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The Animal Kingdom

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The Animal Kingdom Invertebrates & Vertebrates www.the-directory.org/index.php?cPath=2 Phylum Porifera (sponges) Phylum Cnidarian (jellyfish, hydra, sea anemone ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Animal Kingdom


1
The Animal Kingdom
Invertebrates Vertebrates
www.the-directory.org/index.php?cPath2
2
The animal kingdom is very diverse.
  • The simplest animals lack a mouth, organ systems
    like a nervous or digestive system have no body
    cavity.
  • More complex animals have specialized organs,
    skeletal systems complex behaviors.

3
Name an animal
  • How many of you named an invertebrate animal?
  • Invertebrates-
  • do not have a backbone
  • more than 95 of all animal species
  • Vertebrates-
  • an animal with a backbone.

4
Consider the following animals
  • sponge,
  • tapeworm,
  • liver fluke
  • clam,
  • earthworm,
  • snail,
  • squid,
  • starfish,
  • shark,
  • elephant
  • Think about how each of these animals eats.
  • Which are carnivores? Herbivores? Parasites?

5
Characteristics of Animals
  • Most members of the animal kingdom share these 4
    Important characteristics
  • 1. Multicellular, no cell walls
  • 2. Heterotrophic
  • 3. Sexual reproduction is common
  • 4. Mobile (at least part of life cycle)

6
Multicellular
  • many specialized cells with no cell walls.
  • (for example- adult humans have
    50-100 trillion cells)
  • Specialization- is the evolutionary adaptation of
    a cell for a particular function.
  • Cell- Tissue- Organ-organ system- Organism

http//www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/img/bice
lltissueorgan.gif
http//millville.sps.edu/allaccess/divisions/scien
ce/jdonnelly/Cell20Page_files/04-05A-AnimalCell-L
.jpg
7
  • Heterotropy- must obtain organic molecules from
    other sources, most animals Ingest Digest
    food.
  • Sexual Reproduction
  • Most animals produce a Zygote from 2 haploid
    gametes.
  • Some animals also reproduce asexually
  • (Budding, Regeneration, Parthenogenesis, etc)

8
  • Motility- Most animals move for at least part of
    their life cycle.
  • Due to 2 tissues- nervous muscle tissues
  • Example coordination
  • between nervous muscle
  • tissue needed for predator
  • (bat) to catch its prey (mosquito)

http//www.medicinebeeherbals.com/images/leaf-nose
d-bat.jpg
9
Pattern of Symmetry describes the body plan of
an animal
  • Asymmetry - no pattern
  • (corals, sponges)
  • Radial Symmetry - shaped
  • like a wheel (starfish, hydra, jellyfish)
  • Bilateral Symmetry -has
  • a right left side (worms, humans,
  • insects, beetles, cats, elephants)

http//www.biologycorner.com/bio1/notes-chap28.htm
l
10
Major Animal Phyla
  • Invertebrates
  • Porifera (sponges)
  • Cnidaria (jellyfish ,coral)
  • Platyhelminthes (flatworms-planarian, tapeworm,
    flukes)
  • Nematoda (roundworms- many parastic)
  • Annelida (segmented worms- earthworms, leeches)
  • Mollusca (soft bodies-snails, clams, squid,
    octopi)
  • Arthropoda
  • arachnids, (spiders, mites ticks)
  • Crusteceans (shrimp, lobster, crab, daphnia,
    crayfish)
  • myriapoda (centipedes millipedes)
  • Insects ( ladybugs, beetles, ants, flies, moths,
    stink bugs)
  • Echinoderms starfish, sea stars. Sea urchins

11
Phylum Porifera (sponges)
http//science.kennesaw.edu/jdirnber/InvertZoo/Le
cPorifera/PoriVarietyp.gif
12
Phylum Cnidarian (jellyfish, hydra, sea anemone)
http//thundafunda.com/33/underwater-animals-fish/
Drifters, 20Jellyfish20pictures20underwater20p
hotos.jpg
http//farm4.static.flickr.com/3290/2415983685_fdf
23a1b17.jpg
http//www.valdosta.edu/jlgoble/Sea20Anemone20D
iadumene20Dia2030cm201.JPG
13
Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms like planarian,
flukes tapeworms)
http//www.ndpteachers.org/perit/Tapeworm5B15D.J
PG
http//piclib.nhm.ac.uk/piclib/webimages/0/33000/4
00/33444_med.jpg
http//researchdata.museum.vic.gov.au/marine/image
s/A17912R1.jpg
14
Phylum Nematoda (round worms)
A parasitic round worm About 20,000 people each
year die of this large round worm infection
when It gets so numerous that their organs
burst.
http//www.okawvetclinic.com/sites/site-2547/image
s/771356b4-7f00-0001-2d02-8dcb3b22dc29.jpg
15
Phylum Annelida Segmented worms Annelids means
little rings (many body segments).
  • Earthworm
  • Bristle worms
  • Leeches

http//www.ync.ca/bronze20level20guide/earthworm
.jpg
http//yhsbiology.wikispaces.com/file/view/Bristle
_worm.jpg/48671939/Bristle_worm.jpg
16
Mollusks
Snails, slugs Clams, Squid. Octopus
static.blogr.com
www.math.tamu.edu
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conch
http//www.americanaquariumproducts.com/images/gra
phics/octopus.jpg
17
Arthropods (Includes millipedes, crustaceans
like crayfish, arachnids like spiders, insects
like ladybugs, beetles, )
  • The largest animal phyla
  • The real rulers of the Earth

http//www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/arthropod
a.html
http//evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/_
0_0/arthropods_intro_01
18
Echinoderms
http//ourkidsnews.com/newssite/images/stories/use
rs/starfish.jpg
19
The next Last phylum is Chordata
  • There are 2 invertebrate chordates
  • Lancelet Tunicates
  • But all the Rest of animals in Chordata are
    vertebrate classes

20
Vertebrate classes
  • 5 classes of Fish
  • Myxini- (Hagfishes -slime eels)
  • Cephalaspidomorphi (Lampreys parasites)
  • Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous - sharks, rays,
    skates)
  • Ray-finned fishes
  • Lobe-Finned Fishes
  • Amphibia -(land water-frogs, toads,
    salamanders)
  • Reptilia- (watertight skin- snakes, alligators,
    turtles, lizards)
  • Aves Birds- have FEATHERS
  • Mammalia (fur milk (orders of mammals)
  • -Monotremes -Marsupials -Placental mammals

21
5 classes of fish
  • Myxini
  • Cephalaspidomorphi
  • Chondrichthyes
  • Actinopterygii
  • Sarcopterygii

www.mantarayinn.com
www2.dpi.qld.gov.au/far/12588.html
http//www.ryanphotographic.com/chordates.htm
22
  • Class Amphibia

Amphibian means "double life -adults live on
land, but their soft eggs must be laid in the
water.
23
Amphibians have moist skin- that they breath
through(tadpoles have gills/ adults have lungs)
24
Frog and toad species distinctive call to
attract females
.
  • Click here to see hear common northern USA
    frogs toads
  • (remember not to go thru firefox)
  • http//dnr.wi.gov/org/caer/ce/eek/critter/amphibia
    n/frogident.htm

25
Class Reptilia water tight skin with amniotic
eggs
  • Chapter 41

http//www.thebigzoo.com/animals/zoom/Varanus_komo
doensis_001.asp
26
How are Reptiles different than amphibians?
  • Watertight skin-
  • Can live in dry areas (although some are aquatic)
  • do not breathe through skin (like amphibians)
  • The amniotic egg
  • layers of membranes -with shell
  • can lay on dry ground
  • Efficient respiration excretion
  • Lungs, 3 or 4 chambered heart
  • Some can go their entire life without drinking
    (desert tortoises lizards)

27
Birdsclass Aves
The only animals with feathers
28
3 types feathers
Downy
Contour
Flight
http//www.kidwings.com/bodyparts/feathers/types/i
ndex.htm
29
Class Mammalia
Monotreme species Only 5 living duck-billed
platypus 4 species of echidna (spiny
anteaters).
Placental mammals 4000 described species, mostly
rodents and bats
Marsupial mammals
http//www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mammal/mammal.html
30
There are 3 different kinds of mammals based on
how they give birth
  • Monotremes are oviparous, they lay eggs.
  • 2. Marsupials are viviparous, they give birth to
    live young that further develop within a pouch on
    the mothers body.
  • 3. Placental mammals also viviparous, but the
    fetus typically develops within the mothers
    reproductive system for a longer time receives
    nourishment through blood-rich structure- the
    placenta.

31
All mammals have the following six major
characteristics
  • Mammalian characteristics
  • 1. Endothermy
  • 2. Hair
  • 3. Completely divided heart
  • 4. Milk/ mammary glands.
  • 5. Single jawbone
  • 6. Specialized teeth

32
Phylogenetic Diagram of Higher Vertebrates
  • History of Mammals-

33
Some Definitions
  • Dorsal -back
  • Ventral -abdomen
  • Anterior -head end
  • Posterior -tail end
  • Cephalization (means it has a HEAD!) its a
    concentration of brain sensory structures in
    anterior end.
  • (Common in bilaterally symmetrical animals.)

34
What are the types of body support?
  • Some invertebrates have no skeletal system
    rely on water for support
  • 2. Exoskeleton
  • some invertebrates like arthropods
  • - must be shed.- does not grow
  • - made of Chitin
  • 3. Endoskeleton-
  • - All vertebrates
  • - grows with the organism
  • - made of cartilage bone

35
Segmentation
  • Is a series of repeating units in the body.
  • Invertebrates Vertebrates
  • Invertebrates earthworm, arthropods
  • All vertebrates Vertebrae- are the repeating
    bony units of the backbone
  • YOU are a segmented animal

36
Example animalsWe will be dissecting these
  • Invertebrate
  • earthworm (Phylum Annelida, class Oligochaeta)
  • Vertebrate
  • frog (Phylum Chordata, class Amphibia)

37
Lumbricus terrestris the Common Earthworm
Kingdom Animal PhylumAnnelida Class
Oligochaeta OrderHaplotaxida FamilyLumbricidae
Genus Lumbricus Species terrestris
www.separationsnow.com
38
Earthworms Feeding /Digestion
  • Ingest soil as they burrow through it.
  • Soil is moved through these structures
  • mouth
  • pharynx
  • esophagus
  • crop
  • gizzard
  • intestine
  • anus
  • Earthworms play an important role in the
    condition of soil.

39
  • Closed circulatory system.
  • Heart is 5 aortic arches
  • Also- have large dorsal blood vessel
  • pump blood through the vessels of the body
  • Respiration and Excretion
  • Oxygen CO2 diffuse through moist skin,
  • Cellular wastes and excess water are excreted
    through nephridia.
  • Neural Control
  • Consists of a chain of ganglia connected by a
    ventral nerve cord.

40
  • Earthworm Reproduction
  • Earthworms are Hermaphrodites,
  • Meaning that each individual has both male
    female reproductive organs.
  • However- an individual worm cannot fertilize its
    own eggs.
  • During mating, earthworms press their ventral
    surfaces together.
  • Held together by their setae and by a film of
    mucus secreted by each worms clitellum.
  • Fertilization occurs inside the tube, which forms
    a protective case for the young worms.

41
You need to know the parts of the earthworm for
the test!!!
42
Earthworm diagrams
43
Things to know from the earthworm dissection
  • The parts of the earthworm digestive tract in
    order Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard,
    intestine, anus
  • That the earthworm has a closed circulatory
    system the hearts are 5 Aortic Arches.
  • Earthworms are hermaphrodites they have both
    male female parts in the same organism
  • Earthworms are segmented animals- have repeating
    body sections.
  • They move with circular longitudinal muscles
  • They are adapted to their diet of eating soil by
    having a long digestive tract- especially the
    intestine for removing nutrients from the dirt.

44
  • The following is Information for Frog dissection

45
Frog (Amphibian) Systems
  • A Skin- no scales, moist, slimy, part of
    respiratory system
  • B. Skeleton- supports body against pull of
    gravity
  • C. Circulatory- 3 chambered heart, 2 circuit
    system
  • D. Respiratory larvae (gills skin) adult
    (lungs skin)
  • E. Digestive large elastic esophagus
    stomach- for carnivores swallowing food whole.
    See parts.
  • F. Excretory- in adult- kidney ammonia (which
    is secreted as waste in fish amphibian larva)
    is transformed to urea
  • G. Nervous- 4 lobes sensory organs
  • H. Reproduction- depend on water, most external
    fertilization, metamorphosis.

46
Digestive System
  • Parts include
  • Pharynx,
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Large intestine
  • Cloaca
  • Waste materials are stored in the cloaca and exit
    the body through the vent.

47
Frog Internal Anatomy
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