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Pest Management


Pest Management Why is pest management important in the horticulture industry? Mechanical Pest Control Uses tools or equipment for control Plowing- destroys some ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pest Management

Pest Management
  • Why is pest management important in the
    horticulture industry?

Key Questions
  • What are the five major categories of pests?
  • Explain best management practices while
    maintaining environmental integrity.
  • What is complete and incomplete metamorphosis of
  • What is the difference between selective and
    nonselective herbicides?
  • What are alternative pest control techniques?
  • What safety precautions are necessary when
    handling, applying, and storing chemicals?
  • What is integrated pest management (IPM)?

What are the five major categories of pests?
  • Pest
  • Anything that causes injury or loss to a plant
  • Can damage plants by making them less
    productive, affecting reproduction, or destroying
  • Host
  • plant that provides a pest with food
  • Five major categories
  • 1. Insects
  • 2. Nematodes
  • 3. Weeds
  • 4. Diseases
  • 5. Rodents and other animals

1. Insects
  • Three distinct body parts
  • Head, thorax, abdomen
  • Three pairs of legs
  • Either one, two or no pairs of wings

Insect-related pests
  • Spiders and mites
  • Four pairs of legs and two body sections
  • Centipedes
  • One pair of legs/body section
  • Millipedes
  • Two pairs of legs/body section
  • Sowbugs and pillbugs
  • Seven pairs of legs
  • Snails, crayfish, and slugs

Insect body
  • Cylindrical and segmented
  • Made up of
  • External skeleton (body wall)
  • Internal muscles and organs
  • Respiratory system with openings in sides of body
  • Nervous system consisting of brain, nerve cord,
    sensory nerves in the antennae, eyes, mouth, and

Insect feeding
  • Depends on structure of mouth
  • 1. Chewing- mandibles (grubs, beetles,
  • 2. Piercing and sucking- elongated beaks with an
    injecting organ (aphids, leafhoppers, mosquitoes)

Insect feeding
  • Variations include
  • 3. Siphoning (moths and butterflies)
  • 4. Rasping (thrips)

Beneficial insects
  • Help plants grow by
  • Improving the soil
  • Pollinating plants
  • Destroying harmful insect pests
  • Examples
  • Lady beetle, praying mantis, common green lacewing

Insect Control Program
  • Identify insect and population/monitor.
  • Determine potential for damage/economic
  • Assess potential environmental issues/hazards.
  • Decide on integrated control measures or
    tactics/action threshold.
  • Use control measures.
  • Evaluate the results.
  • Assess resulting environmental issues/problems.

2. Nematodes
  • Appendageless, nonsegmented, worm-like
    invertebrates that have a body cavity and
    complete digestive tract, including mouth,
    alimentary canal, and anus
  • Do not have a specialized respiratory or
    circulatory system
  • Have a well-developed nervous system, an
    excretory system, and a set of longitudinal

  • Feed by penetrating root cells with a hollow
    stylet mouth structure and injecting enzymes into
  • Enzymes digest cellular contents, which are
    ingested by nematodes.
  • Resulting wounds allow entry of fungi and

Symptoms of nematodes
  • May mimic problems such as
  • Low or unbalanced fertility
  • Sun scald or frost damage
  • Poor drainage
  • Drought damage
  • Insect or mite damage
  • Wilt or root-rot fungi
  • Herbicide damage

Preventive measures for nematodes
  • Using disease-free planting materials
  • Proper site selection
  • Using cultural practices to ensure good growth

Three categories of nematodes
  • Ecto-parasitic
  • attached outside of host
  • Endo-parasitic
  • Feed externally on and internally within roots
  • Semi-endo-parasitic
  • Partially embedded

3. Weeds
  • Plants growing out of place or an unwanted plant
  • Grow and persist
  • May detract from the color, texture, or density
    of the desired plant

Problems with weeds
  • Detract from appearance
  • Compete for light
  • Compete for water
  • Compete for nutrients
  • Compete for space

Classifications of weeds
  • Grasses- monocots
  • Broadleaves- dicots
  • Other- sedges, rushes, wild onions, wild garlic
  • Categories include
  • Annuals (winter and summer)
  • Biennials
  • Perennials

Other types of weeds
  • Moss
  • Tangled green mats composed of a branched,
    thread-like growth over the soil surface
  • Algae
  • Group of small, primitive, filamentous, green
    plants that manufacture their own food

4. Diseases
  • Abnormal conditions in plants that interfere with
    their normal appearance, growth, structure, or
  • Groups of diseases
  • Abiotic- noninfectious disorders
  • Biotic- caused by parasites or pathogens that are
    infectious and transmissible

  • Favorable conditions
  • Susceptible host
  • Causal agent
  • Favorable environment
  • Methods of control
  • Increasing the hosts resistance
  • Altering the environment to hinder the pathogen
  • Keeping the pathogen away from susceptible hosts

Symptoms of disease
  • Rotting plant parts, particularly the fruit
  • Leaves turning yellow or having an unnatural
  • Plants wilting
  • Plants having twisted leaves or stems
  • Buds, flowers, or fruit not developing or falling
  • Dead plants

Two major types of disease
  • Environmental- caused by elements in plants
    environment that are not right for the plant
  • Nutrient deficiencies
  • Damage to plant parts
  • Chemical injuries
  • Pollution injuries
  • Weather-related injuries
  • Naturally occurring genetic abnormalities

  • Parasitic- caused by microorganisms
  • Fungi- small one-celled, usually filamentous,
    spore-bearing. Fungi grow on or in plants and
    cause plant mildew, plant rusts, and plant smuts.
    Spread by wind, water, insects, and in other
  • Bacteria- small, one-celled organisms with a
    primitive nucleus
  • Viruses- infective living agents of
    microorganisms that do not have an organized
    nucleus. Spread by insects, equipment, and
    vegetative propagation.

5. Rodents and Other Animals
  • Animals pests that eat leaves, stems, fruit, and
    roots of plants
  • Preventing and controlling animal pests involves
    destroying habitat and getting rid of the animals

Explain best management practices while
maintaining environmental integrity.
  • (BMPs) Best Management Practices
  • Those practices that combine scientific research
    with practical knowledge to optimize yields and
    increase crop quality while maintaining
    environmental integrity.

Best management practices used in horticulture
  • Management of surface and subsurface water runoff
  • Erosion control
  • Cultural control of pests
  • Soil testing
  • Timing and placement of fertilizers
  • Controlled release fertilizers
  • Irrigation management
  • Biological control of pests
  • Pesticide selection
  • Correct pesticide use

Describe complete and incomplete metamorphosis of
  • Metamorphosis- development of an insect
  • Complete metamorphosis- insect who life cycle
    goes through four distinct stages
  • Egg
  • Larvae- looks nothing like the adult
  • Pupae- transformation stage
  • Adult
  • Examples caterpillars to moths or butterflies,
    grubs to beetles, maggots to flies
  • Instars- insect growth by shedding of external
    skeleton in 4-5 stages

  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Life cycle changes from egg through nymph to
  • Nymph looks similar to adult, only differing in
    size and color
  • Examples aphids, leafhoppers, mole crickets, and
    chinch bugs
  • According to Figure 8-6, what are the
    differences in complete and incomplete

What is the difference between selective and
nonselective herbicides?
  • Selective herbicides
  • Control a limited number of plant species
  • Nonselective herbicides
  • Destroy all vegetation
  • Name at least one trade name of each type of

What are alternative pest control techniques?
  • Pests are controlled in the following ways
  • Cultural practices
  • Biological methods
  • Mechanical methods
  • Chemical methods
  • Genetic methods

Cultural Pest Control
  • Uses management techniques to control pests
  • Includes
  • Primary
  • Maintenance programs, Sanitation, Resistant
  • Secondary
  • Mowing, irrigation, fertilization, pruning,
    aerification, mulching, etc.
  • During evaluation ask
  • 1. What is wrong?
  • 2. What is the source of the problem?
  • 3. What should be done about it?

Biological Pest Control
  • Uses living organisms that are predators to
    control pests
  • Examples
  • Lady bugs control a range of insect pests
  • Toad frogs eat insects
  • Bacterium Bacillus thuringinensis when released
    in fields attack and kill various species of worms

Mechanical Pest Control
  • Uses tools or equipment for control
  • Plowing- destroys some pests, particularly weeds
  • Mowing- cuts off weeds
  • Mulching- covering the ground with a layer of
    plastic, sawdust or other material prevents weed
  • How have we mechanically controlled weeds in the

Chemical Pest Control
  • Uses a pesticide, which is a chemical to control
  • Chemicals are often mixed with a surfactant,
    which is a material to help disperse, spread, wet
    or emulsify a pesticide formulation

Types of Chemical Pesticides
  • Insecticide
  • Controls insects
  • Material that does the killing is called the
    active ingredient
  • Can be in form of dusts, granules, powders, or
  • Classified by how they get into insects body
  • Stomach poisons- eaten, work on chewing insects
  • Contact poisons- absorbed thru skin, must contact
  • Systemic poisons- inside plant, applied to soil
    or leaves and taken up into plant, insect
    poisoned when it bites into plant
  • Fumigants- gas form, enters insect thru
    respiratory system, must be used in closed places

  • Nematicide- controls nematodes
  • Herbacide- control weeds
  • Classified by
  • Type of action
  • Chemical composition
  • Method of application
  • Species of plants affected
  • Examples
  • Selective- control limited of weeds
  • Nonselective- kills all vegetation
  • Contact- kills only portions of plant it contacts
  • Systemic- absorbed into plants vascular and root
    system and destroys entire plant

  • Methods of Herbicide application
  • Preplant- applied before planting
  • Preemergence- applied after planting but before
    crop emergence
  • Postemergence- applied after crop emergence
  • Performance of herbicides depends on
  • Temperature
  • Rainfall
  • Humidity
  • Maturity of crop and weeds
  • Soil characteristics
  • Chemical concentration

  • Fungicide- controls disease caused by fungi. The
    best fungicides are systematic.
  • Bactericides (germicides)- controls bacteria

Genetic Pest Control
  • Utilizes biotechnology by gene transfer or
    genetic manipulation to make plants resistant to
    specific pests
  • Biotechnology- mgmt of biological systems for the
    benefit of humanity
  • Organismic biotechnology- deals with intact or
    complete organisms
  • Molecular biotechnology- involves changing the
    structure and parts of cells
  • Transgenic organism- carries a foreign gene that
    was inserted by laboratory techniques in all its

What safety precautions are necessary when
handling, applying, and storing chemicals?
  • Application of pesticides can be dangerous. They
  • Injure people
  • Injure animals
  • Pollute the environment
  • Contaminate water and food

Safety guidelines to follow are
  • Use only approved pesticides.
  • Read the label before application.
  • Use the pesticide with lowest toxicity.
  • Use the right equipment.
  • Mix according to the directions on the pesticide
  • Apply evenly.
  • Avoid vapor damage.
  • Clean up.
  • Store properly.
  • Know the correct emergency measures.

Techniques for storing pesticides safely
  • Storage area should be located where cleanup
    materials are close at hand.
  • Keep pesticides in original containers with
    labels in place.
  • Never store pesticides near food, medicine, or
    cleaning supplies.
  • Do not store flammable materials with pesticides.
  • Organize materials to be accessible and visible.
  • Mark each container with the date or purchase.
  • Routinely check containers for damage or leaks
  • Dispose of unwanted or outdated materials and
    containers according to label recommendations.

What is integrated pest management (IPM)?
  • IPM- Pest mgmt strategy that uses a combination
    of BMPs to reduce pest damage with the least
    disruption to the environment
  • Goal
  • Keep pest populations below economic or aesthetic
    injury level

  • Ecologically based strategy that relies on the
    following factors to control pests
  • Weather
  • Pest diseases
  • Predators
  • Parasites

Phase I of IPM
  • involves pest ID, monitoring, and action
  • Action threshold- predetermined level at which
    pest control is needed

Phase II of IPM
  • Involves evaluating all possible control measures
  • Control options may include
  • Chemical
  • Biological
  • Mechanical

The basic elements of an IPM program include
  • People- system devisors and pest managers
  • Knowledge and info needed to devise the system
    and make sound decisions
  • Program for monitoring the ecosystem elements
  • Pest densities at which control methods are put
    into action
  • Techniques used to manipulate pest populations
  • Agents and materials

  • Monitoring plants regularly to determine current
    levels of pest activity
  • Scouts check
  • To identify the presence of a pest
  • The stage of development
  • Amount of damage done

Environment and IPM
  • IPM incorporates the changing or amending of any
    or all parts of the plant ecosystem to lower pest
  • Ecosystem includes
  • Biotic factors- living plants and animals
  • Abiotic factors- soil and water

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