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Sport Psychology

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Sport Psychology History of Sport Psych Chinese and Greek Civilizations - Healthy mind in a healthy body 1800s -First sport psychology research -Effects of audience ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sport Psychology


1
Sport Psychology
2
History of Sport Psych
  • Chinese and Greek Civilizations
  • -Healthy mind in a healthy body
  • 1800s
  • -First sport psychology research
  • -Effects of audience on cyclist performance
  • Past Three Decades
  • -Recognition and growth of sport psychology
    discipline

3
Growth of Sport Psychology
  • Sport psychology has only recently developed and
    grown due to
  • 1. Expansion of scientific knowledge and
    emergence of different branches
  • 2. Increased media attention

4
Outline
  • In this section you will be introduced to the
    following sport psychology issues
  • -Influence of personality on performance
  • - Effect of sport on personality
  • - Relationship between anxiety and performance
  • - Effect of motivation on sport performance
  • - Effects of the audience on athletic
    accomplishments

5
PERSONALITY AND THE ATHELETE
6
  • Personality
  • Pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings and
    behaviours that distinguish one person from
    another and persist over time and situations.

7
  • The study of personality in sport psychology can
    help us answer the following questions
  • Do athletes possess different personality
    characteristics than non-athletes?
  • Do winners possess different personality
    profiles than losers?
  • Does personality determine sport preference, or
    does a particular sport mould our personality
    accordingly?
  • Can personality be changed, or does it remain
    relatively fixed throughout involvement in sport?

8
Personalities of Athletes vs. Non- Athletes
9
Personalities of Athletes vs. Non- Athletes
  • Compared to non-athletes, athletes are more
  • Stable
  • Extroverted
  • Competitive
  • Dominant
  • Self-confident
  • Achievement oriented
  • Psychologically well adjusted
  • Conservative with respect to political views
  • Authoritarian
  • Persistant
  • Display higher levels of self esteem

10
Personalities of Athletes vs. Non- Athletes
  • Although differences exist, clear pattern of
    differences has yet to emerge

11
Personality Profiles of Athletes Differing in
Skill Level
12
Definitions
  • Personality traits psychological
    characteristics of the athlete which remain
    relatively stable over time
  • Personality states right now kinds of
    feelings which are situation-specific
  • State-trait controversy disagreement of the
    relative merits of studying states versus traits
  • Interactional theory the best state-trait
    approach, which considers personality traits and
    states, as well

13
  • It is NOT yet possible to distinguish between
    successful and unsuccessful athletes using
    personality traits
  • However, it is possible to distinguish between
    the elite athletes and the lesser skilled in
    terms of mood states

14
Mood States of Elite vs. Non-Elite Athletes
  • Mood states of elite athletes vs lesser skilled
    athletes are below in
  • Tension
  • Depression
  • Fatigue
  • Anger
  • Confusion
  • AND ARE MARKEDLY HIGHER IN
  • VIGOR

15
Iceberg Profile
  • This mood state profile resembles an iceberg and
    is therefore often referred to as the iceberg
    profile

16
Developmental Effects of Sport on
Personality
17
Are personality differences due to the athletic
experience?ORDo certain personality traits
cause the individual to go out for sports(
gravitational hypothesis)?Evidence tends to
support the gravitational hypothesisHOWEVER,
participation in sports can also enhance
personality development
18
Personality and the AthleteConclusions
  • Athletes tend to be more extroverted, independent
    and self-confident than non-athletes they also
    tend to be less anxious
  • Elite athletes can be distinguished from lesser
    skilled athlete by means of the iceberg profile
    it is not possible, however, to distinguish
    between winners and losers
  • Individuals with certain personality traits tend
    to gravitate toward sportssport also has the
    potential to enhance certain personality traits

19
ANXIETY AND THE ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE
20
Arousal
  • Physiological state of readiness and
    psychological activation
  • Involves the autonomic nervous system
  • Bodys way of preparing you for fight or flight

21
Stress
  • Non-specific response of the body to any demand
    made upon it
  • Unemotional bodily response to some type of
    stressor
  • Can be either good or bad, depending upon the
    individuals personal interpretation
  • Eustress ie winning the lottery
  • Distress ie receiving a failing grade on a
    midterm test

22
Anxiety
  • Tension and worry that results from distress
  • A negatively charged emotional state
    characterized by discomfort and nervousness
  • Two forms of anxiety
  • Trait anxiety a personality characteristic
  • State anxiety a right now kind of anxiety

23
Anxiety Contd
  • Two components of state anxiety
  • 1. Cognitive state anxiety (psychological
    component)
  • Caused by fear of failure
  • Result of worrying
  • I am afraid I am going to lose
  • Somatic state anxiety (physical component)
  • perception of physiological responses
  • I feel nervous before a major contest

24
Anxiety and Athletic Performance
Relationship
25
Pre-Competitive Anxiety
  • Temporal changes in cognitive and somatic state
    anxiety as competition approaches

26
The Effect of Pre-competitive Anxiety on
Performance
  • Relationship between somatic anxiety and
    performance takes the for of an inverted-U
  • See graph in Text
  • Relationship between cognitive anxiety and
    athletic performance has been shown to be linear
    and negative.

27
Implications
  • Increases in somatic anxiety are associated with
    improved athletic performance up to a certain
    optimal level therefore, athletes should attempt
    to increase their somatic anxiety up to an
    optimal level by psyching up or getting
    pumped up
  • The level the of cognitive state anxiety, the
    better the athlete will perform therefore,
    athletes must learn to deal with the symptoms of
    cognitive anxiety.

28
What are some symptoms of Cognitive State Anxiety?
  • Use your text.
  • Provide several examples

29
Relaxation Interventions to lower CS Anxiety
  • Progressive Muscular Relaxation (PMR)
  • Takes time initially, but with practice can be
    completed in minutes
  • High Value the night before.
  • Dave Heinbuch

30
Relax Interventions
  • Positive Imagery.
  • Needs practice

31
More Relax Interventions
  • Positive Self Talk
  • Reassuring ones self
  • Give some examples.
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