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Older Workers and Information Technology

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The information technology sector (J.C. Morgan) Age, minority status and IT (M. Moloney) ... The information technology sector. What is information technology' or IT? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Older Workers and Information Technology


1
Older Workers and Information Technology
  • September 11, 2003
  • NC Conference on Aging

2
Overview of the session
  • Introduction (V.W.Marshall)
  • The aging workforce in North Carolina
  • The information technology sector (J.C. Morgan)
  • Age, minority status and IT (M. Moloney)
  • Aging issues in library and information sciences
    (J.G. Marshall)
  • Open Discussion

3
The aging workforce
  • Most of the projected growth in the US labor
    force between 2000 and 2050 will be composed of
    workers aged 55 and over.
  • Workers aged 55 and over will account for a
    larger share of the US labor force (12.9 in
    2000 18.8 in 2050)
  • Source Toosi, Mitra. A century of change the
    US labor force, 1950-2050. Monthly Labor Review,
    May 2002, Bureau of Labor Statistics

4
Growth rates of the civilian labor force, ages 16
and older
Annual rates of change
(projected)
Source Bureau of Labor Statistics
5
Growth in the labor force aged 45-64 between 2000
and 2010
Projected, in thousands
65 and over
55 to 64
45 to 54
35 to 44
25 to 34
16 to 24
Source Bureau of Labor Statistics
6
ITs youthful image
  • IT has image of youthfulness
  • Attitudes toward older workers least positive re
    adaptation to new technology
  • Yet will need to retain older workers to meet
    workforce needs
  • While lacking career tracks

7
Age structure of the IT workforce
  • As the IT industry grows, recruiting and
    retaining older workers will become increasingly
    important given the aging workforce
  • Systematic research on the barriers to
    recruitment and retention of older workers needs
    to be conducted (e.g., workplace industry
    culture, age discrimination, employer attitudes)

8
What is information technology anyway?
  • Jennifer Craft Morgan

9
Computer equipments and softwares rising share
of Gross Private Domestic Investment
Percent
Computer equipment
Software
Source Bureau of Labor Statistics
10
The 10 fastest growing industries are
service-producing
Percent change, projected 2000-2010
Source Bureau of Labor Statistics
11
Eight industries account for half of projected
2000-2010 job growth
Thousands of wage and salary jobs
Personnel supply services
Computer and data processing services
Retail trade, except eating and drinking places
Eating and drinking places
Offices of health practitioners
State and local government education
Miscellaneous business services
Construction
Source Bureau of Labor Statistics
12
Eight of the fastest growing occupations are
computer-related
Percent change, projected 2000-2010
100
Source Bureau of Labor Statistics
13
The information technology sector
  • What is information technology or IT?
  • What companies are part of the IT industrial
    sector?
  • As computers are so prevalent, how do we
    distinguish IT workers from other workers?
  • Should we characterize IT as service producing or
    goods producing or both?
  • What other industries have substantial overlap
    with IT? (e.g., telecommunications, information
    science)

14
Selected Definitions
  • American Electronics Association (AEA)
  • Industries are classified as high tech if they
    are considered a maker/creator of technology,
    whether it be in the form of products,
    communications, or services, (Platzer, Novak
    Kazmierczak, 2003)
  • Includes manufacturing, communication services,
    and software and tech services

15
Selected Definitions
  • U.S. Census Bureau
  • The information sector is comprised of
    establishments engaged in the following
    processes (a) producing and distributing
    information and cultural products, (b) providing
    the means to transmit or distribute these
    products as well as data or communications, and
    (c) processing data
  • Defined as service producing

16
Selected Definitions
  • Freeman and Aspray (1999)
  • A company is part of the IT industry if its
    main purpose is designing, producing or using
    computer-based systems
  • Uses company by company judgments requires a
    definition of main purpose

17
IT workers
  • Nine out of ten IT workers are found in banks,
    insurance companies, manufacturing plants or
    other non-IT businesses (Information Association
    of America, 2003)
  • Occupations
  • Self-Definition
  • IT Workers vs. IT-Enabled Workers

18
Distinguishing IT Workers from IT-Enabled Workers
19
Diversity and IT
  • Mairead Moloney

20
White, non-Hispanics will remain the largest
group in the labor force
Percent of labor force
Source Bureau of Labor Statistics
21
Womens labor force growth will continue to
outpace mens
Percent change
(projected)
Source Bureau of Labor Statistics
22
Racial and ethnic diversity in the IT workforce
  • If these groups women, Hispanics, African
    Americans, and Native Americans were represented
    in the IT workforce in proportion to their
    representation in the U.S. population, this
    country would have more than an adequate supply
    of workers to fill even the most dire estimates
    of a IT workforce shortage. Freeman and
    Aspray,(1999) p.12

23
Gender and IT
  • Though the participation rate of women in the US
    workforce is increasing, the participation rate
    of women in IT is decreasing in the overall IT
    workforce
  • 1996 2002
  • 41 34.9
  • Among computer professionals, only one out of
    five is a woman.

Source ITAA (2003) and Swanson and Keller (2000)
24
Gender and IT, cont.
  • Women are overrepresented in low-status IT jobs
    (i.e. data entry keyers 85 computer operators
    53)
  • Women are underrepresented in high-status IT jobs
    (i.e. electrical and electronic engineers, 9
    computer system analysts and scientists 27
    computer programmers 27)
  • On average, womens earnings in the IT field are
    only 76 of their male peers salary.

Source Bureau of Labor Statistics (2002)
25
Race and Ethnicity
  • Similar to patterns for women, racial and ethnic
    minorities are
  • overrepresented in low-status IT jobs (i.e. data
    entry keyers 16 for African Americans12.6 for
    Hispanics)
  • and underrepresented in high-status IT jobs (i.e
    electrical and electronic engineers 5.9 for
    African Americans and 4 for Hispanics).
  • This situation is compounded by the fact that
    minorities are less likely to attend college or
    graduate school than women or white males.

Source ITAA Freeman and Aspray
26
Percentage of participation in the US and IT
workforces, by race/ethnicity
Source ITAA BLS
27
Undergraduate Degrees in Computer Science,
Engineering and Engineering related technologies,
by percent 1999-2000
Source ITAA
28
Future research should focus on
  • The intersection of gender, and age.
  • The intersection of race/ethnicity and age.
  • Methods of encouraging employers to invest in a
    more diverse IT workforce inclusive of older
    workers, women and racial and ethnic minorities.

29
INFORMATION AND LIBRARY SCIENCE AND THE AGING
WORKFORCE
  • Joanne Gard Marshall     Dean and Professor,
    School of Information and Library
    Science     University of North Carolina at
    Chapel Hill      marshall_at_ils.unc.edu      http
    //www.ils.unc.edu/marshall/presentations/

30
Visions from the Edge
  • people, information and technology...the edge of
    change
  • exploring boundaries...opportunities in
    uncertainty...
  • the competitive edge...taking risks...
  • looking out, looking in...digital futures...
  • managing transitions...moving forward...
  • the leading edge...working together...
  • creating the future...

31
Megatrends
  • industrial society information society
  • forced technology high tech/high touch
    national economy world economy
  • short term long term
  • centralization decentralization

32
Megatrends
  • institutional help self-help
  • representative democracy participative democracy
  • hierarchies networking
  • north south
  • either/or multiple option

33
Workforce 2000 Trends
  • A national labor shortage
  • A skills mismatch
  • An aging workforce
  • A culturally diverse workforce
  • More women in the workforce
  • Changing worker values and lifestyles

34
Librarians and aging the triple whammy
  • Baby boomer aging
  • Proportion of late entrants
  • Trend towards early exit

35
Age of U.S. Librarians and Comparable
Professionals, 1998 (Adapted from Wilder,2000)
36
Age Distribution of Librarians Results from the
Readex Survey, 1999 (Lynch, 2000)
37
Specific Strategies
  • Recruiting earlier AND later
  • Thinking broadly of information service skills
  • Taking a flexible, service-oriented approach

38
Steps in Succession Planning
  • Inside the library
  •  
  • Determine where the library will be in 5-10 years
  • Do a skills inventory
  • Develop and implement plan
  • Include specific mentorship activities
  • Review and update the plan regularly

39
Steps in Succession Planning
  • Outside the library
  • Raise awareness
  • Identify partner organizations
  • Develop joint mentorship activities
  • Develop joint marketing approaches
  • Broaden focus to profession-wide level

40
  • www.aging.unc.edu
  • Program on Older Workers and Retirement
  • International Project www.wane.ca
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