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Chapter 4: The Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, Glycogen, and


Chapter 4: The Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, Glycogen, and Fiber Basic Nutrition Dr. Fralinger 9/24/07 Introduction Carbohydrates are ideal nutrients that are used to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4: The Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, Glycogen, and

Chapter 4 The Carbohydrates Sugar, Starch,
Glycogen, and Fiber
  • Basic Nutrition
  • Dr. Fralinger
  • 9/24/07

  • Carbohydrates are ideal nutrients that are used
  • meet your bodys energy needs
  • feed your brain and nervous system
  • keep your digestive system fit
  • help keep your body lean

  • Digestible carbs together with fats and protein
  • add bulk to foods
  • provide energy and other benefits for the body
  • Indigestible carbs
  • include most of the fibers in foods
  • yield little or no energy
  • provide other important benefits

  • All carbs are not equal in terms of nutrition
  • Complex carbs
  • long chains of sugar units arranged to form
    starch or fiber
  • also called polysaccharides
  • Simple carbs
  • Sugars
  • include both single sugar units and linked pairs
    of sugar units

A Close Look at Carbohydrates
  • Carbs contain the suns radiant energy
  • Green plants make carbohydrate through
  • Chlorophyll used to capture the suns energy to
    make carbohydrate from CO2 and water
  • Water and CO2 combine to yield the most common of
    the sugars - glucose

A Close Look at Carbohydrates
  • Glucose provides energy for the work of all cells
  • Plants do not use all of the energy stored in
    their sugars, so it remains available for use by
  • Milk is the only animal derived food that
    contains significant amts. of carbs

  • Six sugar molecules are important in nutrition
  • Monosaccharides
  • Single sugars
  • glucose, fructose, galactose
  • Disaccharides
  • Double sugars linked pairs of single sugars
  • lactose, maltose, sucrose

  • Fructose
  • Fruit sugar
  • Occurs mostly in
  • Fruits
  • Honey
  • As part of table sugar
  • Soft drinks
  • Ready to eat cereals
  • Anything sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup

  • Galactose
  • Make up sugar of milk
  • Rarely occurs free in nature
  • Tied up in milk sugar until freed during digestion

  • Maltose
  • Malt sugar
  • Appears wherever starch is being broken down

  • Sucrose
  • Table sugar
  • Fructose and glucose bonded together
  • Obtained by refining juice from sugar beets or
  • Also occurs naturally in many vegetables and

  • When you eat a food containing single sugars, you
    can absorb them directly into your blood
  • When you eat disaccharides you must digest them
  • Glucose is the most-used monosaccharide inside
    the body

  • Polysaccharides
  • Another term for complex carbs
  • Compounds composed of long strands of glucose
    units linked together
  • Starch
  • Plant polysaccharide composed of glucose
  • After cooking, starch highly digestible by humans
  • Nutritious for humans because once digested, body
    can extract the suns energy stored in its bonds
  • Raw starch often resists digestion

Sugar Breakdown
  • Highly branched polysaccharide composed of
  • Made and stored by liver and muscle tissues of
    humans and animals as storage form of glucose
  • Not counted as one of the complex carbs in foods

  • The indigestible parts of plant foods
  • Nonstarch polysaccharides not digested by human
  • Some digested by resident bacteria in the colon

  • Often divided into two groups
  • Soluble fibers
  • Dissolve in water
  • Form gels that are easily digested by bacteria in
  • Insoluble fibers
  • Do not dissolve in water
  • Do not form gels
  • Found in outer layers of whole grains (bran),
    celery, skins of corn kernels

The Need for Carbohydrates
  • Glucose from carbs is an important fuel for most
    body functions
  • Only two other nutrients provide energy to the
    body protein and fats
  • Starchy foods, or complex carbs., and especially
    fiber-rich ones, are the preferred source of
    glucose in the diet

Should I Avoid Carbs to Lose Weight?
  • No!!!!
  • People who wish to lose fat and maintain lean
    tissue and a healthy body must attend closely to
    portion sizes, control total calories, and design
    their diets around foods that supply carbs in
    balance with other energy nutrients
  • Overall, carbs donate fewer calories than dietary

Why Fiber?
  • Provides valuable vitamins, minerals, and
  • Apples, barley, carrots, legumes, and oats are
    rich in viscous fibers
  • Have a significant cholesterol-lowering effect
  • Cooked legumes can help regulate blood glucose
    following a carbohydrate-rich meal

Lower Cholesterol and Heart Disease Risk
  • Diets rich in legumes, vegetables, and whole
    grains (ergo, rich in complex carbs) may protect
    against heart disease and stroke

Correlations of Diet Contents and Risk of Heart
Correlations of Diet Contents and Risk of Heart
  • Foods rich in viscous fibers lower blood
    cholesterol by binding with cholesterol-containing
    bile in the intestine and carrying it out with
    the feces

Blood Glucose Control
  • Viscous fibers
  • Can trap nutrients and delay their transmission
    through the digestive tract
  • Therefore, glucose absorption is slowed
  • This helps prevent the roller-coaster surges in
    blood glucose and insulin, which are thought to
    be associated with the onset of diabetes

Maintenance of Digestive Tract Health
  • All kinds of fibers, in addition to ample fluid
    intake, play roles in maintaining proper colon
  • Cellulose (cereal brans, fruits, vegetables)
  • Enlarges and softens stools
  • Eases passage of waste out of the body
  • Speeds transit time through colon
  • Alleviates/prevents constipation

Maintenance of a Healthy Digestive Tract
Ahh...Thank goodness! Regular again!!
Oh I need more fiber? I didnt know that!
Wow, this stuff really works!
This constipation is killing me!!
From Digestive Pain to Feeling Sane!!!
Maintenance of Digestive Tract Health
  • The Plus Side of Softer Stools
  • Hemorrhoid risk reduction
  • Hemorrhoids result from swelling of rectal veins
  • Softer stools reduce pressure in the colon and
    ease task of elimination for the rectal muscles

Maintenance of Digestive Tract Health
  • The Plus Side of Softer Stools
  • Appendicitis risk reduction
  • Appendicitis is inflammation and/or infection of
    the appendix, which is a sac protruding from the

Maintenance of Digestive Tract Health
  • The Plus Side of Softer Stools
  • Diverticula risk reduction
  • Diverticula are sacs or pouches that balloon out
    of the intestinal wall
  • Caused by weakening of the muscle layers that
    encase intestine
  • Painful inflammation of one or more of these is
    known as diverticulitis

Maintenance of Digestive Tract Health
  • Those with high-fiber diets generally have lower
    rates of colon cancer than those with low-fiber
  • Doubling fiber intake in low-fiber diets can
    reduce risks of colon and rectal cancers by 40

Healthy Weight Management
  • Foods rich in complex carbs tend to be low in
    fats and added sugars
  • Can promote weight loss by delivering less energy
    per bite
  • Fibers create feelings of fullness and delay
    hunger because they swell as they absorb water
    from digestive juices

DRI Recommendations for Fiber Intake
Effective Ways to Add Fiber
  • To add fiber while lowering fat
  • substitute plant sources of proteins (legumes)
    for some of the animal sources of protein (meats
    and cheeses)
  • Focus on consuming the recommended amounts of
    fruits and vegetables each day
  • If you choose high fiber foods, drink extra
    fluids to help the fiber do its job

Can My Diet Have Too Much Fiber?
  • Well, only if you overdo it!
  • If you consume large quantities of fiber and do
    not drink enough fluids, the intestine can become
    blocked and require surgery this is only in
    extreme cases
  • Moderation and fluid consumption are key!

Binders in Fiber
  • Chelating agents
  • Molecules that attract or bind with other
  • useful in either preventing or promoting movement
    of substances from place to place

From Carbohydrates to Glucose
  • The various body systems must make glucose
    available to the cells at a steady rate all day
  • Body needs to continuously break down the foods
    or whole molecules of lactose, sucrose, or starch
    for energy

Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrate
  • Starch

Each chewed lump is pushed down mixed with
stomach acids, deactivating salivary enzyme
If you notice a sweet taste, maltose is being
Saliva enzymes in the mouth mix with food
begin to split starch into maltose
Starch digestion ceases in the stomach but
resumes in small Intestine with enzyme delivered
by pancreas
Pancreatic enzyme breaks starch into
disaccharides polysaccharides
Other enzymes liberate monosaccharides for
Why Do Some People Have Trouble Digesting Milk?
  • As people age, about 75 lose much of their
    ability to produce lactase to digest the milk
    sugar lactose
  • Lactase
  • Intestinal enzyme that splits the disaccharide
    lactose to monosaccharides during digestion

Why Do Some People Have Trouble Digesting Milk?
  • People with lactose intolerance experience
  • Nausea
  • Pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Excessive gas

Why Do Some People Have Trouble Digesting Milk?
  • Undigested lactose remaining in the intestine
    demands dilution with fluid from surrounding
    tissue and the bloodstream
  • Intestinal bacterial use the undigested lactose
    for their own energy, a process that produces gas
    and intestinal irritants

Why Do Some People Have Trouble Digesting Milk?
  • Sometimes sensitivity to milk is due to an
    allergic reaction the protein in milk
  • Milk allergy results from sensitization of the
    immune system to the protein in it

The Bodys Use of Glucose
  • Splitting Glucose for Energy
  • Inside a cell, glucose is broken in half,
    releasing some energy
  • Two pathways are then open
  • Put back together to make glucose again
  • Broken into smaller fragments that can eventually
    break down to CO2 and water
  • Can be formed into building blocks of protein or
  • Can be hitched together into unitys of body fat

The Bodys Use of Glucose
  • Below a healthy minimum
  • Glucose can be converted into body fat, but body
    fat cannot be converted into glucose to feed the
    brain adequately

The Bodys Use of Glucose
  • Below a healthy minimum
  • When body faces a severe carb deficit, two
  • Must turn to protein to make some, diverting it
    from critical functions like maintaining immune
  • Fat fragments cannot combine with compounds
    derived from glucose so they bind to each other
    and produce acidic ketone bodies, disturbing
    normal acid-base balance

The Bodys Use of Glucose
  • Ketosis - undesirable high concentration of
    ketone bodies in the blood or urine
  • Deficiencies of vitamins, minerals
  • Loss of bone minerals
  • Altered blood lipids
  • Increased risk of kidney stones
  • Impaired mood and sense of well-being
  • Glycogen stores too low to meet a metabolic
    emergency or support max muscle work

The Bodys Use of Glucose
  • Minimum amt of digestible carbs set by the DRI to
    adequately feed the brain and reduce ketosis is
    130g/day for an average-sized person

Storing Glucose as Glycogen
  • After a meal, the pancreas is the first organ to
  • Releases insulin, which signals body to take up
    surplus glucose
  • Muscle and liver cells use some of this excess
    glucose to build glycogen
  • Muscles take 2/3 of the total glycogen
  • Brain stores a tiny fraction of the total
  • Liver stores the remainder

Storing Glucose as Glycogen
  • When blood glucose concentration drops and cells
    need energy, glucagon (pancreatic hormone) floods
    the bloodstream to liberate stored glucose from
    liver glycogen
  • Enzymes within the liver cells respond by
    attacking glycogen ends to release surge of
    glucose into the blood

Returning Glucose to the Blood
  • When glucose supplies fall too low, you feel
    dizzy and weak
  • When glucose is high, might become confused or
    have difficulty breathing

Regulation of Blood Glucose
  • Maintaining normal blood glucose concentration
    depends on two safeguards
  • Replenishment from liver glycogen stores
  • Siphoning off of excess glucose into the liver
    and muscles

The Glycemic Response
  • Glycemic Index
  • Ranking of foods according to their potential for
    raising blood glucose relative to a standard such
    as glucose or white bread
  • Glycemic Load
  • Math expression of both the glycemic index and
    the carbohydrate content of a food, meal, or diet
  • Glycemic index X grams carbohydrate

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Diabetes and Hypoglycemia
  • Diabetes
  • Disease characterized by elevated blood glucose
    and inadequate or ineffective insulin, which
    impairs a persons ability to regulate blood
    glucose normally
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type in which pancreas produces no or very little
  • Often diagnosed in childhood

Diabetes and Hypoglycemia
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Pancreas makes plenty of insulin, but bodys
    cells resist insulins action
  • Often diagnosed in adulthood
  • Insulin resistance
  • Condition where a normal or high level of insulin
    produces a less-than-normal response by the
  • Thought to be a metabolic consequence of obesity

Diabetes and Hypoglycemia
  • Impaired glucose tolerance
  • Blood glucose levels higher than normal but not
    high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes
  • Sometimes called prediabetes
  • Type 2 and the Genes
  • Diagnosis and Perils of Diabetes
  • Kidney disease
  • Dialysis treatment of blood to remove toxic
    substances or metabolic wastes

Diabetes and Hypoglycemia
  • Managing Diabetes Nutrition is Key!
  • Adequate nutrients
  • Adequate fiber
  • Moderate in added sugars
  • Controlled in total carbs
  • Low saturated fats
  • Adequate but not too much protein

Diabetes and Hypoglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Blood glucose concentration below normal
  • May indicate diabetes
  • Postprandial hypoglycemia
  • Unusual drop in blood glucose that follows a meal
    and is accompanied by symptoms such as anxiety,
    rapid heartbeat, and sweating
  • Fasting hypoglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia that occurs after 8-14 hours of

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