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Elementary Education Under Five Year Plans in India

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Title: Elementary Education Under Five Year Plans in India


1
Elementary Education Under Five Year Plans in
India
  • N. K. Mohanty
  • nkmohanty_at_nuepa.org
  • nkmohanty_at_gmail.com

2
Constitutional Provisions in Elementary Education
  • Article 45 The state shall endeavour to
    provide within a period of 10 years from the
    commencement of the Constitution free and
    compulsory primary education for all children
    until they complete the age of 14 years
  • Article 46 The state shall promote with
    special care the educational and economic
    interests of the weaker sections of the people,
    and in particular, of the SCs and STs

3
Constitutional Provisions in Elementary
Education
  • Article 29(2) No citizen shall be denied
    admission into any educational institution
    maintained by the state or receiving aid out of
    State fund on grounds of religion, race, caste,
    language or any of them "
  • Article 30(1) enjoins that "all minorities,
    whether based on religion or language shall have
    the right to establish and administer educational
    institutions of their choice,"

4
Constitutional Provisions in Elementary
Education
  • Article 30(2) - The State shall not, in granting
    aid to educational institutions, discriminate
    against any educational institution on the ground
    that it is under the management of a minority
    whether based on religion or language."
  • Article 350-(A) - It shall be the endeavor of
    every state and of every local authority within
    the State to provide adequate facilities for
    instructions in the mother-tongue at the primary
    stage of education to children belonging to
    linguistic minority group."

5
Constitutional Provisions in Elementary
Education
  • The 42nd Amendment to the Constitution of 1976
    has put education in the Concurrent List and
    empowered the Indian Parliament with the
    authority to legislate on education concurrently
    with the States.
  • The 73rd and 74th Amendment to the Constitution
    provided for decentralization of school education
    and entrusts primary education to Panchayati Raj
    Institutions and Urban Area committees so that
    the participatory and interactive management for
    primary education could be evolved.

6
Constitutional Provisions in Elementary
Education
  • The Central Government on 28th July 1997
    introduced 83rd constitutional amendment in Rajya
    Sabha proposing to make elementary education as
    the fundamental right of the child.
  • The Constitution of India was amended in 2002 to
    make Elementary Education a justiciable
    Fundamental Right.

7
National Policy on Education, 1968
  • Strenuous efforts should be made for early
    fulfillment of the Directive Principle under
    Article 45.
  • Reiterated the resolve that "by 1995, all
    children will be provided free and compulsory
    education up to 14 years of age."
  • The Constitution of India was amended in 2002 to
    make Elementary Education a justiciable
    Fundamental Right.

8
Constitutional Provisions in Elementary
Education
  • The Central Government on 28th July 1997
    introduced 83rd constitutional amendment in Rajya
    Sabha proposing to make elementary education as
    the fundamental right of the child.
  • The Constitution of India was amended in 2002 to
    make Elementary Education a justiciable
    Fundamental Right.

9
Approaches and Strategies
  • Ist Plan (1951-56) 
  • To provide educational facilities to at least
    60 of all children of the school-going age
    within the age-group of 6-14.
  • IInd Plan (1956-61)
  • The emphasis was on linking education with
    economic development. It also advocated for
    expansion of basic and elementary education.

10
Approaches and Strategies
  • IIIrd Plan (196166)
  • The main emphasis was on the provision of
    facilities for universal elementary education for
    all children in the age-group 6-11 on basic line.
    There was also a special concentration on the
    education of girls and to reduce the existing
    disparities in the level of development in
    education boys and girls.
  •  
  • Annual Plans (196669)- No change in the
    approach
  • IVth Plan (196974)
  • Educational Programme in the IVth plan were
    related to social and economic objectives of the
    country.
  • It was a prospective plan based on Manpower
    needs, social demand and the availability of
    financial, material and human resources.

11
Approaches and Strategies
Vth Plan (1974-79)   Very high priority was
given to elementary education and adequate
provision was made for additional
enrolment.   Provisions for curricular
orientation, work experience and strengthen of
educational institution for teachers.   Annual
Plan (1979-80)
12
Approaches and Strategies
  • VIth Plan (1980-85)
  •  
  • Highest priority to programme of UEE to continue
    as a part of minimum needs programme.
  • To achieve UPE in the next 5 years
  •  
  • The approach to UEE was to cover
  •  i) intensified uses of existing facilities,
    including the adjustment of schooling hours which
    would not be more than 3 hours a day according to
    local conditions,
  • ii) provision of new facilities which would be
    economically viable and educationally relevant,
    and
  • iii) promotion of non-formal system of learning.

13
Approaches and Strategies
  • Schemes which were taken up, were
  •  
  • i)  Accepting the principle of average attendance
    to overcome wastage and stagnation,
  • ii)  Ensuring that a school is available to a
    child within 1.5 Kms in a town and within 6 Kms
    in a village,
  • iii)  Laying emphasis upon compulsory enrolment,
  • iv) Bringing about the expansion of part-time
    informal education, and
  • v)  Eradication of regional imbalances.

14
Approaches and Strategies
  • VIIth Plan (1985-90)
  • Highest priority to realising UEE for children in
    the age-group of 6-14 years by 1990.
  • Emphasis shifted from mere enrolment to retention
    and attainment of basic elements of learning.
  •   These objectives were to be achieved through
    formal and non-formal methods focusing sharply on
    the needs of girls and the children belonging to
    economically and socially weaker sections.
  •  Annual Plans (1990-92)

15
Approaches and Strategies
  • VIIIth Plan (1992-97)
  • Highest priority to universalisation of free and
    compulsory education upto the age of 14.
  • Reduction of disparities in access among states
    and within states, between boys and girls and
    among different segments of the population and
  • Improving the retention and achievement of
    children of the relevant age-group.
  • To provide alternative channels for education to
    children of deprived sections and working
    children.
  • Reduction of drop-outs particularly among girls
    and children belonging to SCs, STs and other
    economically and socially disadvantaged
    communities.

16
Approaches and Strategies
  • Programmes/Schemes
  • A national programme of mid-day meals was started
    in August, 1995 to promote access, retention and
    nutritional care of primary schools.
  • Improvement in the quality of schooling and
    achievement levels of children enrolled in
    schools was attempted through the introduction of
    minimum levels of learning (MLL) and enhancement
    of infrastructure facilities.
  •  
  • Operation Black Board (1987), National
    Programme of Nutritional Support (1995), District
    Primary Education Programme (1994), Bihar
    Education Project (1991), UP Basic Education
    Project, Mahila Samakhya, Lok Jumbish, Shiksha
    Karmi

17
Approaches and Strategies
  • IXth Plan (1997-2002)
  •  We are committed to a total eradication of
    illiteracy. We will formulate and implement
    plans to gradually increase the governmental and
    non-governmental spending on education upto 6 of
    the GDP this is to provide education for all.
    We will implement the constitutional provision of
    making primary education free and compulsory upto
    5th standard. Our aim is to move towards equal
    access to and opportunity of educational
    standards upto the school-learning stage. We
    shall strive to improve the quality of education
    at all levels from primary level to our
    universities.

18
Approaches and Strategies
  • Strategy
  • i)  the national goal of providing primary
    education as a universal basic service,
  • ii) the Supreme Court judgement declaring
    education to be a fundamental right for children
    upto 14 years of age,
  • iii) the need to operationalise programmes
    through Panchayat Raj institutions (PRIS) and
    Urban Local Bodies (ULBs),
  • iv)   the legal embargo on child-labour,
  • v)    the provisions of the Persons with
    Disabilities Act, 1995, and
  • heightened awareness of human rights
    violations in respect of women, children and
    persons from disadvantaged sections of society.

19
Approaches and Strategies
  • Issues in Ninth Plan
  •  
  • I) backlog of un-enrolled children (142
    millions out of which 69 million were girls)
  • ii)   dropout rate wide inter-state disparities
    (38.95 at primary)
  • iii) 16.6 per cent habitations were not served by
    primary schools within a distance of one km.
  • iv) lack of physical infrastructures like toilet
    facilities for girls, drinking water facilities
    in schools, teaching-learning equipment etc.,
  • v) evaluation studies on childrens achievement
    show low levels in language and mathematics.
  • vi) There are also regional disparities
  • vii) Equity concerns like low enrolment of
    girls, educational requirements of special need
    groups like SCs/STs, OBCs, minorities, disabled
    working children, children from disadvantaged
    locations like deserts, hilly, coastal and deep
    forest areas and children from migratory families
    etc.

20
Elementary Education in the Tenth Five Year
Plan (2002-07)
  • Approaches
  • Approaches to achieve the goal of universal
    elementary education in the years to come have to
    measure the magnitude and complexity of the task,
    which has so far remained incomplete. Efforts to
    pursue this goal are guided by three broad
    concerns

21
Elementary Education in the Tenth Five Year
Plan (2002-07)
  • The national resolve to provide free and
    compulsory education of satisfactory quality to
    all children up to the age of 14 years
  • The political commitment to make the right to
    elementary education a Fundamental Right and
    enforcing it through necessary statutory
    measures and
  • Enactment of 73rd and 74th Constitutional
    Amendment which has set the stage for greater
    decentralisation and s significantly enhanced
    role for local bodies, community organisations as
    well as voluntary agencies in the efforts towards
    UEE.

22
Targets in Elementary Education in the Tenth
Five Year Plan (2002-07)
  • Universal Access
  • (a)   All children (age groups 6-11 and 11-14)
    should have access to primary schools, upper
    primary schools or their alternatives within the
    walking distance of one kilometer and three
    kilometers respectively.
  • (b) Universal access to early childhood care and
    education centers for all children of 3-6 years
    of age
  • (c)  Need based expansion of upper primary
    education facilities, particularly for
    disadvantaged section. There should be one upper
    primary school for every two primary schools
  • (d) All schools should have buildings, toilets,
    drinking water, electrification, playground,
    black boards and other basic facilities and
  • (e) Provision of one classroom for every
    teacher at elementary stage.

23
Universal Enrolment
  • Enrolment of all children in schools or other
    alternatives by 2003 and
  • All children complete five years of primary
    schooling by 2007 and
  • All children complete eight years of schooling by
    2010
  • Universal Retention
  • (a)  Universal retention in primary cycle by 2007
    and in upper primary level by 2010 and
  • (b)  Dropout rate to be reduced to less than 10
    percent for grades VI-VII by 2007
  • Universal Achievement
  • Improve all aspects of quality of education
    (content and process) to ensure reasonable
    learning outcomes at elementary level, especially
    in literacy, numeracy and in life skills.

24
Equity
  • Bridge all gender and social gaps in enrolment,
    retention and learning achievement in primary
    cycle by 2007. In upper primary it should be
    reduced to less than 5 by 2007
  • Special interventions and strategies to include
    girls, SC/ST children, working children, children
    with special needs, urban deprived children,
    children from minority groups, children below
    poverty line, migrating children and children in
    hardest to reach groups.

25
Strategies in the Tenth Plan
  • Convergence
  • Institutional Reforms
  • Community Empowerment
  • Institutional Capacity Building
  • Community Based Monitoring
  • Habitation as a Unit of Planning
  • Focus on Education of Girls and Special Groups
  • Focus on Quality and Relevance
  • Sustainable Financing
  • Support to NGOs
  • Public and Private Partnership

26
Strategies in the Tenth Plan
  • Education of Girls and Adolescents Girls
  • SCs and STs
  • Working Children
  • Children from Minority Groups
  • Education of UDCs
  • Children below Poverty Line
  • Education of Hard to Reach Groups
  • Education of Children with Special Needs
  • Need Based Expansion of Upper Primary Education
  • ECCE

27
Some Achievments in the Tenth Plan
  • Enrolment
  • Primary Huge increase in Jharkhand. Increases
    above national average in Jammu Kashmir, Uttar
    Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
  • ?Upper Primary Huge increase in Jharkhand, Uttar
    Pradesh, Jammu Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh.

28
Some Achievments in the Tenth Plan
  • Enrolment
  • GER in primary has increased from 96.3 in
    2001-02 to 107.8 in 2004-05 to 109.4 in
    2005-06.
  • GER in upper primary has increased from 60.2 in
    2001-02 to 69.9 in 2004-05 to 71.4 in
    2005-06.
  • Out of school children has decreased from 32
    million in 2001-02 to 7.1 million in 2005-06.
  • Number of districts having out of school
    children of more than 50, 000 each has reduced
    from 48 to 29.

29
Some Achievments in the Tenth Plan
  • Enrolment
  • Dropout rate at primary has decreased from
    39.03 in 2001-02 to 29 in 2004-05
  • Dropout rate at the elementary level has
    remained very high at 50.8.
  • Reduction in gender gap and social category gap.

30
Issues in Elementary Education in the 11th Plan
  • The Constitution of India was amended in 2002 to
    make Elementary Education a justiciable
    Fundamental Right.
  • 7.1 million children being out of school and
    over 50 dropping out at elementary level are
    matters of serious concern.
  • SSA to be reoriented to meet the challenges of
    equity, retention and high quality education.

31
Issues in Elementary Education in the 11th Plan
  • States to be pursued to enact their own
    legislation or amend the existing ones to ensure
    UEE.
  • SSA would be restructured into a National
    Mission for Quality Elementary Education to
    ensure minimum norms and standards for a school
    (both government and private) that is accessible
    to all children. It would address access, quality
    and equity holistically though Systems Approach.

32
Issues in Elementary Education in the 11th Plan
  • The backlog for additional classrooms would be
    about 6.87 lakh.
  • Opening of about 20,000 new primary schools and
    up gradation of about 70,000 primary schools are
    required.
  • Giving good quality education of common
    standards, pedagogy and syllabi to ensure minimum
    learning levels.

33
Targets in Elementary Education in the 11th Plan
  • Universal enrolment of 6-14 age group children
    including hard to reach segment.
  • Substantial improvement in quality and standards
    with the ultimate objective to achieve standards
    of KVs under CBSE pattern.
  • All genders, social and regional gaps in
    enrolments to be eliminated by 2011-12.
  • One year ECCE for all children in the age group
    of 4-6 years.
  • Dropouts at primary level to be eliminated and
    dropout rate at Elementary level to be reduced
    from over 50 to 20 by 2011-12.

34
Targets in Elementary Education in the 11th Plan
  • Universalize MDMS at Elementary level by
    2008-09.
  • Universal coverage of ICT at Upper Primary
    schools by 2011-12.
  • Lay emphasis on full retention in schools with
    nil dropout rate at primary level.
  • Bring significant improvement in learning
    conditions with emphasis on learning basic
    skills, verbal and quantitative.

35
Targets in Elementary Education in the 11th Plan
  • All States/UTs to adopt NCERT Quality Monitoring
    Tools.
  • Strengthen BRCs/CRCs setting up one CRC for
    every 10 schools and 5 resource teachers per
    block.

36
Special Quality Intervention for Disadvantaged
Groups in the 11th Plan
  • The XI plan would lay special focus on
    disadvantaged groups and educationally backward
    areas.
  • This focus would include not only higher
    resource allocation but also capacity building
    for preparation and implementation of strategies
    based on identified needs, more intensive
    monitoring and supervision and tracking of
    progress.
  • Give top priority in ECCE to habitations of
    marginalized sections.
  • Set up additional 500 KGBVs in Blocks with higher
    concentration of SC, ST, OBC and Minority
    population.

37
Special Quality Intervention for Disadvantaged
Groups in the 11th Plan
  • Special attention to Districts with high SCs,
    STs and Minority population, Innovative funds for
    special Focus Districts to be doubled.
  • Focus on improving the learning levels of SC, ST,
    minority chi9ldren through remedial coaching in
    schools and also in habitations through educated
    youth of NYKS, NSS, SHGs and local NGOs.
  • Special schools for slum children in 35 cities
    with million plus population.
  • Special intervention for migrating children,
    Urban deprived and working children.

38
Special Quality Intervention for Disadvantaged
Groups in the 11th Plan
  • Creation of capacity within the school for
    dealing with students lagging in studies.
  • Setting up 1000 hostels in EBBs with resident to
    PG Teacher as warden to provide supplementary
    academic support.
  • Sensitize teachers for special care of weaker
    sections children with special needs.
  • Intensive social mobilization in dalit, tribal
    and minority habitations through community
    support.
  • Provide housing for teachers in tribal and remote
    habitations.

39
Pre-School Education in the 11th Plan
  • SSA would have a component of one-year Early
    Childhood Care Education (ECCE), which can be
    universalized to cover 2.4 crore children in a
    phased manner.
  • A large number of primary schools in States like
    U.P. and Rajasthan already have ECCE. Primary
    schools within the habitations, ICDS-Anganwadi
    would be supported.

40
KGBV and DPEP in the 11th Plan
  • These scheme would be subsumed within SSA in the
    11th plan. Expansion of 500 KGBVs in
    District/Blocks with high concentration of SCs,
    Sts, OBCs and Minorities would be taken up.
  • DPEP would come to an end in November 2008 and
    would be subsumed under SSA as per the existing
    procedure. The external commitments would however
    be met.

41
Teacher Education Thrust areas in the 11th Plan
  • Establishing organic linkages between
    CRCs-BRCs-DIETs-SCERTs-NCERT and Universities.
  • Teacher absenteeism Accountability to be tackled
    through PRTs.
  • Need to work towards enhancing quality of an
    integrated system of teacher education.
  • Linking teacher education with institutions of
    research and higher education.
  • Countinued professional development of teachers
    and teacher educators.

42
Teacher Education Thrust areas in the 11th Plan
  • Linkages with reputed teacher education
    institutions for possible drawing up of quality
    faculty resources on contractual basis. PPP
    models for rejuvenating poor quality DIETs and
    also setting up of new DIETs/DRCs.
  • At least one training for all teachers once in
    every two years.
  • Capacity building of para teachers.

43
Teacher Education Thrust areas in the 11th Plan
  • The teacher Education Scheme would be
    implemented in partnership with states. The
    entire recurring expenditure, including salaries
    and contingencies during the 11th plan period
    would be met by GOI to the tune of 100 in
    2007-08 and thereafter reduced by 10
    progressively each year to 90 in 2008-09, 80 in
    2009-10, 70 in 2010-11 and 60 in 2011-12 so
    that gradually the States can take up their
    committed liabilities and old establishment
    expenditure.
  • The GOI would bear 100 of new establishment and
    programme components expenditure.

44
Madarsas/Maktabs in the 11th Plan
  • Additional maddarsas/maktabs would be supported
    for modernization under AIE component and it
    should be possible to cover all the 12,000 odd
    Madarasas during the plan period.

45
Mahila Samakhya in the 11th Plan
  • The MS programme would be continued as per the
    existing pattern and expanded in a phased manner
    to cover all the EBBs and also in arban/suburban
    slums, as it contributes to educational
    empowerment of poor women.

46
Mid Day Meal Scheme in the 11th Plan
  • The scheme would be extended to upper primary
    schools (Govt., Local Body and Govt. Aided
    Schools, and EGS/AIE Centres) in 3479 EBBs from
    1st June, 2007 to cover additional 30 million
    children and to all upper primary schools from
    April, 2008 to cover about 18 crore children by
    2008-09. The nutritional value of meals for upper
    primary children would be fixed at 700 caloreis
    derived from 150 gms of cereals and 20 gms of
    protein.

47
MDM Action Points in the 11th Plan
  • MDM to be managed by the local community and
    PRIs/NGOs. And not contracts driven civie quality
    and safety to be prime considerations.
  • Sensitize teachers and others involved in
    nutrition, hygiene, cleanliness and safety norms
    to rectify observed deficiencies.
  • Involve nutrition experts in planning low cost
    nutrition menu and for periodic testing of
    samples of prepared food.
  • Promote locally grown nutritionally rich food
    items through kitchen gardens in school etc.

48
MDM Action Points in the 11th Plan
  • Revive School Health Programme disseminate and
    replicate best practices adopted by States.
  • Provide drinking facilities in all schools on
    urgent basis.
  • Status regarding supplies, funds, norms, weekly
    menu and coverage displayed in schools to ensure
    transparency.
  • Central assistance to cooking cost based on
    actual number of beneficiary children and not on
    enrollment.
  • Promote social audit.
  • Online Monitoring.

49
Thank You Very Much
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