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LICIT AND ILLICIT DRUGS USE, MISUSE, AND ABUSE UNIT 5 Drug

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LICIT AND ILLICIT DRUGS USE, MISUSE, AND ABUSE UNIT 5 Drug Dynamics Drugs work because they physically resemble the chemicals naturally produced with in the body ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LICIT AND ILLICIT DRUGS USE, MISUSE, AND ABUSE UNIT 5 Drug


1
LICIT AND ILLICIT DRUGS
  • USE, MISUSE, AND ABUSE
  • UNIT 5

2
Drug Dynamics
  • Drugs work because they physically resemble the
    chemicals naturally produced with in the body
  • Drugs affect our physical functions by mimicking
    these natural chemicals in our body.
  • ex. Painkillers resemble endorphins
  • RECEPTOR SITE THEORY
  • Drugs bind to specific receptor sites in the body
  • These sites are specialized cells. (because of
    their size, shape, electrical charge, and
    chemical properties, drugs can attach themselves.
  • Most drugs attach themselves to multiple
    receptors
  • ex. Heart and Circulatory system, liver,
    lungs, kidneys, brain, and gonads(testicles or
    ovaries)

3
TYPES OF DRUGS
  • 6 TYPES OF DRUGS
  • PRESCRIPTION DRUGS- those that can only be
    obtained through a written prescription. ( More
    than 10,000 different types of prescription drugs
    are sold in the U.S. costing over 200 billion a
    year.)
  • OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUGS- can be purchased without
    a prescription. (There are more than 300,000
    OTCs, with an annual cost of 20 billion.)
  • 3 OUT OF 4 PEOPLE ROUTINELY MEDICATE THEMSELVES
  • RECREATIONAL DRUGS- drugs used to help a person
    relax or socialize.
  • ex. Alcohol, Tea, Coffee, Tobacco, Chocolate

4
TYPES OF DRUGS CONT. . . .
  • HERBAL PREPARATIONS- Approximately 750 substances
    are herbal teas and other products of
    botanical(plant) origin that are believed to have
    medicinal purposes.
  • ILLICIT DRUGS- these are the most notorious type
    of drugs. Generally, recognized as harmful. All
    are PSYCHOACTIVE (have the potential to alter
    mood or behavior)
  • COMMERCIAL DRUGS- Most commonly recognized drugs.
    There are more than 1,000 of these.
  • ex. Perfumes, cosmetics, household cleaners,
    paints, glues, inks, dyes, gardening chemicals,
    pesticides, and industrial by-products.

5
Routes of Administration
  • 7 TYPES OF WAYS TO ADMINISTER DRUGS
  • Oral Ingestion
  • Inhalation
  • Injection
  • Intravenous Injection
  • Inunction
  • Suppositories

6
Routes Cont . . . .
  • Oral Ingestion through the mouth
  • Inhalation - through the mouth or nose.
    (sniffing, snorting, or smoking)
  • Injection introduction via hypodermic needle
  • Intravenous Injection introduction directly
    into the vein
  • Inunction introduction through the skin
  • Suppositories mixture of drugs and wax made to
    melt at body temp, and are inserted into the anus
    or vagina.

7
USING, MISUSING, AND ABUSING
  • DRUG MISUSE to use a drug for a purpose it was
    not intended for.
  • This is not to far off from drug abuse.
  • DRUG ABUSE- the excessive use of any drug, that
    may result in serious harm
  • The misuse and abuse of any drug may lead to
    addiction. Both risks and benefits are involved
    in the use of any chemical substance.

8
ADDICTION
  • Use for the purpose of relieving withdrawal
    symptoms a series of temporary physical and
    psychological symptoms that occurs when the
    addicted person abruptly stops using the drug.
  • Continued use of the drugs despite knowledge of
    the harm that it causes yourself and others.
  • (Deterioration in work performance,
    relationships, and social interaction)

9
SIGNS OF ADDICTION
  • Addictions are characterized by four common
    symptoms
  • Compulsion- excessive need to perform the
    behavior. OBSESSION
  • Loss of Control- the inability to predict
    reliability whether any isolated occurrence of
    the behavior will be healthy or damaging.
  • Negative Consequence- physical damage, legal
    trouble, financial problems, academic failure, or
    family dissolution.

10
SIGNS CONT. . .
  • DENIAL- the inability to perceive that the
    behavior is self-destructive.
  • THESE FOUR COMPENENTS OR PRESENT IN ALL
    ADDICTIONS, WHETHER CHEMICAL OR BEHAVIORAL.

11
PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
  • TYPES
  • ANTIBIOTICS- used to fight bacterial infections
  • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANTS- are sedative
    or hypnotic medications commonly used to treat
    anxiety.
  • 2 types ( Benzodiazepines, Antidepressants)
  • Benzodiazepines- (valium, ativan, xanax)
  • Relieve anxiety, relax the body, and induce
    sleep.
  • Antidepressants- (prozac, zoloft, paxil)
  • used to treat clinically diadnosed depression.

12
OTC- OVER THE COUNTER DRUGS
  • Over the counter drugs we use to treat a
    self-diagnosis and self medication.
  • How do prescription drugs become OTC?
  • 1. must be a prescription for at least 3 years
  • 2. the amount of use must have been high through
    its time as a prescription
  • 3. adverse drug effects are not alarming

13
TYPES OF OTCS
  • ANALGESICS- Pain Relievers (Advil, Motrin,
    Tylenol, Acetaminophen, aspirin, ibuprofen.
  • PROSTAGLANDIN INHIBITORS-inhibit the production
    and release of prostaglandins, hormone like
    substances associated with arthritis or menstrual
    pain.
  • COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, AND ASTHMA RELIEVERS
  • SLEEPING AIDS, DIETING AIDS(laxatives, diuretics)

14
OTCS CONT. . .
  • RULES FOR TAKING OTCS
  • Always know what you are taking
  • Know the effects, both desired and undesired
  • Read the warnings and cautions
  • Dont use anything for more than 1 or 2 weeks
  • Be extremely careful if you are taking
    prescription drugs, so they dont interact.
  • Questions, ask your pharmacist
  • IF YOU DONT NEED IT, DONT TAKE IT

15
ILLICIT DRUGS
  • DRUGS THAT ARE ILLEGAL TO POSSESS, PRODUCE, OR
    SELL.
  • ILLICIT DRUG USE SPANS ALL AGE GROUPS1
  • Age groups, occupations, ethnicities, and
    socio-economic groups.
  • College Students- 52 have tried a type of drug.
  • Over 1/3 have smoked pot in the last year
  • 20 have done it in the last month

16
ILLICIT DRUGS CONTI. . . .
  • DRUGS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO FIVE SCHEDULES
  • Highest potential for abuse, no use for medicinal
    purposes
  • II. III. IV. V. all have acceptable medical
    applications, but still present threats to health
    if they are misused.
  • DRUGS ARE BROKEN UP INTO 7 CATEGORIES

17
7 CATEGORIES
  • STIMULANTS
  • AMPHETAMINES
  • METHANPHETAMINES
  • HALLUCINOGENS(Pyschedelics)
  • DESIGNER DRUGS
  • INHALANTS
  • STERIODS

18
STIMULANTS
  • COCAINE- a white crystalline powder derived from
    the leaves of the South American coca shrub.
  • described as one of the most powerful naturally
    occurring stimulant
  • METHODS OF COCAINE USE
  • Snorting- most common, destroys mucous membrane
    in the nose, and can destroy the users sense of
    smell. Can eat a hole in the septum
  • Injection- puts large amounts of cocaine in the
    blood, for almost an instant euphoria. Risks
    include AIDS, Hepatitis, Inflamed Arteries, Skin
    Infections, Infection of the lining of the heart.

19
STIMULANTS CONT. . . .
  • AMPHETAMINES- a large and varied group of
    synthetic agents that stimulate the central
    nervous system.
  • Sleep Patterns (Insomnia), heart rate, breathing
    rate, blood pressure, restlessness, anxiety,
    appetite suppression, and vision problems.
  • METHAMPHETAMINES- a powerfully addictive drug
    that strongly activates certain areas of the
    brain and affects the central nervous system.
  • METHODS OF USE- can be snorted, injected,
    smoked, orally injested.
  • SIDE AFFECTS- dependency, psychosis, paranoia,
    aggression, weight loss, stroke

20
STIMULANTS CONT. . . .
  • MARIJUANA- chopped leaves and flowers of the
    Cannabis indica or Cannibus sativa plant (hemp)
    a psychoactive stimulant that intensifies
    reactions to environmental stimuli.
  • 1 in every 12 Americans over the age of 12 has
    tried it once
  • 12 million Americans have used it
  • 1 million can not control their use
  • Effects
  • Smoking one joint is the same as smoking 3
    cigarettes
  • Transfers carbon monoxide to bloodstream
  • Diminishes oxygen in the bloodstream (heart works
    harder)
  • Higher levels of tar in the marijuana cigarettes
  • Memory Loss
  • Suppression of the immune system

21
OPIATES
  • Cause drowsiness, relieves pain, and induces
    euphoria.
  • Also called NARCOTICS. (Includes morphine,
    codeine, heroin, and black tar heroin)
  • EFFECTS
  • Powerful depressants of the nervous system
  • Lower heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure
  • Weakness, Dizziness, Nausea, Vomiting, Euphoria,
    Decrease Sex drive
  • Lack of Coordination

22
HALLUCINOGENS
  • Hallucinogens- are substances that are capable of
    creating auditory and visual hallucinations.
  • Also known as PSYCHODELICS
  • Types LSD, Mescaline, Psilocybin, and PCP
  • Effects
  • Alter effects of feelings, perceptions, and
    thoughts.
  • ALL ARE ILLEGAL AND CARRY SEVERE PENALTIES FOR
    MANUFACTURE, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, OR SALE.

23
LSD
  • LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE
  • Originally used to remember suppressed traumas.
  • 2 percent of college students have used it in
    the last year.
  • LSD is one of the most powerful drugs. Strong
    Effects can be felt from just 20 micrograms. ( a
    stamp weighs 60,000 micrograms)
  • EFFECTS increased heart rate, elevated blood
    pressure and temperature, goose flesh, increased
    reflex speeds, muscle tremors and twitches,
    perspiration, increased salivation, chills,
    headaches, and mild nausea.

24
PCP
  • PHENCYCLIDINE
  • Originally used as a dissociative anesthetic.
    Used to keep patients eyes open and conscious,
    but feel no pain.
  • EFFECTS fever, salivation, nausea, vomiting,
    total loss of pain.

25
DESIGNER DRUGS
  • Are synthetic drugs that produce effects similar
    to existing illegal drugs.
  • Manufactured in chemical laboratories and homes
    and sold illegally.
  • Also called club drugs.
  • Include Ecstasy, GHB, Special K. (DATE RAPE)

26
INHALANTS
  • Chemicals that produce vapors that, when inhaled,
    can cause hallucinations, and create intoxicating
    effects like euphoria.
  • Rubber Cement, Model Glue, Paint Thinner, Lighter
    Fluid, Varnish, Wax, Spot Removers, and Gasoline.

27
STEROIDS
  • Anabolic Steroids are artificial testosterone
    hormones that produce muscle growth and strength
  • 17-20 percent of college athletes use them.
  • Two Forms Injectable and Pills
  • EFFECTS
  • Mood Swings roid rage, acne, liver tumors,
    elevated cholesterol levels, hypertension, kidney
    disease, immune system disturbances.
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