Civil Society Lecture: Interest Groups, Pressure Groups, Social Movements, Pluralism & Polyarchy, Corporatism, Civil Society - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Civil Society Lecture: Interest Groups, Pressure Groups, Social Movements, Pluralism & Polyarchy, Corporatism, Civil Society

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Title: Civil Society Lecture: Interest Groups, Pressure Groups, Social Movements, Pluralism & Polyarchy, Corporatism, Civil Society


1
Civil Society Lecture Interest Groups, Pressure
Groups, Social Movements, Pluralism Polyarchy,
Corporatism, Civil Society
  • Definitions, Implications, Problems and Questions

2
Pressure Groups
  • Grew from the idea that democracy not so much a
    matter of parliament, MPs or Congressmen, but
    about managing demands of competing groups
  • Permanent or ad hoc?
  • Insider or outsider?
  • Campaigners or defenders?
  • Single-issue or multi-issue?

3
Interest groups
  • More permanent connotations idea that there are
    lots of permanent groups that have to defend
    their interests
  • Finer produced 10 categories things like
    churches, chambers of commerce, trade unions
  • Distinguished from parties because didnt run for
    office or try to become government
  • Distinction more blurred now

4
Social Movements
  • SMs are defined as a set of opinions and beliefs
    in a population which represents preferences for
    changing some elements of the social structure
    and/or reward distribution of society (McCarthy
    and Zald, 1977)
  • SMs are broadly conceived They differ from
    interest groups and pressure groups which are
    specific organisational phenomena
  • Interest groups and pressure groups can become
    part of a SM (eg trade unions in the broader
    labour movement), as can political parties (eg
    the Labour Party in the Ban the Bomb movement and
    CND in the 1980s)
  • When referring to organisations within a SM they
    are described as social movement organisations
    (SMOs).

5
Pluralism or Polyarchy
  • Two of those 1960s political science terms
  • Simply mean that there are lots of centres of
    power in a particular political system
  • Supposed to be the case that all democracies are
    liberal and this is one of the things that
    distinguishes them from totalitarian regimes

6
Corporatism
  • Problematic term
  • Has authoritarian pluralist connotations
  • A system of interest representation in which the
    constituent units are organised into a limited
    number of singular, compulsory, non-competitive,
    hierarchically ordered and functionally
    differentiated categories, recognised or licensed
    (if not created) by the state and granted a
    deliberate representational monopoly within their
    respective categories in exchange for observing
    certain controls in their selection of leaders
    and articulation of demands and supports.
  • (Schmitter in Rike Strich (eds.), 1974
    93-94).
  • Mexico up to 2000 is a perfect example of
    corporatist state

7
Civil Society?
  • Classic Definitions
  • Revised Ideas
  • Current Uses of the term I
  • Current Uses II
  • Current Uses III
  • Current Uses IV
  • Problems with the term
  • Obstacles to Civil Society
  • Civil Society and Democratisation I Latin
    America
  • Civil Society and Democratisation II the Middle
    East
  • Conclusions

8
Classic Definitions John Locke Georg Willhelm
Friedrich Hegel
  • CS is an arena of activity for the protection of
    individual property rights from the state (Two
    Treatises of Government) ? statist conception ?
    without state, CS carries no meaning
  • Hegel 1- CS entails the protection of individual
    rights the needs of the rich in order to secure
    freedom in eco/soc/cul arenas 2- CS describes
    eco/soc/cul activity outside state control or
    coercion

9
Classic Definitions Karl Marx Thomas De
Tocqueville
  • Marx Bourgeois Civil Society an economic
    definition of CS
  • CS is independent of government, separates the
    economic sphere from the personal and the
    political spheres, and has the bourgeoisie as
    its engine
  • De Tocqueville CS Vs State
  • The need to defend CS from states tendency to
    smother individual and social freedoms
  • CS as the private sphere, independent of
    government intervention

10
Reinterpretations of Civil Society Antonio
Gramsci
  • Gramscis critique of Lenins universality
  • Differences between West and East Europe required
    different tactics from Western revolutionaries
  • Existence of strong (bourgeois) civil society in
    West meant revolutionaries couldnt just seize
    the state.
  • Need for intellectuals to win over institutions
    of civil society

11
Current Uses of the term I E. Shils and M. Walzer
  • E. Shils CS is beyond the boundaries of the
    family and clan and beyond the localitylying
    short of the state (1992).
  • M. Walzer CS is the space of uncoerced human
    association also the set of relational networks
    - formed for the sake of family, faith,
    interests ideology that fill this space
    (1995)
  • For both, CS incorporates trade unions, SMs,
    cooperatives, neighbourhoods, societies etc.,
    which promote particular interests

12
Current Uses of the term II
  • Challenging Authoritarian Regimes
  • Counterweight to state power (return to de
    Tocqueville)
  • Independent sphere of free expression and
    association (Hegel)
  • Place from which to develop new or
    counterhegemonic political projects (Gramsci)

13
Current Uses of the term III
  • Contribution to democracy
  • CS as sphere of civility a normative
    interpretation (Gramsci role of intellectuals)
  • CS as sphere of pluralism participation an
    institutional interpretation (Gramsci structures
    of civil society)
  • CS as a check on state power (Locke, Hegel, de
    Tocqueville)

14
Current Uses of the term IV
  • Becoming an International Actor
  • NGOs and INGOs NGO-isation of World Society
    (Meyer, 1997)
  • World Economic Forum, WTO (?)
  • Transnational Advocacy Networks
  • International Social Movements Seattle, Genoa,
    World Social Forum, Anti-globalisation

15
Problems With the Term
  • Fuzzy Where are the boundaries?
  • Are multinationals part of an internationalising
    civil society? Are they part of governance
    structures? Should we reserve civil society for
    progressive pro-bono actors?
  • Idea of CS is rooted in western philosophy and
    historical developmentOrientalism?

16
Obstacles to Civil Society
  • State restrictions on freedoms, civil liberties
    etc.
  • Social and economic inequalities
  • Political culture, ideological religious
    beliefs (can civil society co-exist with
    ideological totalitarianism? Can it exist within
    a religious state governed by a theocracy?)
  • Backlash Iran 1979 (?)

17
Transitions to Democracy I Latin America
  • Mexico
  • Corporatist state Central Party (PRI)
  • CNC (peasant cadre), CTM (workers cadre), CNOP
    (middle classes, bourgeoisie, civil servants)

18
Transitions to Democracy I Latin America
  • 1968 Massacre of Students as Tlatelolco
    coincides with international attention of Olympic
    Games
  • Condemnation from World Society (reverse
    panopticon)
  • 1970 New President Luis Echeverria Initiates
    sweeping social reforms enabling free
    associations, free speech, free press etc.,
    granting legitimacy to civil society
    organisations (CSOs) previously OUTSIDE the
    corporatist structure
  • Growth of independent social movements and
    independent CSOs
  • Still corruption at electoral level PRI
    maintains grip on power
  • 1982 Rise of Neoliberalism closer ties with
    America and multinationals need for further
    transparency and liberalisation
  • 1988 Neoliberal drive intensifies under
    President Salinas
  • 1994 NAFTA
  • 1994 Zapatista movement dramatises PRI
    totalitarianism for World Society
  • 2000 Eventual defeat of PRI via free elections
    after over 70 years in power

19
  • Transitions to Democracy II Middle East
  • Civil society interpreted in specifically
    Western (Lockean, Hegelian) terms is unlikely to
    emerge in the Middle East, but this should not
    exclude the development of other kinds of
    inclusive solidarity communities
  • (M. Hudson, 1988 168)
  • In a secular, liberal state that subscribes
    to the principles of religious toleration,
    historical religions...are part of civil
    society(T. Asad, 1992 9)

20
Transitions to Democracy II Middle East
  • There is confusion in the Arab public mind, at
    least about the meaning of democracy. The
    confusion is, however, understandable since the
    idea of democracy is quite alien to the mind-set
    of Islam(E. Kedourie, 1992 1)

21
Summary
  • What have we looked at?
  • - Classic Definitions (Hegel, Locke,
    Tocqueville, Marx etc.)
  • - Revised Ideas (Neo-Marxist ideas of CS as
    revolutionary)
  • - Current Uses of the term I (Walzer, Shils)
  • - Current Uses II (Challenge to authoritarian
    regimes)
  • - Current Uses III (Contribution to Democracy)
  • - Current Uses IV (Internationalisation of CS)
  • - Problems with the term (Orientalist?
    Ambiguous?)
  • - Obstacles to Civil Society (Civil Liberties,
    Cultural Beliefs)
  • - Civil Society and Democratisation I Latin
    America
  • - Civil Society and Democratisation II the
    Middle East
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