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Plant breeding and plant genetics: Biotechnology past, present and future

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Plant breeding and plant genetics: Biotechnology past, present and future Alan McHughen, DPhil. Univ. of California Riverside, Ca. 92521 USA alanmc_at_citrus.ucr.edu – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plant breeding and plant genetics: Biotechnology past, present and future


1
Plant breeding and plant genetics Biotechnology
past, present and future
  • Alan McHughen, DPhil.
  • Univ. of California
  • Riverside, Ca. 92521
  • USA
  • alanmc_at_citrus.ucr.edu

2
Plant breeding history
  • 10,000 years of human agriculture
  • Selection
  • Introduction
  • Crossing, wide crosses
  • Spontaneous mutation
  • Induced mutation

Now, all plants are genetically modified from
their ancestral progenitors.
3
Environmental damage caused by Source Example
of problem Prior regulatory scrutiny Entire
Genotypes Naturally occurring invasions Ordinary
Successions none Unintentional introductions
Russian thistle in NA none ? Intentional
introduction Purple loosestrife Eurasion
milfoil low/none Intentional introductions,
Prickly Pear cactus in Australia
low Unintended displacements Johnsongrass in
NA Intentional introductions, Intentional
displacements Soybean in NA low Single
Genes Intentional introductions, Rht genes in
wheat low/moderate intentional displacements
Canola from rapeseed moderate GMOs None
recorded high
4
Significant numbers Number of field trials of
GMOs gt 10,000 Number of countries
conducting trials 23 Number of GM plant
species tested 41 Number of hectares of GM
crops, year 2002 gt 50 M Number of significant
adverse safety incidents 0
5
Biotechnologys four concepts Number 1
  • All organisms are made of cells and cell products

6
Biotechnologys four concepts Number 2
  • All organisms are made of cells and cell products
  • Each cell in an organism contains the same set of
    genes

7
Biotechnologys four concepts Number 3
  • All organisms are made of cells and cell products
  • Each cell in an organism contains the same set of
    genes
  • The genome contains all the genetic information
    necessary to make an entire organism

8
Biotechnologys four concepts Number 4
  • All organisms are made of cells and cell products
  • Each cell in an organism contains the same set of
    genes
  • The genome contains all the genetic information
    necessary to make an entire organism
  • All organisms share the same
  • genetic language

9
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10
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11
Variety release requirements Conventional
  • Agronomic performance
  • Proximate analysis
  • Antinutritive factors

12
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13
Variety release requirements Transgenic
  • Agronomic performance
  • Proximate analysis
  • Antinutritive factors
  • Plus

14
Plus
  • Pathogenicity to other organisms
  • dormancy,
  • outcrossing
  • potential for horizontal gene transfer
  • seed production
  • flowering time,
  • flower morphology
  • analysis of relatives
  • stability of inserted genes over seed generations
  • survivability in natural environment
  • survivability in agricultural environment in
    presence of herbicide
  • survivability in agricultural environment in
    absence of herbicide
  • Interaction with other organisms- alterations to
    traditional relationships
  • Interactions with other organisms- novel species
  • Changes to persistence or invasiveness
  • Any selective advantage to the GMO
  • Any selective advantage to sexually compatible
    species
  • Plan for containment and eradication in the event
    of escape
  • Molecular characterization of inserted DNA,
  • Southern and restriction analyses
  • PCR for several fragments,
  • Various enzyme assays (ALS, NOS, NPT-II)
  • Copy number of inserts
  • Size of each fragment,
  • Source of each fragment
  • Utility of each fragment
  • How fragments were recombined
  • How construct was delivered into flax
  • Biological activity of inserted DNA (genes)
  • Quantitative analyses of novel proteins (western
    analyses)
  • Temporal activity of inserted genes
  • spatial activity of inserted genes
  • complete amino acid analysis
  • detailed amino acid analysis for valine, leucine
    and isoleucine
  • Toxicity (feeding trials were not warranted)
  • Allergenicity (feeding trials were not warranted)
  • Biological analysis

15
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16
US agencies regulating agricultural biotechnology
  • USDA- APHIS environmental release
  • FDA food safety
  • EPA chemical (herbicide, insecticide) uses

17
Professional Scientific and/or Medical bodies
with an opinion on GM foods
  • Generally Positive
  • Generally Negative

18
Professional Scientific and/or Medical bodies
with an opinion on GM foods
  • Generally Positive
  • The U.S. National Research Council (NRC)
  • U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
  • The American Medical Association, (AMA)
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • American Society for Plant Biology (ASPB)
  • Generally Negative

19
Professional Scientific and/or Medical bodies
with an opinion on GM foods
  • Generally Positive
  • World Health Organization (WHO)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
  • Royal Society (London)
  • Brazil National Academy of Science,
  • Chinese National Academy of Science
  • Indian National Academy of Science
  • Mexican Academy of Science
  • Third World Academy of Sciences
  • Generally Negative

20
Professional Scientific and/or Medical bodies
with an opinion on GM foods
  • Generally Positive
  • The U.S. National Research Council (NRC)
  • U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
  • The American Medical Association, (AMA)
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • American Society for Plant Biology (ASPB)
  • World Health Organization (WHO)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
  • Royal Society (London)
  • Brazil National Academy of Science,
  • Chinese National Academy of Science
  • Indian National Academy of Science
  • Mexican Academy of Science
  • Third World Academy of Sciences
  • Generally Negative

21
Professional Scientific and/or Medical bodies
with an opinion on GM foods
  • Generally Positive
  • The U.S. National Research Council (NRC)
  • U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
  • The American Medical Association, (AMA)
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • American Society for Plant Biology (ASPB)
  • World Health Organization (WHO)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
  • Royal Society (London)
  • Brazil National Academy of Science,
  • Chinese National Academy of Science
  • Indian National Academy of Science
  • Mexican Academy of Science
  • Third World Academy of Sciences
  • Generally Negative

22
Documented benefits of biotech crops
  • Farmers
  • Increased yields
  • Decreased chemical costs
  • Cleaner fields
  • Less fuel used
  • Less tillage

23
Documented benefits of biotech crops
  • Consumers
  • Safer food (mycotoxins in maize)
  • Safer food (greater regulatory scrutiny)
  • Less pesticide
  • Environmental benefits

24
Documented benefits of biotech crops
  • Environment
  • Less pesticide burden
  • Safer pesticides
  • Improved soil from less tillage
  • Less fuel usage
  • Increased biodiversity

25
Product quality traits in GM plants under
test Feed digestibility Increased
solids Higher amino acid content Esthetic
appeal Improved shelf life Reduced caffeine
coffee Protein content Oil profile Fruit size
Fruit carbo profile Toxin degradation Phytate
reduced Heat stable B-glucanase
increased Starch content Increased stanol
Storage protein altered Lignin reduced
Glutenin added Bruise resistance Increased
antioxidents Amino acid enhanced Plus Pharmaceut
icals antibodies vaccines enzymes
nutriceuticals
26
Conclusion prospects
  • Beneficiaries will continue to include farmers
    and consumers
  • Benefits of products will be more obvious and
    geared to consumers
  • Nutritional enhancements (Golden rice)
  • Safer foods (reduced allergens, toxins and other
    natural antinutritional factors)
  • Safer foods (better storage and testing)
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