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Biotechnology

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Title: Biotechnology


1
Biotechnology
2
What Is Biotechnology?
  • Using scientific methods with organisms to
    produce new products or new forms of organisms
  • Any technique that uses living organisms or
    substances from those organisms to make or modify
    a product, to improve plants or animals, or to
    develop microorganisms for specific uses

3
What Is Biotechnology?
  • GMO- genetically modified organisms.
  • GEO- genetically enhanced organisms.
  • With both, the natural genetic material of the
    organism has been altered.
  • Roots in bread making, wine brewing, cheese and
    yogurt fermentation, and classical plant and
    animal breeding

4
What Is Biotechnology?
  • Manipulation of genes is called genetic
    engineering or recombinant DNA technology
  • Genetic engineering involves taking one or more
    genes from a location in one organism and either
  • Transferring them to another organism
  • Putting them back into the original organism in
    different combinations

5
What is the career outlook in biotechnology?
  • Biotech in 1998
  • 1,300 companies in the US
  • 2/3 have less than 135 employees
  • 140,000 jobs
  • Jobs will continue to increase exponentially
  • Jobs are available to high school graduates
    through PhDs

6
What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?
  • Multidisciplinary- involving a number of
    disciplines that are coordinated for a desired
    outcome
  • Science
  • Life sciences
  • Physical sciences
  • Social sciences

7
What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?
  • Mathematics
  • Applied sciences
  • Computer applications
  • Engineering
  • Agriculture

8
What Are the Stages of Biotechnology Development
  • Ancient biotechnology- early history as related
    to food and shelter Includes domestication
  • Classical biotechnology- built on ancient
    biotechnology Fermentation promoted food
    production, and medicine
  • Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic
    information in organism Genetic engineering

9
What Are the Areas of Biotechnology?
  • Organismic biotechnology- uses intact organisms
    Does not alter genetic material
  • Molecular biotechnology- alters genetic makeup to
    achieve specific goals
  • Transgenic organism- an organism with
    artificially altered genetic material

10
What Are the Benefits of Biotechnology?
  • Medicine
  • Human
  • Veterinary
  • Biopharming
  • Environment
  • Agriculture
  • Food products
  • Industry and manufacturing

11
What Did These Individuals Contribute to
Biotechnology?
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek
  • Discovered cells
  • Bacteria
  • Protists
  • Red blood

12
What Did These Individuals Contribute to
Biotechnology?
  • Gregor Johan Mendel
  • Discovered genetics

13
What Did These Individuals Contribute to
Biotechnology?
  • Walter Sutton
  • Discovered Chromosomes

14
What Did These Individuals Contribute to
Biotechnology?
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan
  • Discovered how genes are transmitted through
    chromosomes

15
What Did These Individuals Contribute to
Biotechnology?
  • Ernst Ruska
  • Invented the electron microscope

16
What Did These Individuals Contribute to
Biotechnology?
  • Sir Alexander Fleming
  • Discovered penicillin

17
What Did These Individuals Contribute to
Biotechnology?
  • Rosalind Elsie Franklin
  • Research led to the discovery of the double helix
    structure of DNA

18
What Did These Individuals Contribute to
Biotechnology?
  • James Watson and Francis Crick
  • Discovered DNA

19
What Did These Individuals Contribute to
Biotechnology?
  • Mary-Claire King
  • Mapped human genes for research of cancer
    treatments

20
What Did These Individuals Contribute to
Biotechnology?
  • Ian Wilmut
  • Created the first true clone, the Dorset ewe Dolly

21
What Is Molecular Biology?
  • Molecular biology- study of molecules in cells
  • Metabolism- processes by which organisms use
    nutrients
  • Anabolism- building tissues from smaller
    materials
  • Catabolism- breaking down materials into smaller
    components

22
What Is a Cell?
  • Cell- a discrete unit of life
  • Unicellular organism- organism of one cell
  • Multicellular organism- organism of many cells
  • Prokaryote- cells that lack specific nucleus
  • Eukaryote- cells with well-defined nucleus

23
What Is a Cell?
  • Cells are building blocks
  • Tissue- collection of cells with specific
    functions
  • Organs- collections of tissues with specific
    functions
  • Organ systems- collections of organs with
    specific functions

24
What Are the Structures in Molecular Genetics?
  • Molecular genetics- study of genes and how they
    are expressed
  • Chromosome- part of cell nucleus that contains
    heredity information and promotes protein
    synthesis
  • Gene- basic unit of heredity on a chromosome
  • DNA- molecule in a chromosome that codes genetic
    information

25
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
26
What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)?
  • Transcription- process of RNA production by DNA
  • DNA-thread-like molecule which decodes DNA
    information

27
What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)?
  • Kinds of RNA
  • mRNA- RNA molecules that carry information that
    specifies amino acid sequence of a protein
    molecule during translation
  • rRNA- RNA molecules that form the ribosomal
    subunits Mediate the translation of mRNA into
    proteins
  • tRNA- molecules that decode sequence information
    in and mRNA
  • snRNA- very short RNA that interconnects with to
    promote formation of mRNA

28
What Are Genetic Engineering Organisms?
  • Genetic engineering- artificially changing the
    genetic information in the cells of organisms
  • Transgenic- an organism that has been genetically
    modified
  • GMO- a genetically modified organism
  • GEO- a genetically enhanced organism

29
How Can Genetically Engineered Plants Be Used?
  • Agriculture
  • Horticulture
  • Forestry
  • Environment
  • Food Quality

30
How Do We Create Transgenic Organisms?
  • Donor cell- cell that provides DNA
  • Recipient cell- cell that receives DNA
  • Protocol- procedure for a scientific process
  • Three methods used in gene transfer
  • Agrobacterium gene transfer- plasmid
  • Ballistic gene transfer- gene gun
  • Direct gene transfer- enzymes

31
How Does Agrobacterium Gene Transfer Work?
  • Extract DNA from donor
  • Cut DNA into fragments
  • Sort DNA fragments
  • Recombine DNA fragments
  • Transfer plasmids with bonded DNA
  • Grow transformed (recipient) cells

32
What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology?
  • Plant breeding- improvement of plants by breeding
    selected individuals to achieve desired goals
  • Cultivar- a cultivated crop variety

33
What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology?
  • Plant breeding methods
  • Line breeding- breeding successive generations of
    plants among themselves
  • Crossbreeding- breeding plants of different
    varieties or species
  • Hybridization- breeding individuals from two
    distinctly different varieties
  • Selection

34
Why Are Plants Genetically Engineered?
  • Resist pests
  • Resist herbicides
  • Improved product quality
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Industrial products

35
What Is AI?
  • Artificial insemination- the transfer of
    collected semen to a recipient female
  • Semen is collected from males of desired quality
  • Semen is graded and stored

36
What Is AI?
  • Female must be in estrus for conception
  • Hormone injections may be used to synchronize
    estrus
  • Semen is placed in the cervix near the horns of
    the uterus

37
What Is a Test Tube Baby?
  • In vitro fertilization- fertilization of
    collected ova outside the reproductive tract
    Usually in a test tube
  • Semen is collected from males of desired quality
  • Ova are removed from females
  • Sperm and ova are placed in a petri dish or test
    tube

38
What Is Gender Reversal?
  • Gender reversal- changing the sex of an animal
  • Very young animals receive hormone treatments
  • Most common among selected fish species

39
What Is Gender Preselection?
  • Gender preselection- choosing the sex of
    offspring
  • Sperm sorted before conception
  • Sperm sorted on basis of chromosome differences
  • X chromosomes produce female offspring
  • Y chromosomes produce male offspring

40
What Is Embryo Transfer?
  • Embryo transfer- removing fertilized ova
    (embryos) from donor and implanting in a
    recipient
  • Surgical and nonsurgical methods are used to
    remove and implant
  • A quality donor female can produce more offspring

41
What Is Multiple Ovulation?
  • Multiple ovulation- promoting increased release
    of ova during estrus
  • Hormone injections administered prior to estrus
  • Used with embryo transfer
  • AI may be used to fertilize ova
  • After fertilization, embryos are removed and
    placed in recipients

42
What Is Cloning?
  • Clone- new organism that has been produced
    asexually from a single parent
  • Genotype is identical to parent
  • Cells or tissues are cultured

43
How Are Hormones Used in Animal Production?
  • Hormone- natural product of glands to produce a
    response in another part of the body
  • Released by endocrine glands into blood system
  • Hormones are identified, functions determined,
    and isolated
  • Used to increase growth and production rates
  • bST- promotes milk production in cows
  • pST- promotes lean meat production in swine

44
What Is Bioremediation?
  • Bioremediation- using biological processes to
    solve environmental problems
  • Biodegradation- natural processes of microbes in
    breaking down hydrocarbon materials
  • Biodegradable- capable of being decomposed by
    microbes

45
How Can Bioremediation Be Used?
  • Oil spills
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Heavy metal removal
  • Chemical degradation

46
What Is Phytoremediation?
  • Phytoremediation- process of plants being used to
    solve pollution problems
  • Plants absorb and break down pollutants
  • Used with heavy metals, pesticides, explosives,
    and leachate

47
What Is Composting?
  • Composting- a process that promotes biological
    decomposition of organic matter
  • Compost bin- a facility that contains materials
    for composting
  • In-vessel composting- using enclosed containers
    for composting

48
What Are Bioethics?
  • Ethics- knowing right from wrong, and then doing
    the right idea
  • Bio- living organisms
  • Bioethics- knowing right from wrong with living
    organisms, and then doing the right idea
  • http//www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.Home/biotecheth
    ics.htm

49
Creating Bioethics Arguments
  • Read this article from the school website
    http//www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.Home/dwnld/Ethi
    cs.in.Biotech.pdf
  • After you read this article prepare ethical
    arguments with at least 5 Scientific and Factual
    claims to support your Premise and Conclusion

50
Ethical Arguments
  • Create an ethical argument for or against the
    following topics
  • Human Cloning
  • Gender Reversal on Livestock
  • Gender Reversal on Humans
  • Genetic Engineering of Plants
  • Genetic Engineering of Humans

51
Creating a Premise
  • Human cloning is immoral.
  • Now you must find Scientific and Factual Claims
    to support your Premise
  • After you have at least 5 Claims, you may
    conclude, Therefore, human cloning is immoral.
  • You do not have to be for or against any of the
    topics, its your choice!
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