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The Lean Years, 1969–1980

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Title: The Lean Years, 1969–1980


1
  • The Lean Years, 19691980

2
  • How and why did America experience a severe
    economic crisis in the 1970s?
  • What effect did Nixons presidency have on
    domestic politics?
  • How did expanding social activism lead to a
    conservative reaction at the end of the decade?
  • Why did President Carter fail to develop an
    effective style of leadership? How did foreign
    affairs affect his administration?

3
The Nixon Years
  • The Republican Domestic Agenda

4
  • Nixons policies heralded a long-term Republican
    effort to trim back the Great Society and shift
    some federal responsibilities back to the states.
  • The 1972 revenue-sharing program distributed a
    portion of federal tax revenues back to the
    states as block grants.
  • Nixon reduced funding for most War on Poverty
    programs and dismantled the Office of Economic
    Opportunity in 1971.

5
  • He impounded billions of dollars appropriated by
    Congress for urban renewal, pollution control,
    and other environmental issues, and he vetoed a
    1971 bill to establish a comprehensive national
    child-care system, fearing that such communal
    approaches to child rearingwould
    SovietizeAmerican children.
  • As an alternative to Democratic social
    legislation, the administration put forward its
    own antipoverty program by proposing a Family
    Assistance Plan that would provide a family of
    four a small but guaranteed annual income the
    bill floundered in the Senate, leaving the issue
    of welfare reform a contentious issue for the
    next thirty years.

6
  • Nixon agreed to the growth of major entitlement
    programs such as Medicare,Medicaid, and Social
    Security.
  • In 1970, Nixon signed a bill establishing the
    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and in
    1972, he approved legislation creating the
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA).
  • Nixon demonstrated his commitment to conservative
    social values most clearly with his appointments
    to the Supreme Court during his administration
    Warren Burger became chief justice, and
    conservatives Harry Blackmun, Lewis F. Powell
    Jr., and William Rehnquist became justices.

7
Nixons War
  • In March 1969 Nixon ordered clandestine bombing
    raids on neutral Cambodia , through which the
    North Vietnamese had been transporting supplies
    and reinforcements, to convince North Vietnam
    that the United States meant business about
    mutual troop withdrawal.
  • When the intensified bombing failed to end the
    war, Nixon and Henry Kissinger adopted a policy
    of Vietnamization the replacement of American
    troops with South Vietnamese forces.

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"Angel's Wing" and the "Crow's Nest"
Svay Rieng Province
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  • Antiwar demonstrators denounced the new policy,
    which protected American lives at the expense of
    the Vietnamese on October 15, 1969, millions of
    Americans joined a one-day moratorium against
    the war and a month later more than a quarter of
    a million people mobilized in Washington in a
    large antiwar demonstration.

14
  • Nixons response was to label student
    demonstrators as bums and his statement that
    North Vietnam cannot defeat or humiliate the
    United States. Only Americans can do that.

15
  • Nixons secret bombing of Cambodia culminated in
    a 1970 American incursion into Cambodia to
    destroy enemy havens there though only a
    short-term setback for the North Vietnamese, it
    helped to destabilize the country, exposing it to
    takeover by the Khmer Rouge later in the 1970s.

16
  • When the New York Times uncovered the secret
    invasion of Cambodia, an antiwar national student
    strike ensued at Kent State University, National
    Guardsmen fired into a crowd at an antiwar rally
    killing four and wounding eleven and, soon
    afterward, National Guardsmen stormed a dormitory
    at Jackson State College, killing two black
    students.

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  • More than 450 colleges closed in protest, and 80
    percent of all campuses experienced some kind of
    disturbance in June 1970, a Gallup poll
    identified campus unrest, not the war, as the
    issue that most troubled Americans.

22
  • Congressional opposition to the war also
    intensified with the invasion of Cambodia in
    June 1970, the Senate expressed its disapproval
    for the war by repealing the Tonkin resolution
    and cutting off funding for operations in
    Cambodia.
  • Soldiers themselves were showing mounting
    opposition to their mission those who refused to
    follow combat orders increased and thousands
    deserted. Of the majority who fought on, many
    sewed peace symbols on their uniforms, and
    incidents of fragging occurred.

23
  • In 1971, Americans were appalled by revelations
    of the sheer brutality of the war when Lieutenant
    William L. Calley was court-martialed for
    atrocities committed in the village of My Lai.

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  • A Few Survivors
  •    
  • TRUONG THI LEE           TRUONG
    MOI                     PHAM THI THUAM

34
  • The antiwar movement was weakened in part by
    internal divisions within the New Left and by
    Nixons promise to continue troop withdrawals,
    end the draft, and institute an all-volunteer
    army by 1973.

35
Withdrawal from Vietnam and Détente
  • Nixons policy of détente was to seek peaceful
    coexistence with the Communist Soviet Union and
    China and to link these overtures of friendship
    with a plan to end the Vietnam War.
  • Nixon traveled to China in 1972 in a symbolic
    visit that set the stage for the establishment of
    formal diplomatic relations

36
  • "This was the week that changed the world,
    proclaimed President Richard M. Nixon in February
    1972, emphasizing the stunning turnaround in
    relations with America's former enemy, the
    People's Republic of China. Nixon's trip was
    meticulously planned to dramatize the event on
    television and, aside from criticism from some
    conservatives, won overwhelming support from
    Americans. The Great Wall of China forms the
    setting for this photograph of Nixon and his wife
    Pat.

37
  • He then traveled to Moscow to sign the first
    Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) between
    the United States and the Soviet Union.
  • The treaty limited the production and deployment
    of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs)
    and antiballistic missile systems (ABMs) and
    signified that the United States could no longer
    afford massive military spending to regain the
    nuclear and military superiority it had enjoyed
    after World War II.

38
  • The Paris peace talks had been in stalemate since
    1968 in late 1971, as American troops withdrew,
    Communist forces stepped up their attacks on
    Laos, Cambodia, and South Vietnam.
  • After yet another North Vietnamese offensive
    against South Vietnam, Nixon ordered B-52
    bombings against North Vietnam and the mining of
    North Vietnamese ports.

39
  • With the help of a cease-fire agreement, Nixon
    won a resounding victory in the 1972 elections
    however, the peace initiative stalled when South
    Vietnam rejected a provision concerning North
    Vietnamese troop positions.
  • Nixon stepped up the military actions with the
    Christmas bombings the Paris Peace accords
    were signed on January 27, 1973.

40
  • The accords did not fulfill Nixons promise of
    peace with honor, but they did call for the
    withdrawal of American troops in exchange for the
    return of American prisoners of war (POWs) and
    for most Americans that was enough.
  • The South Vietnamese government soon fell to
    Communist forces horrified Americans watched as
    American embassy personnel and Vietnamese
    citizens struggled to board helicopters leaving
    Saigon before North Vietnamese troops entered the
    city.
  • On April 29, 1975,Vietnam was reunited, and
    Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in honor of
    the Communist leader who had died in 1969

41
The Legacy of Vietnam
  • The Vietnam War occupied American administrations
    for nearly thirty years U.S. troops fought the
    war for over eleven years, from 1961 to 1973.

42
  • Some 58,000 U.S. troops died in Vietnam, and
    another 300,000 were wounded.
  • Those troops who returned unharmed encountered a
    sometimes hostile or indifferent reception,
    making the transition to civilian life abrupt and
    disorienting and led to recurring physical and
    psychological problems.

43
  • In Southeast Asia, the war claimed an estimated
    1.5 million Vietnamese lives and devastated the
    countrys physical and economic structure Laos
    and particularly Cambodia also suffered when
    between 1975 and 1979 the Khmer Rouge killed an
    estimated 2 million Cambodians in a brutal
    relocation campaign.
  • The war produced nearly 10 million refugees, many
    of whom immigrated to the United States among
    them were more than 30,000 Amerasians, the
    offspring of American soldiers and Vietnamese
    women.

44
Pol Pot AKA 'Brother Number One'. Birth name
Saloth Sar. Kill tally One to three million
(or between a quarter and a third of the
country's population).
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  • The defeat in Vietnam prompted Americans to think
    differently about foreign affairs and to
    acknowledge the limits of U.S. power abroad.
  • In 1973, Congress declared its hostility to
    undeclared wars like those in Vietnam and Korea
    by passing the War Powers Act, which required the
    president to report any use of military force
    within forty-eight hours and directed that
    without a declaration of war by Congress
    hostilities must cease within sixty days.

54
  • Vietnam distorted American economic and social
    affairs costing over 150 billion, the war
    siphoned resources from domestic needs, added to
    the deficit, and fueled inflation.
  • The war also shattered the liberal consensus that
    had supported the Democratic coalition.
  • The conduct of the war spawned the discrediting
    of liberalism, increased cynicism toward
    government, and growing social turmoil that would
    continue into the next decade, paving the way for
    a resurgence of the Republican Party and a new
    mood of conservatism

55
  • The Court appointees sometimes handed down
    decisions of which Nixon did not approve, such as
    court-ordered busing and restrictions on the
    implementation of capital punishment.
  • Its most controversial case was Roe v.Wade
    (1973), which struck down laws prohibiting
    abortion in Texas and Georgia.

56
The 1972 Election
  • President Nixon, elected with the support of
    the silent majority, adopted policies that
    heralded a long-term Republican effort to trim
    back the Great Society. He easily won reelection
    in 1972 with 61 percent of the popular vote,
    although Democrats maintained control of both
    houses of Congress.

57
  • The shooting of the conservative Southerner,
    George Wallace, which left him paralyzed from the
    waist down, and the disarray within the
    Democratic Party over Vietnam and civil rights
    gave Nixons campaign a decisive edge.

58
  • Nixons advantages against his opponent, Senator
    George McGovern, were that his policy of
    Vietnamization had virtually eliminated American
    combat deaths by 1972, Kissingers declaration
    that peace is at hand raised voters hopes for
    a negotiated settlement, and a short-term upturn
    in the economy favored the Republicans.
  • Nixon easily won reelection with 61 percent of
    the popular vote, carrying every state except
    Massachusetts and the District of Columbia,
    although Democrats maintained control of both
    houses of Congress.

59
Watergate
  • Watergate was a scandal that began with a
    break-in at the Democratic National Committees
    headquarters at the Watergate apartment complex
    in Washington, D.C. not just an isolated
    incident, it was part of a broad pattern of
    illegality and misuse of power that flourished in
    the crisis atmosphere of the Vietnam War.

60
  • Its origins were rooted in Nixons ruthless
    political tactics, his secretive style of
    governing, and his obsession with the antiwar
    movement.
  • Nixons first administration repeatedly
    authorized illegal surveillance of citizens such
    as former Defense Department analyst, Daniel
    Ellsberg, who leaked The Pentagon Papers, a
    classified study of American involvement in
    Vietnam that detailed many American blunders and
    misjudgments, to the New York Times.

61
  • To discredit Ellsberg,White House underlings
    broke into his psychiatrists office to look for
    damaging information when the break-in was
    revealed, the court dismissed the governments
    case against Ellsberg.
  • In another abuse of presidential power, the White
    House established a clandestine intelligence
    group known as the plumbers to plug government
    information leaks and implement tactics such as
    using the IRS to harass the administrations
    opponents.

62
  • The activities of the plumberswere financed by
    massive illegal fund-raising efforts by Nixons
    Committee to Re-Elect the President (known as
    CREEP).
  • In June 1972, five men with connections to the
    Nixon administration were arrested for breaking
    into the headquarters of the Democratic National
    Committee at the Watergate apartment complex in
    Washington.

63
  • The White House denied any involvement in the
    break-in, but investigations revealed that Nixon
    ordered his chief of staff to instruct the
    Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to tell the
    Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) not to
    probe too deeply into connections between the
    White House and the burglars.
  • In February 1973, the Senate established an
    investigative committee which began holding
    nationally televised hearings in May, during
    which Jeb Magruder confessed his guilt and
    implicated former Attorney General John Mitchell,
    White House counsel John Dean, and others. Dean,
    in turn, implicated Nixon in the plot, and
    another Nixon aide revealed that Nixon had
    installed a secret taping system in the Oval
    Office.

64
  • Nixon stonewalled the committees demand that
    he surrender the tapes, citing executive
    privilege and national security.
  • After subpoenas ordered him to do so, Nixon
    released a heavily edited transcript of the
    tapes, peppered with the words expletive
    deleted, and which contained a suspicious
    eighteen-minute gap covering a crucial meeting of
    Nixon and his staff on June 20, 1972, three days
    after the break-in.
  • On June 30, 1974, the House of Representatives
    voted on three articles of impeachment against
    Nixon obstruction of justice, abuse of power,
    and subverting the Constitution.

65
  • Nixon released the unexpurgated tapes, which
    contained evidence that he ordered a cover-up
    facing certain conviction if impeached, on August
    9, 1974, Nixon became the first U.S. president to
    resign.
  • Vice President Gerald Ford was sworn in as
    president a month later, he granted Nixon a
    full, free, and absolute pardon for all
    offenses he had committed or might have committed
    during his presidency, to spare the country the
    agony of rehashing Watergate in a criminal
    prosecution.
  • Congress adopted several reforms in response to
    the abuses of the Nixon administration and to
    contain the power of what became known as the
    imperial presidency.

66
  • In 1974, a strengthened Freedom of Information
    Act gave citizens greater access to files that
    federal government agencies had amassed on them.
  • The Fair Campaign Practices Act of 1974 limited
    campaign contributions and provided for stricter
    accountability and public financing of
    presidential campaigns, but contained a loophole
    for contributions from political action
    committees (PACs).

67
  • The most significant legacy of Watergate was the
    wave of cynicism that swept the country in its
    wake.

68
Battling For Civil Rights
69
  • The civil rights movement also sparked a new
    awareness among some predominantly white groups
    the elderly, people of various ethnic
    backgrounds, and homosexuals.
  • The gay liberation movement gained momentum in
    the 1969 Stonewall riot after it, activists
    took the new name of gay founded advocacy
    groups, newspapers, and political organizations
    to challenge discrimination and prejudice and
    offered emotional support to those who came out.

70
The Revival of Feminism
  • The black struggle became an inspiration for
    young feminists in the 1960s, but social and
    demographic changes also led to the revival of
    feminism.
  • By 1970, 42.6 percent of women were working, and
    40 percent of working women were married.

71
  • During the baby boom, many women dropped out of
    college to marry and raise families by 1970, 41
    percent of college students were female.
  • The birth control pill and the intrauterine
    device (IUD) helped women to control their
    fertility, and more liberal divorce laws resulted
    in an increase in divorce rates.
  • As a result of these changes, traditional gender
    expectations were dramatically altered the
    changing social realities created a major
    constituency for the emerging womens movement of
    the 1960s.

72
  • A report by the Presidential Commission on the
    Status of Women in 1963 documented the
    discrimination women faced in employment and
    education.
  • Betty Friedans Feminine Mystique gave women a
    vocabulary with which to express their
    dissatisfaction and promoted womens
    self-realization.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 had as great an
    impact on women as it did on blacks its Title
    VII eventually became a powerful tool against sex
    discrimination.

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  • Dissatisfied with the Equal Employment
    Opportunity Commissions (EEOC) reluctance to
    defend womens rights, Friedan and others founded
    the National Organization for Women (NOW) in
    1966.
  • The womens liberationists came to the womens
    movement through their civil rights work male
    leaders lack of respect for women radicals
    caused them to see the need for their own
    movement.

75
  • Womens lib encouraged women to throw away all
    symbols of female oppression (hair curlers,
    girdles, bras, etc.), but also engaged in
    consciousness raising sessions that helped
    participants realize their individual problems
    were part of a wider pattern of oppression.

76
  • By 1970, a convergence of interests began to blur
    the distinction between womens rights and
    womens liberation feminists were beginning to
    think of themselves as part of a broad, growing,
    and increasingly influential social crusade that
    would continue to grow.

77
Challenges to Tradition The Womens Movement and
Gay Rights
78
  • Feminism was the most enduring movement to emerge
    from the 1960s as the womens movement grew, it
    generated an array of women-oriented services and
    organizations.
  • In 1972, Gloria Steinem and other journalists
    founded Ms. magazine, the first consumer magazine
    aimed at a feminist audience, and formerly
    all-male bastions such as Yale, Princeton, and
    the U.S.Military Academy, admitted women for the
    first time.

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  • Several new national womens organizations
    emerged, and established groups such as the
    National Organization for Women (NOW) continued
    to grow.
  • The National Womens Political Caucus, founded in
    1971, promoted the election of women to public
    office their success stories included
    Congresswomen Shirley Chisholm, Patricia
    Schroeder, Geraldine Ferraro, and Governor Ella
    T. Grasso.

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  • Womens political mobilization resulted in
    significant legislative and administrative gains,
    such as Title IX of the Educational Amendments
    Act of 1972 prohibiting colleges and universities
    that received federal funds from discriminating
    on the basis of sex.
  • Affirmative action was extended to women in 1967
    in 1972, Congress authorized childcare deductions
    for working parents in 1974, the Equal Credit
    Opportunity Act improved womens access to
    credit.

83
  • The Supreme Court gave women more control over
    their reproductive lives by reading the right of
    privacy into the Ninth and Fourteenth Amendments
    concepts of personal liberty.
  • Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) overturned state
    laws against the sale of contraceptive devices to
    married adults this was later extended to single
    adults.

84
  • The Roe v. Wade (1973) decision prevented states
    from outlawing abortions performed during the
    first trimester and fueled the development of a
    powerful antiabortion movement.
  • Another battlefront for the womens movement was
    the Equal Rights Amendment, which read, Equality
    of rights under the law shall not be denied or
    abridged by the United States or any State on the
    basis of sex despite an extension of the
    deadline until 1982, the ERA fell short of the
    required threefourths majority for ratification.

85
  • Nonwhite and working-class women saw the feminist
    movement as catering to self-seeking white career
    women the movement also faced growing social
    conservatism among Americans.
  • Phyllis Schlafly led the antifeminist backlash
    in advocating traditional roles for women and by
    asserting that women would lose more than they
    would gain if the ERA passed, her organization
    resonated with those who were troubled by the
    rapid pace of social change.

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  • More women joined the workforce, many delayed
    getting married and having children, and the
    divorce rate went up the rise in divorce and
    adolescent pregnancy contributed to the
    feminization of poverty and by 1980, women
    accounted for 66 percent of adults living below
    the poverty line.
  • The gay liberation movement achieved greater
    visibility in the 1970s as gay communities gave
    rise to hundreds of new gay and lesbian clubs,
    churches, businesses, and political organizations.

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  • Some cities passed laws barring discrimination on
    the basis of sexual preference.
  • Gay rights came under attack from conservatives
    who believed that protecting gay peoples rights
    would encourage immoral behavior antigay
    campaigns sprang up around the country.

90
Enforcing Civil Rights
  • Although the civil rights movement was in
    disarray by the late 1960s, minority group
    protests over the next decade continued to win
    social and economic gains.
  • Native Americans realized some of the most
    significant changes with the 1971 Alaska Native
    Claims Act and the Indian Self-Determination Act
    of 1974.

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  • The court-mandated busing of children to achieve
    school desegregation proved to be the most
    disruptive social issue of the 1970s.
  • In Milliken v. Bradley (1974) the Supreme Court
    ordered cities with deeply ingrained patterns of
    residential segregation to use busing to achieve
    integration, which sparked intense and sometimes
    violent opposition, such as that in Boston in
    1974 to 1975.

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  • Threatened by court-ordered busing, many white
    parents transferred their children to private
    schools, resulting in white flight that
    increased racial imbalance, while many black
    parents who opposed busing called instead for
    better schools in predominantly black
    neighborhoods.
  • Affirmative action, which had expanded
    opportunities for African Americans and Latinos,
    also proved divisive.

94
  • Bakke v. University of California (1978) was a
    setback for proponents of affirmative action and
    prepared the way for subsequent efforts to
    eliminate those programs.
  • Activists for the various causes were part of a
    rights revolution, a movement in the 1960s and
    1970s to bring the issues of social justice and
    welfare to the forefront of public policy by the
    end of the 1970s, however, their movements faced
    growing opposition.

95
Lean Economic Times
  • Energy Crisis

1973
1979
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  • After twenty-five years of world leadership, the
    economic dominance of the United States had begun
    to fade.
  • By the late 1960s, the United States was buying
    more and more oil on the world market to keep up
    with shrinking domestic reserves and growing
    demand.
  • In 1960, oil-producing developing countries
    formed OPEC.

98
  • Just five of the founding countries Saudi
    Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, and Iraq, plus Venezuela
    were the source of more than 80 percent of the
    worlds crude oil exports.
  • Between 1973 and 1975, OPEC raised the price of a
    barrel of oil from 3 to 12 by the end of the
    decade the price was at 34 a barrel, setting off
    a round of furious inflation in the oil-dependent
    United States.

99
  • In 1973, OPEC instituted an oil embargo against
    the United States, Western Europe, and Japan in
    retaliation for their aid to Israel during the
    Yom Kippur War.
  • The embargo lasted until 1974 and forced
    Americans to curtail their driving or spend hours
    in line at the pumps.

100
  • As Americans turned to more fuel-efficient
    foreign-made cars, the domestic auto industry
    with little to offer except gas-guzzlers
    slumped, further weakening the American economy.
  • The energy crisis was an enormous shock to both
    the American economy and psyche, yet Americans
    used even more foreign oil after the energy
    crisis than they had before.

101
  • Economic Woes

102
  • Due to a steadily growing federal deficit and
    spiraling inflationcoupled with a reduced demand
    for American goodsin 1971 the dollar fell to its
    lowest level on the world market since 1949, and
    the United States posted its first trade deficit
    in almost a century.
  • The gross domestic product (GDP), which had
    averaged 4.1 percent per year in the 1960s,
    dropped to only 2.9 percent in the 1970s,
    contributing to a noticeable decline in most
    Americans standard of living.

103
  • Inflation forced consumer prices upward housing
    prices more than doubled, making homeownership
    inaccessible to a growing segment of the working
    and middle classes.
  • The inflationary crisis helped to forge new
    attitudes about saving and spending investors
    fought inflation through the stock market and
    mutual funds, while millions of Americans did
    without savings altogether and coped with
    inflation by going into debt.

104
  • Unemployment peaked at around 9 percent in 1975
    and hovered at 6 to 7 percent in the late 1970s
    as a record number of baby boomers competed for a
    limited number of jobs.
  • This devastating combination of inflation and
    unemployment was termed stagflation and
    bedeviled presidential administrations from Nixon
    to Reagan, whose remedies, such as deficit
    spending and tax reduction, failed to eradicate
    the double scourge.

105
  • American economic woes were most acute in the
    industrial sector, which entered a prolonged
    period of decline, or deindustrialization.
  • Many U.S. firms relocated overseas, partly to
    take advantage of cheaper labor and production
    costs by the end of the 1970s, the hundred
    largest multinational corporations and banks were
    earning more than a third of their overall
    profits abroad.

106
  • In the Rust Belt, huge factories were fast
    becoming relics many workers moved to the Sun
    Belt, where right-to-work laws made it
    difficult to build strong labor unions and made
    these states inhospitable to organized labor.

107
  • As foreign competition cut into corporate
    profits, industry became less willing to bargain
    union membership dropped from 28 to 23 percent of
    the American workforce in the 1970s and to only
    16 percent by the end of the 1980s.
  • Some companies moved their operations abroad in
    a competitive global environment, labors
    prospects seemed dim.

108
  • Reform and Reaction in the 1970s

109
The New Activism Environmental and Consumer
Movements
110
  • After 1970, many baby boomers left the
    counterculture behind and settled down to pursue
    careers and material goods.
  • These young adults sought personal fulfillment as
    well through fitness, heightened environmental
    awareness, or the spiritual support offered by
    the human-potential (New Age) movement and
    alternative religious groups.

111
  • A few baby boomers still pursued the unfinished
    social and political agendas of the 1960s by
    joining the left wing of the Democratic Party or
    establishing community based organizations, thus
    continuing their activism on a grassroots level.
  • Many of these activists helped to invigorate the
    emerging environmental movement that had been
    energized by the publication in 1962 of Rachel
    Carsons Silent Spring, a powerful analysis of
    the impact of pesticides on the food chain.

112
  • The Alaskan pipeline, oil spills, and Love Canal
    situations helped galvanize public opinion on
    environmental issues.
  • Nuclear energy became a subject of citizen action
    in the 1970s public fears were confirmed in 1979
    when a nuclear plant at Three Mile Island came
    critically close to a meltdown. Activism,
    combined with fear of the potential dangers of
    nuclear energy, convinced many utility companies
    to abandon nuclear power.

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  • Americans concerns about environmental issues
    helped to turn environmentalism into a mass
    movement the first Earth Day was held in 1970,
    and 20-million citizens gathered in communities
    across the country to express their concern for
    the endangered planet.

115
  • In 1969, Congress passed the National
    Environmental Policy Act, which required the
    developers of public projects to file an
    environmental impact statement, and in 1970,
    Nixon established the EPA and signed the Clean
    Air Act, which toughened standards for auto
    emissions in order to reduce smog and air
    pollution.

116
  • The Endangered Species Act of 1973 expanded the
    Endangered Animals Act of 1964, granting
    endangered species protected status.
  • In a time of rising unemployment and
    reindustrialization, activists clashed head-on
    with proponents of economic development, full
    employment, and global competitiveness.

117
  • The rise of environmentalism was paralleled by a
    growing consumer protection movement to eliminate
    harmful consumer products and to curb dangerous
    practices by American corporations.
  • After decades of inertia, the consumer movement
    reemerged in the 1960s under the leadership of
    Ralph Nader, whose Unsafe at Any Speed (1965)
    attacked GM for putting style ahead of safe
    handling and fuel economy in its engineering of
    the Corvair.

118
  • Ralph Naders Public Interest Research Group
    became the model for other groups that later
    emerged to combat the health hazards of smoking,
    unethical insurance and credit practices, and
    other consumer problems.
  • The establishment of the federal Consumer
    Products Safety Commission in 1972 reflected the
    growing importance of consumer protection in
    American life.

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120
  • The establishment of the federal Consumer
    Products Safety Commission in 1972 reflected the
    growing importance of consumer protection in
    American life

121
The Growth of Conservatism
  • Growing and often violent opposition to abortion,
    busing, affirmative action, gay rights
    ordinances, and the ERA constituted a broad
    challenge to the social changes of the previous
    decade.
  • This resurgent climate of conservatism was also
    fueled by a major revival in evangelical
    Christianity that would soon become a potent
    force in American culture and politics.

122
  • The social and economic changes of the 1970s
    fueled resentment against special-interest groups
    and the growing expenditures on social welfare,
    which conservatives believed robbed other
    Americans of educational and employment
    opportunities and saddled the working and middle
    classes with an extra financial burden.
  • Resentment manifested itself in a wave of
    taxpayers revolts such as Californias
    Proposition 13, which undercut the local
    governments ability to maintain schools and
    other services.

123
  • Evangelical Christian groups were another source
    for conservatism in the late 1970s many set up
    their own school systems and newspapers, and
    broadcast networks were established by such
    televangelists as Pat Robertson and Jerry
    Falwell, both of whom built vast and influential
    electronic ministries.
  • Many of these evangelicals spoke out on a broad
    range of issues, denouncing abortion, busing, sex
    education, pornography, feminism, and gay rights
    and bringing their religious values to a wider
    public.

124
  • In 1979 Falwell founded the Moral Majority, a
    political pressure group that promoted Christian
    family values and staunch anticommunism.
  • The extensive media and fund-raising networks of
    the Christian right became the organizational
    base for a larger conservative movement known as
    the New Right.

125
  • The New Rights diverse constituents, such as the
    neoconservatives, shared hostility toward a
    powerful federal government and a fear of
    declining social morality.
  • New Right political groups mobilized followers
    and dollars to the support of conservative
    candidates and causes, and laid the foundation
    for a movement that helped to elect Ronald Reagan
    as president and affected national politics for
    decades to come.

126
  • Politics in the Wake of Watergate

127
Fords Caretaker Presidency
  • During the two years Gerald Ford was president,
    he failed to establish his legitimacy his pardon
    of Nixon damaged his credibility. Yet Fords
    biggest challenge was the reeling economy.

128
  • Inflation soared to 12 percent in 1974, and the
    economy took its deepest downturn since the Great
    Depression Fords failure to take more vigorous
    action made him appear timid and powerless.
  • In foreign policy, Ford maintained Nixons
    détente initiatives, increased support to the
    shah of Iran, and made little progress toward an
    arms-limitation treaty with the Soviets.

129
Jimmy Carter The Outsider as President
  • In the 1976 presidential election, Jimmy Carter
    won the election with a 50 percent versus Fords
    48 percent of the popular vote by playing up his
    role as a Washington outsider and pledging to
    restore morality to government.

130
  • Despite his efforts to overcome the
    post-Watergate climate of skepticism and apathy,
    Carter never became an effective leader and his
    outsider strategy distanced him from traditional
    sources of power.
  • Inflation was Carters major domestic challenge
    to counter inflation, interest rates were raised
    repeatedly, and they topped 20 percent in 1980.

131
  • Carter expanded the federal bureaucracy by
    enlarging the cabinet with the creation of the
    Departments of Energy and Education and approved
    environmental protection measures such as a
    Superfund to clean up chemical pollution.
  • Carter, however, continued Nixons efforts to
    reduce the scope of federal activities by
    reforming the civil service and deregulating the
    airline, trucking, and railroad industries
    deregulation dropped prices, but resulted in
    cutthroat competition that drove many firms out
    of business and encouraged corporate
    consolidation.

132
  • Carters attempt to resolve the energy crisis
    faltered in his malaise speech he called
    energy conservation efforts the moral equivalent
    of war, yet his efforts to decontrol oil and
    natural gas prices as a spur to domestic
    production and conservation failed.
  • In early 1979 a revolution in Iran curtailed oil
    supplies, leading to a 55 percent increase in the
    price of gas and long gas lines that summer,
    Carters approval rating dropped to 26 percent
    lower than Richard Nixons during the worst part
    of the Watergate scandal.

133
Carter and the World
134
  • In foreign affairs, Carter made human rights the
    centerpiece of his policy he criticized the
    suppression of dissent in the Soviet
  • Union, withdrew economic aid from countries that
    violated human rights, and established the Office
    of Human Rights in the State Department.
  • 2. In 1977, Carter signed a treaty that turned
    over control of the Panama Canal to Panama
    effective December 31, 1999, in return for which
    the United States retained the right to send its
    ships through the canal in case of war.

135
  • Hopes for Senate ratification of the SALT II
    treaty collapsed when the Soviets invaded
    Afghanistan in December, 1989 Carter responded
    by canceling American participation in the 1980
    Moscow Olympics and providing covert assistance
    to an Afghan group who called themselves
    mujahideen, thereby helping to establish the now
    infamous Taliban.
  • It was in the Middle East that President Carter
    achieved both his most stunning success and his
    greatest failure

136
  • He successfully brokered a framework for peace
    between Israel and Egypt at Camp David that
    included Egypts recognition of Israels right to
    exist and Israels return of the Sinai Peninsula
    to Egypt.
  • Less successful was Carters foreign policy
    toward Iran.
  • In 1979, the shah of Irans government was
    overthrown by fundamentalist Muslim leader,
    Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, after which the
    Carter administration admitted the deposed shah
    to the United States for medical treatments.

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  • Iranian fundamentalists seized the U.S. embassy
    in Tehran and took 52 American hostages in
    November 1979 demanding that the shah be returned
    to Iran for trial and punishment.

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140
  • The United States refused that demand instead,
    Carter suspended arms sales to Iran, froze
    Iranian assets in American banks, and threatened
    to deport Iranian students in the United States.
  • A failed military rescue reinforced the publics
    view of Carter as being ineffective, and the
    crisis paralyzed his presidency for the next
    fourteen months

141
The Reagan Revolution
142
  • For the 1980 presidential election, Republicans
    nominated former California governor Ronald
    Reagan Reagan chose George Bush as his running
    mate.
  • By exploiting the hostage stalemate and appealing
    to the American insecurities that flourished in
    the 1970s, Reagan won the election in a landslide
    that also helped Republicans win control of the
    Senate for the first time since 1954.

143
  • Superior financial resources and a realignment of
    the electorate contributed to the Republican
    resurgence of the 1970s while Democrats saw
    their key constituency of organized labor
    dwindle, the Grand Old Party (GOP) used its
    financial superiority to reach voters.
  • The core of the Republican Party remained
    upper-middle-class whites who supported balanced
    budgets and a strong national defense, disliked
    government activism, feared crime and communism,
    and believed in a strong national defense.

144
  • New groups gravitated toward the Republican
    vision southern whites, urban ethnics,
    blue-collar workers, westerners, and young voters
    who identified themselves as conservatives.
  • A significant constituency in the Republican
    Party was the New Right, especially the religious
    right, whose emphasis on traditional values and
    Christian morality dovetailed well with
    conservative Republican ideology.

145
  • On January 20, 1981, at the moment Carter turned
    over the presidency to Ronald Reagan, the Iranian
    government released the American hostages after
    444 days of captivity the hostage crisis in Iran
    came to symbolize the loss of Americas power to
    control world affairs

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