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Today’s Agenda

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Today s Agenda: (1) Journal Questions: What did you have for breakfast today? Was it healthy? Explain your response. *(2) Lecture: Digestion, Absorption, Excretion. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Today’s Agenda


1
  • Todays Agenda
  • (1) Journal Questions What did you have for
    breakfast today? Was it healthy? Explain your
    response.
  • (2) Lecture Digestion, Absorption, Excretion.
    (Ending on slide 56)
  • (3) Film The Diet (Body Story)
  • (4) Homework Read Chapter 49.

2
Digestion Nutrition
  • 1. What is a calorie?
  • A calorie is defined as a unit of energy
    supplied by food.

3
Digestion Nutrition
  • 2. What is normal daily caloric intake?
  • a. Teenage Girls, Active Women, Most Men
    2,000 Calories
  • per day
  • b. Teenage Boys, Active Men 2,400 Calories
    per day

4
Digestion Nutrition
5
Obesity Definition
  • A. Obesity is defined by a Body Mass Index (BMI)
    of greater than 30 with a body fat percentage
    of
  • (1) Greater than 28 for males.
  • (2) Greater than 36 for females.

6
(No Transcript)
7
Whos Big? (NIH Study 2010)
  • A. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the
    United States 2010
  • (1) Adults (20 years of age and up)
  • a. 32.9 of U.S Adults are
  • obese.
  • (2) Children (Ages 2 19)
  • a. 31.9 are overweight and
  • obese.

8
The Children of 2010
  • A. From 2006 - 2010, millions of teenagers and
    young adults joined the ranks of clinically
    obese.
  • B. There is an increased incidence in type II
    diabetes in teens.
  • C. Even our pets are overweight, 25 of dogs and
    cats are heavier than they should be.

9
Fat Animals in the Wild
10
The Children of 2010
  • D. Twenty years ago, 5 of American kids were
    overweight.
  • E. Today 20 are overweight and another 15 are
    headed that way.
  • F. In 1969, 80 of kids played sports everyday
    today only 20 play sports everyday.
  • G. By age 17, a child has spent 38 more time in
    front of the television or computer than in
    school.
  • H. 80 of a teenagers calories come from
    sodas.

11
Fruit Juices vs. Soft Drinks
  • A. Look at sugar content
  • (1) Which has the most grams of total sugar?

12
Whos Big? (CDC 2010)
  • B. Obese children and adolescents are more likely
    to become obese as adults.
  • (1) One study found that approximately 80 of
    the children who were overweight at ages 10 15
    years of age were obese adults at age 25.

13
Who exercises?
  • A. The proportion of youth (18 years of age) who
    report engaging in no physical activity is high,
    and the proportion increases with age.

14
Why is this happening?
  • A. We eat too much high-calorie food and we do
    not burn it off with enough exercise.
  • B. 3,500 calories 1 pound of fat It is very
    easy to gain 1 pound of fat in a week.

15
Fat Cells
  • A. The amount of fat cells you are born with
    will probably be the same number when you die.
  • (Only the size of the cell increases or
    decreases depending on weight gain and weight
    loss)
  • B. There are 3 times in life when you can
    increase the number of fat cells your body has
  • (1) The Toddler Years
  • (2) Puberty
  • (3) Third Trimester of Pregnancy

16
First Law of Thermodynamics
  • A. Calories In Calories Out
  • B. If the calories you take in are greater than
    the calories you expend (exercise) you will get
    fat.
  • C. Excess calories are stored as fat.
  • D. Average daily caloric intake varies
  • 2,000 2,500 calories per day.

17
Role Models???
18
What did Sushi A say to Sushi B?
19
Was up B? (Wasabi)
20
Digestion, Absorption Excretion
  • By Rick Woodward

21
Digestion Starts in the Mouth
  • I. The Mouth
  • 1. Secretion of saliva upon the sight or smell
    of food.
  • A. Lubricates each morsel with mucus to make
    passage easier.
  • -Saliva contains amylase, mucus, and lysozymes.

22
The Mouth
  • B. Contains amylase, an enzyme that breaks down
    starch (carbohydrate chains).
  • -Starch digestion begins in the mouth.

23
The Mouth
  • C. Lysozymes break into the cell walls of
    bacteria that are on or in your food.

24
The Mouth
  • D. The body manufactures 1-2 quarts of saliva a
    day.
  • E. Saliva is mostly water and it is weakly
    alkaline (basic) with a pH of 7.4

25
The Mouth
  • 2. Chewing creates smaller particles whose
    increased surface area allows digestive enzymes
    to access more surface area of swallowed food.
  • (Mastication)

26
The Mouth
  • 3. The tongue assesses the amounts and types of
    food found in saliva.
  • a. Tastes include
  • (1) Sweet
  • (2) Salty
  • (3) Sour
  • (4) Bitter

27
The Esophagus
  • II. The esophagus is a tube through which your
    food travels to your stomach.
  • A. Food is transported with a peristaltic
    (pumping) motion.

28
The Esophagus
  • B. An opening called the glottis is covered by a
    flap of tissue called the epiglottis.

29
The Esophagus
  • C. The epiglottis prevents choking by covering
    the trachea (wind pipe/breathing tube) when
    swallowing.

30
The Esophagus
  • D. The lower esophageal valve prevents backflow
    of the stomachs contents from going back into
    the esophagus.
  • (Heartburn/Acid Reflux)

31
The Stomach
  • III. The stomach secretes mucus, hydrochloric
    acid, pepsin, lipase, and an intrinsic factor
    which is necessary to activate and absorb Vitamin
    B-12.

32
The Stomach
  • A. Digesting protein using
  • 1. Stomach acid juices, like hydrochloric acid
    (HCl) pH 2.
  • a. Pepsin, an enzyme, works directly on large
    proteins.
  • b. Protein digestion begins in the stomach.

33
The Stomach
  • B. The average capacity of the stomach is one
    liter.

34
The Stomach
  • C. Food stays in the stomach for about 2-3 hours.

35
The Stomach
  • D. Fatty meals or solid foods take longer to
    digest than liquids and low-fat meals.
  • -Lipase, an enzyme, starts the digestion of
    certain fats.

36
The Small Intestine
  • IV. The Small Intestine (Duodenum) 95 of all
    digestion and nutrient absorption takes place
    here.

37
The Small Intestine
  • A. Food entering the small intestine from the
    stomach is strongly acidic.
  • -Secretions from the pancreas alkalize the food
    coming in from the stomach.
  • -Small Intestine has a pH 8.3

38
The Small Intestine
  • B. Can be up to 10 feet long (referred to as
    small because of its small diameter.)

39
The Small Intestine
  • C. Food may remain in it from 4-10 hours.
  • D. Most nutrient absorption occurs within the
    small intestine.

40
The Pancreas
  • V. The Pancreas supplies the following enzymes to
    the duodenal are of the small intestine
  • (1) Trypsin, an enzyme, for protein digestion.
  • (2) Amylase, an enzyme, for starch digestion.
  • (3) Lipase, an enzyme, for fat digestion.
  • (4) Bicarbonate, for acid neutralization.

41
The Liver
  • VI. The Liver supplies the duodenum with bile.
  • A. Bile envelopes fat droplets in a fluid for
    intestinal absorption.
  • B. Bile emulsifies fats.
  • C. Up to one liter of bile is stored in the gall
    bladder.

42
The Large Intestine
  • VII. The large intestine can be up to six feet
    long.
  • A. Can hold food for as long as three days.

43
The Large Intestine
  • B. Colonies of helpful bacteria are permanent
    residents.
  • (1) They aid in the digestion of plant matter.
  • (2) Bacteria produce vitamins B12, Riboflavin,
    Thiamine, and Vitamin K.

44
The Large Intestine
  • C. Water is removed from food in the large
    intestine. (water absorption)
  • (1) Some diseases that affect the large
    intestine can cause diarrhea.
  • (2) Waste matter is packaged for removal.
  • a. About ½ of waste is dead bacteria.

45
Overview of Digestive System
  • A. Something happens to your food through each
    part of the digestive tract.
  • B. Nutrients become available and transported
    throughout your body via the circulatory system
    (blood).

46
Excretory System
  • A. Your excretory system works in a similar way
    to the equipment that purifies water.
  • B. Your excretory organs are
  • (1) Kidneys
  • (2) Lungs
  • (3) Skin
  • C. The organs help your body get rid of waste
    products.

47
Excretory System
  • D. The amount of water in blood is important to
    maintain
  • (1) Normal Blood Pressure (120/80)
  • (2) Movement of Gases
  • (3) Excretion of Solid Waste.

48
Excretory System
  • E. Filters out nitrogen wastes and helps maintain
    osmotic balance.

49
Excretory System
  • F. The main excretory organs are two kidneys
    fist size, bean-shaped structures that lie near
    the dorsal abdominal wall.

50
Excretory System
  • G. Kidneys filter blood that has collected waste
    products from cells.
  • -If waste products build up, they act as poisons
    to the body cells.
  • (1) Each kidney is made up of about 1 million
    nephrons, the tiny filtering units of the kidney.

51
Excretory System
  • H. Each nephron is made up of a cup-shaped
    Bowmans capsule, which narrows into a long,
    coiled tubule.
  • (1) In the center of each Bowmans capsule is a
    mass of capillaries called the glomerulus.
  • (2) A glomerulus forms from a small artery that
    branches from one of the two renal arteries.

52
Excretory System
  • I. The Filtering Process
  • 1. Blood entering the kidney contains needed
    materials being transported to body cells, plus
    urea and excess salts.

53
The Filtering Process
  • 2. The blood acquires urea when it passes through
    the liver, which converts ammonia to urea.
  • a. Urea is less toxic than ammonia.
  • b. It conserves water because it requires less
    water for excretion.

54
The Filtering Process
  • 3. The continuous flow of blood into the kidneys
    forces the liquid out of the cup portion of
    Bowmans capsule and into the tubule.
  • a. In the tubule is where the actual filtering
    process takes place.
  • b. 99 of the water passing through the kidneys
    is reabsorbed.
  • c. What remains in the collecting duct of the
    nephron is urea, salts, and a small amount of
    water.
  • -This is called urine.

55
The Filtering Process
  • 4. Urine passes from the collecting duct to the
    ureter, which conveys urine to a muscular storage
    sac, called the urinary bladder.

56
The Filtering Process
  • 5. When the bladder becomes filled, a muscular
    valve relaxes, and urine is excreted and
    discharged through the urethra.

57
With the remainder of class time
  • 1. Answer the vocabulary activity in your
    packet.
  • 2. Color in sections of the digestive system in
    your packet.
  • 3. Label the organs of the digestive system on
    page 1 of your packet
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