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Jeffersonianism and the Era of Good Feelings, 1801-1824

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Chapter 8 Jeffersonianism and the Era of Good Feelings, 1801-1824 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Conclusion (cont.) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Jeffersonianism and the Era of Good Feelings, 1801-1824


1
Chapter 8
  • Jeffersonianism and the Era of Good Feelings,
    1801-1824

2
Introduction
  • On March 4, 1801, Thomas Jefferson walked to the
    Capitol and took the oath of office as president.
  • His actions reflected his belief that the pomp
    and circumstance in which Washington and Adams
    had engaged ill-fitted republican govt.
  • Despite the partisan bitterness of the election
    of 1800, Jefferson, in his inaugural address,
    attempted to conciliate Federalists by
    emphasizing the principles on which most
    Americans agreed federalism and republicanism

3
Introduction (cont.)
  • The period of 1801 to 1823 would see major
    changes
  • 1.) The Federalist Party would slowly die out
  • 2.) the Republicans would be rent by factionalism
  • 3.) United States would double in size
  • 4.) sectional strife over statehood for MO would
    nearly tear that expanded nation apart

4
Introduction (cont.)
  • 1.) How did Jeffersons philosophy shape policy
    toward public expenditures, the judiciary, and
    LA?
  • 2.) What led James Madison to go to war with
    Britain in 1812?
  • 3.) How did the War of 1812 influence American
    domestic politics?
  • 4.) To what extent did Jeffersons legacy persist
    into the Era of Good Feelings?

5
The Age of Jefferson, 1801-1805
  • Jefferson and Jeffersonianism
  • Thomas Jefferson intellectual, scientist,
    architect, inventor, and statesman, was a
    complex, contradictory, and gifted individual
  • Author of the DOIs bold statement about the
    equality of all men, he, nevertheless, doubted
    that blacks and whites could live side by side on
    terms of equality
  • Despite his opposition to racially mixing black
    and white blood, his political enemies charged
    that he himself had fathered the children of his
    slave Sally Hemings.
  • Recent DNA evidence from Sallys male heir
    appears to support the story

6
Jefferson and Jeffersonianism (cont.)
  • Jefferson distrusted power concentrated in the
    federal govt.
  • a danger to republican liberty
  • preferring that state govts.
  • he saw as closer and more responsive to the
    people
  • Republican liberty could best be retained by a
    virtuous and vigilant citizenry that put the
    public good ahead of selfish private interests
  • Educated small farmers
  • Cities and their landless inhabitants were a
    potential menace to the republic

7
Jeffersons Revolution
  • Jefferson attempted to repeal Federalist measures
    that he felt were a danger to the simple republic
  • Parts of Alexander Hamiltons economic program
  • The Alien and Sedition Acts
  • He reduced taxes and the national debt
  • Primarily by slashing expenditures for the army
    and for the diplomatic establishment
  • In these ways he felt that he was lifting an
    economic burden form hardworking farmers

8
Jefferson and the Judiciary
  • Jefferson demanded that Congress repeal the
    Federalist-sponsored Judiciary Act of 1801 and
    remove the partisan Federalist judges that
    President Adams had appointed in his last hours
    as president
  • Jefferson had little success with impeachment of
    Federalist judges
  • Only one conviction and removal from the bench
  • The majority in Congress viewed impeachment
    process as an inappropriate way to solve the
    problem of partisan judges

9
Jefferson and the Judiciary (cont.)
  • Jeffersons drive to keep additional Federalists
    out of the judiciary led to the Marbury v.
    Madison (1803)
  • http//www.landmarkcases.org/marbury/majority.html
  • The Supreme Court said presidents could appoint
    federal judges

10
Jefferson and the Judiciary (cont.)
  • Marshall used the case to significantly
    strengthen the power of the judicial branch
  • He claimed that federal courts had the right to
    review laws passed by Congress
  • Judicial review
  • For the 1st time, the Supreme Court declared a
    portion of a law passed by Congress
    unconstitutional
  • Jefferson did not oppose the concept of judicial
    review, but he believed that judges should not
    use it for partisan purposes

11
The Louisiana Purchase
  • Napoleon Bonaparte forced Spain to cede the
    Louisiana Territory to France
  • The French action alarmed Jefferson
  • it placed a major European power on the U.S.
    border
  • It blocked the gradual expansion of the U.S.A.

12
The Louisiana Purchase (cont.)
  • The problem became especially pressing in 1802,
    when Spanish authorities (just before the
    territorys transfer to France) denied western
    farmers use of the port of New Orleans
  • Jefferson sent James Monroe and Robert R.
    Livingston to France with a request to buy the
    city
  • Napoleon countered with an offer to sell the
    entire Louisiana Territory for 15 million
  • He was frustrated with uprisings in French
    Caribbean colonies

13
The Louisiana Purchase (cont.)
  • Since the Constitution did not explicitly give
    the federal govt. the power to acquire new
    territories and since Jefferson was wedded to
    strict interpretation, he briefly thought of
    first seeking an enabling amendment to the
    Constitution

14
The Louisiana Purchase (cont.)
  • His political acumen and desire to make land
    available to small farmers, the backbone of the
    nation, won out
  • He submitted the purchase treaty to the Senate
  • It was quickly ratified
  • April 30, 1803 officially U.S.A. territory

15
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16
The Election of 1804
  • Republicans
  • renominated Jefferson for president and dropped
    Aaron Burr in favor of George Clinton for VP
  • The Federalist
  • Charles C. Pickney and Rufus King

17
The Election of 1804 (cont.)
  • The successes of Jeffersons first term
  • Doubling the size of U.S.A., maintaining peace,
    reducing taxes, reducing national debt
  • Won over many former Federalist voters
  • Overwhelming Republican victory
  • 162 to 14 electoral votes

18
The Election of 1804 (cont.)
19
The Lewis and Clark Expedition
  • Lewis Meriwether
  • William Clark
  • Jefferson requested funding from Congress for an
    expedition across the continent to explore the
    new Louisiana Purchase

20
The Lewis and Clark Expedition (cont.)
  • They were charged with the difficult task of
    opening trade relations with unknown numbers of
    Indian tribes across the plains and northwest
  • Brought Americans into contact for the first time
    with the Mandan, Hidatsas, Arikaras, and Sioux
    tribes
  • Left St. Louis in 1804

21
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22
The Lewis and Clark Expedition (cont.)
  • Followed the Missouri, Snake, and Columbia rivers
  • Crossed the Rockies
  • Reached the Pacific in 1805
  • They would not have returned safely if not for
    the priceless guidance and comfort offered by
    numerous Indian nations along the trail

23
The Lewis and Clark Expedition (cont.)
  • The Corps of Discovery returned with a wealth of
    scientific information (and some misinformation),
    descriptions, and maps that stimulated interest
    in the West

24
The Gathering Storm, 1805-1812
  • Introduction
  • Jeffersons second term as president was beset by
    problems caused by the breakdown of Republican
    Party unity and the renewal of the Napoleonic Wars

25
Challenges on the Home Front
  • Aaron Burr, Jeffersons first-term VP, stirred up
    factionalism within the Republican party

26
Challenges on the Home Front (cont.)
  • Jefferson believed that Burr was the chief
    plotter in a conspiracy to separate the western
    states from the Union
  • The president had Burr arrested and tried for
    treason
  • At the trial, over which John Marshall presided,
    the jury found the charges not proved

27
Challenges on the Home Front (cont.)
  • Jefferson also was attacked by another faction of
    Republicans known as the Quids and led by John
    Randolph
  • They criticized the presidents handling of the
    Yazoo (present-day AL and MS) land scandal (GA
    legislature had sold the land at a fraction of
    its worth to land companies. The land companies
    bribed the GA legislatures.) and other actions
    that they saw as compromising republican virtue

28
The Suppression of American Trade and Impressment
  • The British and French, at war with each other,
    forbade American ships from entering each others
    ports and trading with the other side.
  • Both powers seized U.S. ships
  • Actions of the British caused greater harm
    because they had the larger navy and their
    warships often hovered just off the U.S. coast
  • The British also removed sailors on American
    ships and forced (or pressed) them into service
    in the Royal Navy

29
The Suppression of American Trade and Impressment
(cont.)
  • When the British warship HMS Leopard attacked the
    American frigate USS Chesapeake near the VA coast
    and impressed 4 of its crewman
  • the country was outraged
  • Jefferson still sought to avoid war

30
The Embargo Act of 1807
  • Jefferson persuaded Congress to pass an embargo
    as a means of peaceable coercion
  • He hoped that U.S. refusal to export any goods or
    to buy any products from abroad would put
    sufficient economic pressure on GB and France to
    make them respect U.S. neutral rights

31
The Embargo Act of 1807 (cont.)
  • Unfortunately, the cutoff of trade did not hurt
    them enough to change their actions
  • It proved disastrous to the U.S. economy
  • Seamen were unemployed merchants and farmers who
    depended on foreign sales were ruined
  • The impact was hardest on New England

32
The Embargo Act of 1807 (cont.)
  • An unintended consequence of the embargo was to
    encourage the transfer of capital into domestic
    manufacturing, a development Jefferson had
    initially opposed

33
James Madison and the Failure of Peaceable
Coercion
  • The unpopularity of the embargo revived the
    Federalist Party
  • 1808 election
  • FederalistCharles C. Pinckney
  • RepublicanJames Madison

34
James Madison and the Failure of Peaceable
Coercion (cont.)
  • Federalist carried much of New England
  • Madison carried most of other sections of the
    country

35
James Madison and the Failure of Peaceable
Coercion (cont.)
  • Just before Jefferson left office, Congress
    repealed the embargo and replaced it with the
    weaker Non-Intercourse Act
  • This law worked no better then the previous one
  • For the next year and half, President Madison
    tried variations on the them of peaceable
    coercion (Macons Bill No. 2)
  • all failed to change British and French behavior

36
James Madison and the Failure of Peaceable
Coercion (cont.)
  • By 1810, Madison faced increasing pressure from
    Republican congressional representatives from the
    South and West
  • Demanded a more aggressive policy toward Britain
    and France
  • war hawks
  • resented the insults to American honor
  • Blamed the interference in trade for the economic
    recession hitting their home states

37
Tecumseh and the Prophet
  • The war hawks wanted the British to get out of
    Canada
  • They believed that the British were arming and
    inciting the Indians on the American frontier

38
Tecumseh and the Prophet (cont.)
  • Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa (the
    Prophet) were 2 Shawnees attempting to unite the
    tribes of Ohio and Indiana against white settlers
  • Initially they had no connections with the
    British
  • William Henry Harrison attacked the Prophets
    town and won the battle at Tippecanoe, Tecumseh
    did join forces with England

39
Congress Votes for War
  • June 1, 1812, Madison asked Congress to declare
    war on England
  • The vote reflected party and sectional splits
  • Most of the no votes came from New England
    Federalists
  • The majority of Republicans passed the declaration

40
Congress Votes for War (cont.)
  • Reasons U.S.A. declared war in 1812
  • Britains incitement of the Indians
  • The belief that continuing British restrictions
    on U.S. shipping was causing the recession in the
    South and West
  • Madisons view that England intended to ruin
    America as a commercial rival

41
The War of 1812
42
The War of 1812 (cont.)
  • On to Canada
  • In 1812, American attempts to conquer Canada
    failed
  • The British took Detroit
  • American victories
  • Oliver H. Perrys victory on Lake Erie
  • William Henry Harrisons at the Battle of the
    Thames

43
The British Offensive
  • In 1814, the British landed on the shores of
    Chesapeake Bay and marched to Washington
  • Captured Washington and burned it
  • After they failed to take Baltimore, they broke
    off the campaign

44
The Treaty of Ghent
  • U.S. and British commissioners met at Ghent,
    Belgium
  • Dec. 1814
  • The British demanded territory from the U.S.A.
  • The U.S.A. refused
  • British backed down

45
The Treaty of Ghent (cont.)
  • Dec. 24, 1814, they signed the treaty
  • The U.S.A. was restored to prewar status quo
  • Battle of New Orleans
  • Fought 2 weeks after the Treaty was signed
  • U.S. had a resounding victory
  • Had no bearing on the terms of the Treaty of
    Ghent
  • Provided an uplifting ending for Americans

46
Treaty of Ghent (cont.)
47
Battle of New Orleans
48
The Hartford Convention
  • The unpopularity of the war in the Northwest
    contributed to the revival of the Federalists
  • In the election of 1812, antiwar Republicans and
    Federalists supported DeWitt Clinton for
    president against Madison
  • Madison won reelection (128 to 89)
  • Clinton carried most of the Northeast

49
The Hartford Convention (cont.)
  • American military losses intensified Federalist
    discontent
  • Fall of 1814
  • Group of Federalists convened at Hartford, CT
  • Passed resolutions aimed at strengthening their
    regions power within the Union
  • http//civilwar.bluegrass.net/secessioncrisis/hart
    fordconvention.html

50
The Hartford Convention (cont.)
  • Their timing could not have been worse
  • Coincided with the end of the war and news of
    Jacksons victory in New Orleans
  • Silenced Federalist criticism
  • Public disapproval of the Hartford Convention led
    to the rapid demise of the Federalist Party

51
The Hartford Convention (cont.)
  • In the election of 1816, James Monroe (the
    Republican nominee) scored an easy victory
  • In 1820, Monroe won reelection with every
    electoral vote but one

52
1816 1820
53
The Awakening of American Nationalism
  • Madisons Nationalism and the Era of Good
    Feelings, 1817-1824
  • Era of Good Feelings was the name given to the
    postwar time period
  • Heightened spirit of nationalism
  • New political consensus
  • Federalist party disappeared

54
Madisons Nationalism and the Era of Good
Feelings, 1817-1824 (cont.)
  • Republicans wanted to make the country more
    self-sufficient
  • Enacted many measures that the Federalists had
    earlier supported
  • Chartering of a new national bank
  • Protective tariff (help domestic manufacturing)
  • Sectional harmony started to break down because
    of the issue of slavery and its spread westward

55
John Marshall and the Supreme Court
  • Chief Justice Marshall wrote opinions that
    strengthened the power of the federal govt. at
    the expense of state sovereignty
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
  • Forbade state interference with contracts
  • http//www.abanet.org/publiced/youth/sia/holtcases
    /dartmouth.html
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
  • Prohibited states from interfering with the
    exercise of federal powers

56
The Missouri Compromise, 1820-1821
  • National harmony crumbled in the 1819 controversy
    over Missouris application for statehood
  • For the 1st time, bitter sectional debate took
    place over the issue of the spread of slavery
    because the institution had become embroiled in
    political and economic issues dividing North and
    South

57
The Missouri Compromise, 1820-1821 (cont.)
  • Admitting MO as a slave or free state would upset
    the balance of 11 free and 11 slave states that
    existed in 1819
  • 1820 the Missouri Compromise was approved by
    Congress

58
The Missouri Compromise, 1820-1821 (cont.)
  • 1.) MO entered the Union as a slave state
  • 2.) ME entered as a free state
  • 3.) in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory,
    slavery would be permitted only south of 36 30
    latitude
  • The southern boundary of MO

59
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60
Foreign Policy Under Monroe
  • Under the leadership of President James Monroe
    and his able secretary of state, John Quincy
    Adams, the U.S. achieved several foreign-policy
    successes

61
Foreign Policy Under Monroe (cont.)
  • Good relations with the British were cemented
    through agreements
  • Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817)
  • British and U.S.A. agreed to eliminate their
    fleets from the Great Lakes
  • British-American Convention (1818)
  • Clarified the western border between Canada and
    the United States as a line from the farthest
    northwest part of Lake of Woods to the 49th
    parallel and thence west to the Rocky Mountains.
  • 1819 Adams-Onis Treaty
  • Spain ceded East Florida to the U.S.A. and
    renounced its claims to West Florida

62
The Monroe Doctrine
  • December 1823
  • Mostly written by John Quincy Adams
  • Purpose was to discourage European powers from
    helping Spain regain her lost colonies in the
    Americas
  • Also, reserving the right of the U.S. to expand
    further in the Western Hemisphere

63
The Monroe Doctrine (cont.)
  • The Monroe Doctrine stated
  • 1.) the U.S.A. would not become involved in
    strictly European affairs
  • 2.) the American continents were not available
    for further European colonization
  • 3.) the U.S. would look upon any attempt by
    European countries to regain lost colonies or to
    interfere in the Americans as an unfriendly
    act.
  • http//www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/jd/16321.htm
  • http//www.ushistory.org/documents/monroe.htm

64
Conclusion
  • In the election of 1800, the Republicans gained
    control of the federal govt.
  • President Jefferson in his first term cut govt.
    spending and taxes.
  • He also protested Federalist stacking of the
    judiciary
  • And he purchased Louisiana

65
Conclusion (cont.)
  • Jeffersons second term was beset by factionalism
    within his party and foreign difficulties as
    Britain and France were again at war (and
    violated U.S. neutral rights)
  • When the policy of peaceable coercion initiated
    by Jefferson and followed by Madison, failed,
    Congress declared war on Britain (War of 1812)

66
Conclusion (cont.)
  • The War of 1812 caused sectional divisions
  • Federalist denunciation of the war at the
    Hartford Convention hastened the demise of the
    party
  • The remaining Republicans wanted to make America
    economically self-sufficient
  • They passed many of the nationalist measures once
    advocated by Hamiltonian Federalist
  • A new national bank federally supported internal
    improvements protective tariffs

67
Conclusion (cont.)
  • Even U.S. foreign policy, especially the Monroe
    Doctrine, reflected assertive nationalism
  • National harmony shattered as Congress battled
    over the spread of slavery and Missouris
    admission as a slave state
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