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Chapter 10 Minds and Crime: Alcohol, Drugs & Mental Illness

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Title: Chapter 10 Minds and Crime: Alcohol, Drugs & Mental Illness


1
Chapter 10 Minds and Crime Alcohol, Drugs
Mental Illness
2
Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Ten is an overview of altered minds and
    crime. The Chapter begins with an overview of the
    relationship between alcohol, alcoholism, and
    crime.
  • The Chapter continues with an overview of the
    types of illicit drugs, and the relationship
    between illicit drugs and crime.
  • The Chapter concludes with an overview of
    schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and how
    mental illness is associated with criminality.

3
Chapter Summary
  • After reading this chapter, students should be
    able to
  • Understand the relationship between alcohol and
    crime
  • Discuss the drug classification and the
    relationship between drugs and crime
  • Describe the main mental disorders associated
    with crime
  • Understand the relationship between mental
    illness and crime

4
The Scope of the Alcohol/Crime Problem
  • Of all the substances used to alter mood and
    consciousness, alcohol is the one most directly
    linked to crime, especially violent crime.
  • One third of all arrests in the United States are
    for alcohol-related offenses.

5
The Direct Effects of Alcohol on Behavior
  • The effects of alcohol on behavior is a function
    of the interactions of the pharmacological
    properties of the substance, the individuals
    physiology and personality, and the social and
    cultural context in which the substance is
    ingested.
  • Alcohol raises dopamine levels, decreases
    serotonin, and increases GABA, a major inhibitor
    of internal stimuli such as fear, anxiety, and
    stress.

6
Contextual Factors
  • Alcohol is a releaser of behaviors that we
    normally want to keep under control.
  • In some social contexts, drinking may lead to
    violence, but not others.
  • Experimental research has shown that drinking
    increases males fantasies of power and
    domination.

7
Contextual Factors
  • Two of the major cultural factors influencing the
    relationship between alcohol consumption and
    criminal behavior are defining a drinking
    occasion as a time out period in which control
    are loosened from usual behavior and a
    willingness to hold a person less responsible for
    their actions when drinking than when sober by
    attributing the blame to alcohol.

8
Contextual Factors
  • Binge drinkers Consume anywhere between 5 and 10
    drinks in a few hours time and are particularly
    likely to define drinking as a time out period.
  • Heavy alcohol intake has a substantial
    disinhibiting effect on behavior so
    alcohol-induced disinhibition may be considered a
    cause of anti-social acts.

9
Contextual Factors
  • The substance and the setting are secondary in
    causal importance to traits of individuals
    drinking the beverage of their choice in the
    settings of their choice.

10
Alcoholism Type I and Type II
  • Alcoholism A chronic disease condition marked by
    progressive incapacity to control alcohol
    consumption despite psychological, spiritual,
    social, or physiological disruptions.
  • Most alcoholics do not get into serious trouble
    with the law.
  • Type I alcoholism Characterized by a mild abuse,
    minimal criminality, and passive-dependent
    personality.

11
Alcoholism Type I and Type II
  • Type II alcoholism Characterized by early onset,
    violence, and criminality, and is largely limited
    to males.
  • Heritability estimates for Type II alcoholism are
    about 0.90 and about 0.40 for Type I alcoholism
    indicating that environmental factors are much
    more important to understanding Type I alcoholism
    than Type II alcoholism.

12
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13
The Extent of the Illicit Drug Problem
  • The Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 was the
    benchmark act for changing Americas concept of
    drugs and their use.
  • The Harrison Act reduced the number of addicts,
    but it also spawned criminal black market
    operations and ultimately many more addicts.
  • As with delinquency and crime, drug use rises to
    a peak in the age 18-20 category and then drops
    precipitously.

14
Drug Addiction
  • Drug addiction Compulsive drug-seeking behavior
    where acquiring and using a drug becomes the most
    important activity in the users life.
  • Physical dependence Changes to the body that
    have occurred after repeated use of it and
    necessitates its continued administration to
    avoid withdrawal symptoms.
  • Psychological dependence The deep craving for
    the drug and the feeling that one cannot function
    without it.

15
Figure 10.2 Illicit Drug Use in Past Month by
Age 2004
Source Department of Health and Human Services,
National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005.
16
Table 10.1 Illicit Drug Use in Lifetime, Past
Year, and Past Month Among Persons Age 12 or
Older Percentages, 2003 and 2004
17
Drug Classification
  • Schedule I substancesthose that have high abuse
    liability and no medical use in the United
    States.
  • Schedule II substancesequally high abuse
    liability, but have some approved medical usage.
  • Schedule III and Schedule IV substancesmoderate
    to moderately high abuse liability and are
    legally available with prescription.
  • Schedule V substancescan be purchased without
    prescription.

18
The Drugs/Violence Link
  • Narcotics drugs are those that reduce the sense
    of pain, tension, and anxiety and produce a
    drowsy sense of euphoria (e.g. heroin).
  • The stimulants have effects opposite to those of
    narcotics (e.g. cocaine, crack, methamphetamine).
  • Hallucinogenic drugs are mind altering drugs
    (e.g. LSD and Peyote).
  • Synthetic look-alike, or designer drugs fall into
    the general family of psychoactive substances.

19
Figure 10.3 Global Cocaine and Heroin
Trafficking Routes Countries of Origin and
Major Countries of Destination.
Source The National Drug Control Strategy 2000
Annual Report. Washington, DC U.S. Government
Printing Office.
20
Figure 10.3 Global Cocaine and Heroin
Trafficking Routes Countries of Origin and
Major Countries of Destination.
Source The National Drug Control Strategy 2000
Annual Report. Washington, DC U.S. Government
Printing Office.
21
Figure 10.4 Illegal Drug Marketing from Grower
to Market
Grower ? Processor ? Transporter ?
Wholesaler ? Retailer
22
What Causes Drug Abuse?
  • Paul Goldsteins tripartite framework Illegal
    drugs are associated with violence in three ways
  • Pharmacological
  • Economic-compulsive
  • Systemic violence Violence associated with
    traditionally aggressive patterns of interaction
    within the system of drug distribution and use.

23
What Causes Drug Abuse?
  • Economic-compulsive violence Violence associated
    with efforts to obtain money to finance the high
    cost of illicit drugs.
  • Pharmacological violence Violence induced by the
    pharmacological properties of the drug itself.

24
What Causes Drug Abuse?
  • Gottfredson and Hirschi Crime and drug usage are
    the same thingthat is the manifestation of low
    self-control.
  • Anomie theory Drug abuse is a retreatist
    adaptation, and drug dealing is an innovative
    adaptation.
  • Social control theory Drug abusers lack
    attachment to pro-social others and lack a state
    in conformity.

25
What Causes Drug Abuse?
  • Social-learning and subculture theories Drug
    abuse reflects differential exposure to
    individuals and groups.
  • Conflict theory As the rich get richer, the poor
    poorer and economic opportunities are shrinking
    for the uneducated and the unskilled, drug
    dealers have taken firm root among the
    increasingly demoralized, disorganized, and
    politically powerless underclass.

26
Does Drug Abuse Cause Crime?
  • Illicit drug abuse is associated with criminal
    behavior.
  • A large body of research indicates that drug
    abuse does not appear to initiate a criminal
    career, although it does increase the extent and
    seriousness of one.

27
Table 10.2 Male and Female Adult Arrestees
Testing Positive for Various Drugs (in
Percentages) MALES








28
FEMALES








Source Adapted from the Arrestee Drug Abuse
Monitoring Program. a. The five drugs are
cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine, opiates, and
phencyclidine (PCP). b. Atlanta, Dallas, Houston,
and Philadelphia did not sample female arrestees
Albany, Denver, Honolulu, and New Orleans were
substituted. c. Multiple drugs are any of nine
drugs that include the basic five plus
barbiturates, methadone, benzodiazepines, and
propoxyphene.
29
Mental Disorders and Crime
  • Mental disorders Clinically significant
    conditions characterized by alterations in
    thinking, mood, or behavior associated with
    personal distress and/or impaired functioning.
  • Schizophrenia The most widespread of the
    psychotic disorders.
  • Schizophrenia comes in a variety of subtypes.
  • Catatonic Rigid and unresponsive
  • Paranoid Hostile and distrusting

30
Mental Disorders and Crime
  • Heberphrenic Frenetic and wild
  • Reactive Usually marked by the onset of an
    acutely stressful experience.
  • Bipolar disorder A disorder in which individuals
    alternate between the poles of extreme elation or
    euphoria and deep depression.
  • The prevalence of bipolar disorder in the
    general population is about 1.6.

31
Causality The Diathesis/Stress Model
  • The genetic basis of schizophrenia and bipolar
    disorder is well-established although how strong
    the genetic effect is relative to non-genetic
    effects remains an open question.
  • Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are
    primarily disorders of brain chemistry.

32
Causality The Diathesis/Stress Model
  • Diathesis/stress model A biosocial model that
    maintains that although mental illnesses reflect
    an underlying genetic vulnerability, they are
    often the products of multiple other factors
    interacting with this vulnerability.
  • People with mental disorders are
    disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic
    classes of society and from urban as opposed to
    rural areas.

33
The Link Between Mental Illness and Crime
  • The majority of the mentally ill are nonviolent,
    and because of their vulnerability, they are more
    likely to be victims of violence than
    perpetrators.
  • The mentally ill most at risk for committing
    violent acts are the homeless, those who use
    alcohol and other drugs, and those who do not
    take their antipsychotic medications.

34
The Link Between Mental Illness and Crime
  • Although the mentally disordered are at greater
    risk for committing crimes, especially violent
    crimes, than the average person, they are few in
    number, and thus their crimes constitute only a
    very small proportion of all crimes committed.
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