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NIGMS Training in Systems & Integrative Science

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For BIO '97 Meeting in Houston ... Systems & Integrative Science Peter C. Preusch, Ph.D. Program Director Pharmacological Sciences Training Grant Program, NIGMS, NIH – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NIGMS Training in Systems & Integrative Science


1
NIGMS Training in Systems Integrative Science
  • Peter C. Preusch, Ph.D.
  • Program Director
  • Pharmacological Sciences Training Grant Program,
    NIGMS, NIH

LSRO Meeting Bethesda Marriott Hotel October
20-21, 2002
2
NIGMS and NIH Predoctoral Postdoctoral Training
in FY2001
Total U.S. BiolSci 52,629 Clin Med 15,846
Total U.S. BiolSci 16,093 Clin Med 11,280
OD/NIGMS 11/13/01 http//grants1.nih.gov/training
/data/tf_trends/sld009.htm NSF-NIH Survey of
Graduate Students and Postdocs in Science and
Engineering in 2000
3
GM
GM
Other NIH
Other NIH
http//grants1.nih.gov/training/data/tf_trends/sld
006.htm
4
NIGMS Mechanisms of Training and Research Support
  • Training Grants
  • Predoctoral (T32) Institutional NRSA
  • Postdoctoral (T32) Institutional NRSA
  • NRSA Fellowships (F32) Postdoctoral
  • NIH PRAT ClinPRAT Postdoctoral
  • Career Development Awards (K08, K23, K25)
  • Research and Research Supplements
  • R01, P01, P50, R15, R21, R24, R41-R43, U54
  • Minority Opportunities in Research

5
NIGMS Training Programs Predoctoral Trainees
(Awards) FY2001
  • Cellular and Molecular Biology 789 (46)
  • Genetics 398 (34)
  • Systems and Integrative Biology 247 (30)
  • Pharmacological Sciences 202 (25)
  • Molecular Biophysics 221 (27)
  • Biotechnology 178 (17)
  • Chemistry/Biology Interface 113 (15)
  • Joint Training in Neuroscience 17 (1)
  • Bioinformatics and Computational Biol 10 (3)
  • Medical Scientist 927 (39)
  • 3102 (237)

NIGMS Active Predoctoral NRSA Trainees
10/30/2001 excludes short-term training awards
6
NIGMS Training Programs Postdoctoral Trainees
FY2001
  • Anesthesiology 21
  • Clinical Pharmacology 31
  • Medical Genetics 39
  • Trauma and Burn 66
  • 157

OD/NIGMS 11/13/01
7
NRSA Postdoctoral Fellowships (F32, F33)
  • Where are the Systems Biologists?
  • FY2001 NIGMS Pharm(P640)
    Physiol(644)
  • Apps 429 4 (0.9)
    2 (1.2)
  • New Awards 165 2 (1.2) 1
    (0.6)
  • Active 424 13 (3.0)
    3 (0.7)
  • Active RPGs 4185 241 (5.8) 266
    (6.4)
  • R01,R37,R21,R55,R29,PO1,P50
    P140, P141, P142, P143 P144, P145, P146

Source IMPACII QVR search by mechanism and PAC -
PCP Fall, 2002
8
NIH PRAT and CLINPRAT Fellowships
  • Pharmacology Research Associate Training
  • Supports Postdoctoral Fellows in NIH Intramural
    Labs
  • 18 Applications
  • 8 New Awards
  • 15 Active Fellowships
  • Clinical Pharmacology Res Assoc Training
  • Supports MD Fellows at NIH Clinical Center
  • 5-6 Applications
  • 1-2 New Awards
  • 4 Active Fellowships

Source Program Directors
9
NIGMS Career Development Awards (FY2001)
  • Applications 29
  • New Awards 7
  • Active Grants 21
  • K08 Mentored Clinical Scientist Award in
    Anesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology, and Trauma
    and Burn Injury
  • K23 Mentored Patient Oriented RCDA
  • K25 Mentored Quantitative RCDA

Source IMPACII QVR Search by mechanism - PCP
Fall, 2002
10
What is training in the Pharmacological Sciences
?
Interdisciplinary training in pharmacology and
related disciplines relevant to the discovery and
development of therapeutic agents and to the
basic understanding of drug targets and
mechanisms of action.
  • Neurobiology
  • Psychiatry
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology
  • Virology
  • Pathology
  • Cancer Biology
  • Experimental Therapeutics
  • Medicine
  • Veterinary Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Physiology
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  • Pharmaceutics
  • Medicinal Chemistry
  • Chemistry
  • Biochemistry, Molecular, and Cell Biology
  • Structural Biology/Biophysics

11
What is training in Systems and Integrative
Biology?
Interdisciplinary training in the integrative,
regulatory, and developmental processes of higher
organisms and the functional components of these
processes. Integration of approaches from the
molecular and cellular to the whole organism and
its behaviors.
  • Organ/Systems Physiology
  • Complex Biological Problems
  • Quantitative Approaches
  • Computational Simulations
  • Physiology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Neurosciences
  • Behavioral Sciences
  • Clinical Sciences
  • Biochemistry
  • Cell and Developmental Biology

12
What are we training Medical Scientists to do?
The Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP)
supports combined MD/PhD degree training in any
area scientific area with the objective of
creating scientists who can bridge basic and
clinical research.
  • Biological Sciences
  • Chemical Sciences
  • Physical Sciences
  • Social Sciences
  • Behavioral Sciences
  • Computer Sciences
  • Bioethics
  • Biostatistics
  • Bioengineering
  • Economics
  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health

13
Distribution of Slots by Program
14
Distribution of Training Grants by Program
15
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16
What is meant by Systems Integrative
Pharmacology?
  • Where is the line?
  • Human in vivo study?
  • Animal in vivo study?
  • Animal in situ preps?
  • Human subject sample?
  • Animal tissue samples?
  • Primary cell cultures?
  • Cells, genes, proteins?
  • In silico research?
  • Do we have a problem?
  • Which models count?
  • Primate, rodent, frog, fish, fly, worm, yeast?
  • What constitutes an integrative response?
  • Integrated by system or by disease?
  • Who does the integrating - the system or the
    pharmacologist?

17
Fraction of Trainees using Animal Models or Human
Subjects
Ended 2000-01
New 2001
Continuing Grants FY2001
18
What counts as research training in drug
metabolism?
  • ADME
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Metabolite Identification
  • Prodrug Activations
  • Phase I II Enzymes
  • Drug Transporters
  • Structure/Function
  • SAR
  • Expression Levels
  • Regulation
  • synthesis and reactivity
  • chemical models
  • homogenates, fractions, purified proteins
  • cell cultures
  • perfused tissues and intact animal human
  • activity antibody assays
  • matrix arrays
  • in silico simulations

19
Predoctoral PharmSci Trainees in Drug Metabolism
NIGMS Predoctoral Training in Pharmacological
Sciences N 26 in FY2002 Slots 203 Reported
students 358 Drug Metabolism 41 Drug
Metabolism Ave 11.5 of trainees Est slots
1/3 - 1/5 total pool Est total Drug
Metabolism predoctoral students 70 - 117
of trainees reported
20
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21
Why we held the meeting?
  • Decline in number of funded PS programs
  • Loss of program strength in in vivo methods
  • Loss of program strength in toxicology
  • Loss of programs in schools of pharmacy
  • Narrowing scope of research training offered
  • Changes in medical education landscape
  • Changes in graduate school admissions
  • Concerns about balance between old and new
  • Concerns about overlap with other programs

22
Goals of the Meeting
  • NIGMS Pharmacological Sciences Training Grant
    Meeting
  • What is Training in the Pharmacological Sciences?
  • Goals
  • Increase scientific diversity of PS program
    portfolio.
  • Balance between molecular/cellular and
    systems/integrative training
  • Inclusion of traditionally allied disciplines
  • Inclusion of newly emerging disciplines
  • Inclusion of industrial and clinical experiences
  • Inclusion of new student pools, e.g., MD,
    PharmD, DVM
  • Define core knowledge that makes the PS program
    distinct.
  • Improve communication between potential
    applicants, reviewers, current trainers, and NIH
    staff.

23
Addressing the Issues Old Schools, New Schools,
New Pools
  • Solution 1 Utilize the existing programs
  • currently funded PS, SIB, and MSTP grants
  • Solution 2 Attract new PS programs from
    existing NIGMS funded schools
  • 33 have PS grants
  • 82 have schools of med, pharm, or vet
  • Solution 3 Attract new PS programs from
    currently non-NIGMS funded schools
  • Wide open field - all your best can be PS
  • 96 Schools of Med, Pharm, or Vet Med
  • Solution 4 Undergraduate Pharmacology

24
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25
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26
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27
Hypothesis The PhD degree experience in a
medical school should be different from a
non-medical school PhD.
  • What does your program do to take unique
    advantage of its affiliation with a medical
    school?
  • What are your students doing that they could not
    be doing in a College of Agriculture or Science?
  • What are they learning about the interface
    between basic research and clinical practice?
  • What opportunities exist for your students to
    participate in clinical research?

28
Hypothesis MD training and PhD training are
linked.
  • How have changes in MD training changed
    instruction in pharmacology for your MDs and for
    your PhD students?
  • What role do MDs play in training your PhD
    students?
  • What are you doing to prepare your students for
    their role in training MDs?

29
Hypothesis Pharmacy contributes much to the
diversity of PS training
  • Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, and
    Pharmaceutical Chemistry extend the breadth of PS
    programs in biophysical, chemical, and physical
    sciences.
  • Pharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy extend PS
    programs in the area of drug discovery and drug
    development.
  • Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug
    delivery, drug-drug interactions are of major
    interest in pharmacy schools.
  • PharmD students and PharmD/PhD students bring a
    different set of skills to bear and are more
    likely to work with human subjects - the ultimate
    experimental systems and integrative model

30
Hypothesis PhD students in a Vet School are
more likely to work with animals.
  • Involving Vet Schools may improve training in
    Systems Integrative Pharmacology
  • What work are your students doing that they would
    not do, if they were not associated with a Vet
    School?
  • What unique contributions can DVMs, PhDs, and
    DVM/PhDs make to science?

31
Major Points of Discussion
  • Pharmacology is the core discipline in which all
    PS students should receive training.
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics remain the
    core subjects of pharmacology.
  • Systems and Integrative Pharmacology (in vivo
    whole animal) is in demand, but in trouble.
  • State-of-the-art training follows from the
    research interests of a research active faculty.
  • New science (e.g., genomics, proteomics, and
    bioinformatics) needs to be included, but must be
    connected to old roots.

32
Major Points (Continued)
  • Scientific Diversity in research should be a
    natural outcome of the varied strengths of U.S.
    institutions.
  • Scientific Diversity in student pools is
    desirable and may achieved by reaching out across
    campus.
  • Inclusion of a clinical experience in some
    programs would be an innovation, but is not easy
    or sufficient.
  • Inclusion of an industrial experience would be a
    useful option, but should not be mandatory.
  • Changes in the medical curriculum have resulted
    in new separate graduate courses at most
    institutions.
  • Changes to umbrella admissions and 1st year core
    courses have required major changes in programs.

33
PS Training Outcomes What do academia, industry,
and trainees value most?
Problem solving, self-learning, communication,
collaboration.
34
What factors determine trends in Graduate
Training?
  • University administration and faculty interests
  • What's hot? Who's retiring? Who are you
    hiring?
  • Industrial and academic job opportunities
  • What's hot? What's needed? What will be needed
    in 10 years?
  • Student application numbers
  • What's interesting or at least financially
    rewarding?
  • Peer reviewer judgments
  • What constitutes good training?
  • NIGMS supports only a fraction of the total
    trainees
  • NIGMS support leverages other support?
  • NIGMS support affects application numbers,
    recruitment?
  • NIGMS review process affects university
    decisions?

35
What is NIGMS Looking For? Review Criteria
  • Strong research faculty
  • Cutting-edge, peer-reviewed, science
  • Strong student pool
  • Depth, breadth, quality, critical mass
  • Current trainees and training record
  • Training Program
  • Courses, rotations, exams, monitoring, mentoring,
    enrichment, breadth and depth of opportunities.
  • Recruitment of under-represented minorities
  • Training in responsible conduct of research

36
What is NIGMS Looking For? Room for All under the
Umbrella
  • NIGMS supports interdisciplinary training.
  • Pharmacology is central to the PS Program, but
    should not be exclusive.
  • Diversity is good - programs should NOT all look
    alike!
  • Potential Strengths Mol Pharm, Clin Pharm, Med
    Chem, Toxicol, Pharmacy, Therapeutics
  • NIGMS would welcome new programs that embrace
    DVM, PharmD, other new pools.

37
Will the pendulum return of its own accord?
  • Transgenic and knock-out rodents?
  • Pharmacogenetic human phenotyping?
  • Bioinformatics Pharmacogenomics?
  • Behavioral and neurosciences studies?
  • Chemical biology drug design?
  • Imaging methods in drug development?
  • Human studies vs animal models?
  • Emphasis on translational research?
  • Law of supply and demand?

38
NIGMS Training Grant Information
  • http//www.nigms.nih.gov/funding/trngmech.html
  • Pharmacological Sciences
  • Peter C. Preusch - 301-594-5938
  • Systems and Integrative Biology
  • Alison E. Cole - 301-594-3349
  • Medical Scientist Training Program
  • Bert Shapiro - 301-594-3830
  • NIGMS Assistant Director for Training
  • John Norvell - 301-594-0533
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