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Current Drug Trends

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Current Drug Trends Maxim W. Furek, MA, CADC, ICADC Garden Walk Recovery (570) 542 7946 www.gardenwalkrecovery.com * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Salvia divinorum ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Current Drug Trends


1
Current Drug Trends
  • Maxim W. Furek, MA, CADC, ICADC
  • Garden Walk Recovery
  • (570) 542 7946
  • www.gardenwalkrecovery.com

2
Bath salts
  • Mephedrone
  • 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)
  • Methylone
  • Circa 2011

3
Bath salts
  • 500 mg 34.99
  • Ingested orally
  • Snorted
  • Injected
  • Smoked

4
Bath salts sold as
  • Toy cleaner
  • Plant food
  • Herbal incense
  • Research chemicals
  • Pond sand
  • Pond scum cleaner
  • Stain remover

5
Bath salts marketed as
6
Bath salts
  • Synthetic designer drugs
  • Slightly altered molecular structure of known
    starter or parent drug
  • Mimics characteristics of other illegal drugs
  • Sometimes called fake cocaine
  • Substituted cathinone

7
Bath salts
  • 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)structurally
    related to Schedule l hallucinogens MDMA and MDEA
  • 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)structurally
    related to Schedule l stimulants cathinone and
    methcathinone

8
Psychological dangers
Hallucinations / Psychosis
Extreme paranoia / Violent Behavior
Suicidal ideations
Agitation / Intense craving
9
Physical dangers
Chest pains
Increased blood pressure
Increased heart rate
Heart attack/ Stroke
Death or serious injury
10
Legislation
  • Lackawanna County bans the drug on April 13, 2011
  • Luzerne County President Judge Thomas F. Burke
    Jr. did the same April 25, 2011
  • On June 15, 2011 50-member PA Senate voted
    unanimously to outlaw bath salts, synthetic
    marijuana and Salvia divinorum.

11
Legislation
  • DEA exercised its emergency scheduling authority
    to control three synthetic stimulants
    (Mephedrone, 3,4 methylenedioxypyrovalerone
    (MDPV) and Methylone) used to make products
    marketed as bath salts and plant food.
  • October 21, 2011.

12
Legislation
  • Synthetic Drug Control Act
  • December, 2011 - U.S. House of Representatives
    banned more than 30 synthetic drugs, including
    spice and bath salts.
  • Gives DEA more authority to put temporary bans on
    potentially hazardous drugs being investigated.

13
Cloud Nine
  • U.S. Sen. Bob Casey wants to close loopholes that
    allow makers of designer drugs to slightly alter
    their drugs and avoid federal and state bans.
  • Cloud Nine variant of insect repellant similar
    to bath salts
  • (January, 2012)

14
Update
  • Jewelry Cleaner AKA Cosmic Blast
  • Synthetic cocaine
  • Contains Naphyrone ( MRG-1 or Energy 1)
  • Stimulant drug similar to mephedrone
  • Increased body temperatures
  • Not usually picked up on standard tests

15
Synthetic Cannabis
  • K2
  • Spice
  • Ocean Blue
  • herbal incense

16
Synthetic Cannabis
  • Created by Clemson University scientist John W.
    Huffman for research purposes in 1990s
  • JWH-018
  • JWH-073
  • JWH-200
  • CP-47,497

17
Synthetic Cannabis
  • Not for human consumption
  • Aromatherapy
  • Mood enhancing
  • Long lasting
  • Legal high

18
Physical symptoms
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Elevated blood pressure
  • Seizures
  • Increased agitation
  • Profuse sweating
  • Pale skin or vomiting

19
Psychological symptoms
  • Extreme agitation
  • Anxiety
  • Delusions
  • Hyper-excited
  • Dysphoria
  • Lost sense of reality
  • Babbling incoherently
  • Behavior akin to schizophrenia
  • Fluctuating symptoms

20
Self-reported symptoms
  • long-lasting high
  • seeing things
  • hearing voices
  • extreme paranoia

21
Legislation
  • November, 2010 - DEA announced its "emergency
    scheduling authority" to temporarily control the
    K2 chemicals.
  • March 1, 2011 - Five chemicals most commonly
    found in "Spice" and "K2 classified as Schedule
    I controlled substances, a category reserved for
    unsafe, highly abused substances with no medical
    usage.

22
Legislation
  • June 15, 2011 - 50-member Pennsylvania Senate
    voted unanimously to outlaw bath salts, synthetic
    marijuana and Salvia divinorum.

23
Legislation
  • Synthetic Drug Control Act
  • December, 2011 - U.S. House of Representatives
    banned more than 30 synthetic drugs, including
    spice and bath salts.
  • Gives DEA more authority to put temporary bans on
    potentially hazardous drugs being investigated.

24
Update (April 21, 2012)
  • New Jersey's Division of Consumer Affairs has
    banned all forms of synthetic drugs that mimic
    marijuana's effects. Previously, five types of
    synthetic marijuana had been banned in the state,
    but New Jersey has banned all forms of the drug.
  • Most states ban some form of the substance, as
    does the federal government. The all-inclusive
    ban is the latest attempt by New Jersey to crack
    down on drug crimes.

25
Synthetic Cannabis
  • Leaves of Blue Lotus or Bay Bean coated with
    chemicals

26
Signs of Use
  • K2/Spice is typically smoked
  • A strong clove smell
  • Coffee grinder
  • Pipes or screens

27
Prevalence of use
  • One of every nine high school seniors reported
    using synthetic marijuana within the previous 12
    months
  • n47,000 8th, 10th and 12th graders
  • First time synthetic cannabis question was asked
  • Monitoring the Future. U of Michigan for the
    National Institute of Drug Abuse 01/1/2012

28
Physical dangers
  • Three 16-year-old boys experienced heart attacks
  • Healthy
  • No signs of cardiovascular disease
  • Had smoked K2 within the past few days
  • UT Southwest Medical Center (11/9/2011)

29
Monitoring the Future Prevalence of use (2012)
1.4
2.9
11.4
3.2
30
Prevalence of use
  • Increasing abuse in U.S. military
  • 28 sailors assigned to USS Ronald Reagan
    dismissed (2011)
  • 64 sailors accused of involvement in a Spice ring
    (2011)
  • Air Force punished 497 airmen in 2011 compared to
    380 in 2010

31
Prevalence of use
  • Navy investigators compare Spice with angel dust
    (PCP)
  • No two batches are the same
  • Some experience a euphoric buzz others have
    suffered delusions lasting up to a week

32
Salvia divinorum
  • Salvia
  • Diviners Sage
  • Sage of the Seers

33
Salvia divinorum
  • Salvia divinorum is an extraordinary herb used in
    shamanism, divination, healing, meditation, and
    the exploration of consciousness.
  • It should always be used in a thoughtful,
    intelligent manner, and only by responsible
    adults that are of sound mind and clear intent.

34
Salvia divinorum
  • "The purpose of these sacraments is to purify,
    and to open the road. When it opens, it's as
    clear as the blue sky, and the stars at night are
    as bright as suns.
  • Aurelia Aurora Catarino
  • Mazatec shaman

35
Salvia divinorum
  • Used for centuries in healing ceremonies by
    Mazatec Indians of Oaxaca
  • Pronounced wah-haa-ca

36
Salvia divinorum
  • December, 2010
  • Miley Cyrus
  • 18th birthday
  • Internet - TMZ YouTube sensation

37
Salvinorin A
  • Psychoactive constituent
  • Potent k-opioid receptor agonist.
  • Salvia divinorum is generally understood to be of
    low toxicity and low addictive potential.

38
Salvinorin A
  • Roth discovered that Salvinorin A targeted a
    single brain receptor the kappa opioid receptor
  • making salvia the strongest hallucinogen
    gram for gram found in nature (2002).

39
Salvinorin A
  • Could possibly be used to treat brain disorders
    including depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimers.

40
Medical Applications ?
  • Heroin
  • Marijuana
  • LSD
  • Psilocybin
  • Mescaline

41
Salvinorin A
  • A structurally novel ?-opioid receptor agonist.
  • Hallucinogenic
  • More specifically deliriant and dissociative.

42
Dissociatives
  • A class of hallucinogen which reduce or block
    signals to the conscious mind from other parts of
    the brain.
  • Are unique
  • Produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include
    sensory deprivation, dissociation,
    hallucinations, and dream-like states or trances.

43
Salvinorin A
  • Effects are sought after, even though the
    experience is often considered dysphoric by the
    user.
  • While salvinorin A is considered a hallucinogen,
    it is not a psychedelic.
  • Effects are qualitatively different than those
    produced by psychedelic hallucinogens such as LSD
    or mescaline.

44
Salvia divinorum
  • Illegal in some states
  • Short-acting psychedelic
  • Strong dissociative effects
  • Chewed, smoked or consumed as a tincture

45
Salvia divinorum
  • Increased feeling of insight
  • Improved mood
  • Sense of calmness
  • Increased sense of connection with nature

46
Salvia divinorum
  • Used as treatment for anemia, headache,
    rheumatism, depression, colds, sore throat,
    constipation, diarrhea
  • Potential as an analgesic
  • Therapeutic tool for treating drug addictions

47
Salvia divinorum
  • Not generally known to be toxic or addictive
  • NO fatal overdose reported

48
Salvia divinorum
  • Carcinogens associated with smoking
  • Possible negative interventions with other drugs
    or medications
  • Possible dysphoria

49
Legislation
  • In U.S. not regulated under the DEA Controlled
    Substances Act
  • Illegal in DE, OH, NJ, NY, PA.
  • On June 15, 2011 50-member PA Senate voted
    unanimously to outlaw bath salts, synthetic
    marijuana and Salvia divinorum.

50
Legislation
  • Joe Baca (D-California) proposed HR 5607 for
    amendment of the Controlled Substances Act to
    place Salvinorin A and Salvia divinorum in
    federal Schedule I (2002).

51
Legislation
  • Daniel Siebert sent letter to Congress arguing
    against proposed legislation.
  • Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics (CCLE)
    sends key members of US Congress report on Salvia
    divinorum and its active principle.
  • Also, letters from array of scientists concerned
    that scheduling Salvia would negatively impact
    important research.
  • HR 5607 did not pass.

52
Afterthought
  • Certain experiences on drugs may be so unfriendly
    and uncomforting that the user may never want to
    try the substance again. This is especially true
    of the deliriants (e.g. Jimson weed) and powerful
    dissociatives (e.g. Salvia divinorum)
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