, December 2007, Vol. 119, Issue 11-12,
pp.1347-1367
10
No vertical exaggeration
15
26
Mount Diablo State Park Field Trip
Back in Time Mary Bowerman Trail
X
Summit 3849
park road
100 ft
N
27
Mount Diablo State Park Field Trip
Back in Time Mary Bowerman Trail
MESOZOIC 100Mya
www.nps.gov
28
Mount Diablo State Park Field Trip
The Final Ingredient TRANSPRESSION Making a
Faulted Anticline Trap
10-0 Mya Transform Zone Strike-slip thrusts and
anticlinal uplift at Diablo
40-30 Mya Subduction Zone Forearc Basin
at Diablo
http//www2.nau.edu/rcb7/terpaleo.html
Recent earthquake patterns in the Bay Area show
how the active San Andreas, Hayward, and
Calaveras faults create transpressional stresses
to cause the uplift of our local ridges and
mountains
Mt Diablo
San Francisco
0ft
A lot of rock has eroded away in the last 10 my!
29
Links
  • USGS Geology http//geology.usgs.gov/
  • USGS Earthquakes http//earthquake.usgs.gov/earthq
    uakes/recenteqsus/Maps/US2/
  • Geological Society of America (K-12 Education)
    http//www.geosociety.org/educate/
  • American Geophysical Union (K-12 Education)
    http//www.agu.org/education/students_teachers.sh
    tml
  • San Joaquin Geological Society http//www.sjgs.com
    /
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists
    (K-12 Education) http//www.aapg.org/k12resources
    /index.cfm
  • American Geological Institute (K-12 Education)
    http//www.agiweb.org/geoeducation.html
  • National Association of Geoscience Teachers
    http//nagt.org/index.html
  • American Petroleum Institute http//www.api.org/
  • Oil price chronology, Energy Information
    Administration (www.eia.doe.gov)
About PowerShow.com