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Chapter 3 Theories of Personality


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Title: Chapter 3 Theories of Personality

Chapter 3 Theories of Personality
  • Dr. Mary Streit
  • Suffolk Community College

Chapter 3
  • Personality is defined as the enduring or
    lasting patterns of behavior and thought (across
    time and situation).
  • In this chapter we will discuss the following
    personality theories
  • 1. Trait theory (Cattell, Allport)
  • 2. Sigmund Freud Psychodynamic theory
  • The Neo-Freudians
  • 3. Carl Jung Analytical psychology
  • 4. Alfred Adler Individual psychology
  • 5. Karen Horney Feminine psychology

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • 6. Behavioral theory B.F. Skinner and
    operant conditioning
  • 7. The Humanistic theory
  • a. Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs
  • b. Carl Rogers Person-centered therapy
  • 8. Cognitive Albert Banduras Social learning
  • 9. Biological theories of personality

Chapter 3
  • Trait theory uses two different methods of
  • Idiographic approach defines traits by studying
    individuals in depth and focuses on the
    distinctive qualities of their personalities
    (Gordon Allport)
  • Nomothetic approach studies groups of people in
    the attempt to identify personality traits that
    tend to appear in clusters. This approach uses
    the statistical technique called factor analysis
    (Raymond Cattell)

Chapter 3
  • 1. Trait theory.
  • Gordon Allport. Considered patterns of traits to
    be the unique attributes of individuals.
  • Allport conducted thorough and detailed studies
    of individuals in depth, often through long-term
    case studies.
  • His idiographic research led him to conclude that
    all people have certain traits, or dispositions,
    that are the building blocks of personality
    (1937, 1961, 1965, 1966).
  • Can you think of some of the traits that are
    unique attributes of who you are? Lets make a

Chapter 3
  • Examples of Individual traits
  • Honesty
  • Kindness
  • Compassion
  • Courage
  • Loyalty
  • Responsible
  • Social
  • Talkative
  • Sensitive

Chapter 3
  • Allport described three different types of
  • 1. Cardinal traits Traits that are so much a
    part of who the person is, you can define the
    person by the trait (e.g. Honest Abe Lincoln)
  • 2. Central traits Major characteristics of our
    personality such as sensitivity, honesty, and
    generosity. These traits are quite generalized
    and enduring, and it is these traits that form
    the building blocks of our personality. Allport
    found that most people could be characterized by
    a fairly small number of central traits (usually
    five to ten).
  • 3. Secondary traits less generalized and far
    less enduring traits that affect our behaviors in
    specific circumstances. Examples include our
    dress style preferences.

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Apply your learning.
  • Allport would consider the list of traits we made
    together as a class to be
  • Cardinal traits
  • Secondary traits
  • Surface traits
  • Central traits

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Raymond Cattell also began his work by
    identifying certain obvious personality traits,
    such as integrity, friendliness, and tidiness
    (1950, 1965, 1973, 1982). He called these
    dimensions of personality surface traits.
  • Cattell then obtained extensive data about
    surface traits from a large number of people
    (nomothetic approach).
  • Statistical analysis of these data revealed that
    certain surface traits seemed to occur in
    clusters or groups. Cattell theorized that these
    clusters indicated a single underlying trait.
  • Cattell derived a list of 16 primary or source
    traits that he considered to be at the center or
    core of personality. He listed each of these
    traits as a pair of polar opposites (16PF).

Chapter 3 - Personality
Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Trait theory.
  • Hans Eysenck (1906-1997). Disagreed with Allport
    and Cattell. He believed that there are only two
    major dimensions to personality
  • 1. Intraversion-Extraversion
  • 2. Neuroticism-Stability

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • The five-factor theory of personality by McCrae
    and Costa (1997) is the most recent addition to
    trait theory. They believe in five core
  • Openness to Experiencecreative willing to try
    new things
  • Conscientiousness reliable, responsible,
    thorough, dependable, hard-working
  • Extraversion outgoing, social, active,
  • Agreeableness easy to get along with, pleasant,
    sympathetic, warm, cooperative
  • Neuroticism emotional stability
  • Acronym OCEAN
  • Click on the link below to see how you score on
    their test!
  • http//

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Problems with trait theory
  • Circular reasoning Which comes first the
    behavior, or the trait?
  • Lack of situational consistency (Mischel)
  • No explanation for what causes these many
    different traits to occur
  • Lack of agreement on the number and type of traits

Chapter 3 Personality Matching Review
  • Believed in the existence of cardinal traits
    honest Abe
  • Proposed the most recent five factor model of
    trait theory
  • Advocated the nomothetic approach by analyzing
    large groups of people and using factor analysis
  • Distinguished between surface and source traits
  • Believed in only two underlying dimensions to
    human personality introversion extroversion
    and neuroticism-stability
  • Believed there are 16 personality factors
  • Advocated the idiographic approach by studying
    individuals in depth using case studies
  • Allports name for a trait that changes in
    different situations e.g. style of clothing
  • Allports name for the traits that most of us
    have that make us unique. He believed most
    people have about 5 of these types of traits.
  • Cattells name for the traits that most of us
    have that make up the larger personality factors.
  • Believed in Openness, Conscientiousness,
    Extroversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism as
    the most important traits
  • Gordon Allport
  • Raymond Cattell
  • Hans Eynseck
  • McCrae Costa
  • Secondary traits
  • Surface traits
  • Source traits
  • Central traits
  • Cardinal traits

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Sigmund Freud MD (neurologist)
  • Psychodynamic Theory
  • Vienna, Austria (1856-1939).
  • Techniques used hypnosis, catharsis,
    dream-analysis, free-association, parapraxes
  • Freudian slips or parapraxes everything we do
    and say, even by accident, has hidden meaning
  • Believed in the importance of the unconscious

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • unconscious forces are animalistic
    sexual/aggressive drives that motivate most of
    human behavior
  • These unconscious drives operate without
    conscious awareness. This is because our
    unconscious desires are too difficult or too
    painful to face directly
  • Freud referred to these unconscious motives
    collectively as the id
  • Freud believed there is a reason behind
    everything we do

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • The three major forces of the psyche are the
  • 1. Id unconscious pleasure principle
  • Primary process thinking wish fulfillment
  • Thanatos aggressive /Eros - sexual
  • I want it now! Instant gratification
  • Are we an id driven society?
  • Part of the iceberg that is submerged underwater
  • 2. Ego conscious reality principle
  • - What are the real-world consequences of my
  • - secondary process thinking reality testing
  • - part of the iceberg that is above water and
    aware of reality
  • 3. Superego preconscious morality principle
  • What is the proper way to behave? Mom/Dad/Society
  • Ego-ideal shoulds
  • Conscience should nots
  • Part of the iceberg that is just under the water
    but can sometimes surface

Chapter 3 - Personality
Chapter 3 - Personality
Chapter 3 - Personality
  • How would the id, ego, and superego respond to
    the following dilemma?
  • Should you go out with your
  • friends to a great party, or
  • should you stay home and
  • study for your psychology
  • exam tomorrow?

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Freuds psychodynamic theory can be summed up
    quite nicely with the visual image of a driver
    and a horse-drawn carriage with two horses.
  • Imagine the horse on the right is called Id and
    keeps pulling to the right to go down Pleasure
  • The horse on the left is called Superego and
    keeps pulling to the left to go down Morality
  • The drivers name is ego and his job is to keep
    both horses traveling straight ahead on the road
    called Reality.
  • Extra credit for the artist draw me a picture

Chapter 3 Personality Which horse is the Id?
Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Freuds Psychosexual Stages.
  • According to Freud, as we age, different parts of
    the body are used to fuel the id with pleasure
    (libido energy source).
  • Birth 1 ½ years Oral stage
  • gratification is gained by oral stimulation
  • 1 ½ - 3 years old Anal stage
  • pleasure is gained by being able to
  • control feces. (Potty-training)

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • 3. 3 6 years old Phallic stage awakening of
  • a. Oedipus complex for boys when a male child
    wants to kill his father so he can have sex with
    his mother. (from the Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex
    by Sophocoles)
  • - Freud believed boys would eventually overcome
    this conflict by identifying and bonding with the
  • b. Electra complex for girls girls are jealous
    of their father because they dont have a penis,
    and they really want one (from Greek myth of
    Electra who plotted with her brother Orestes
    to kill their mother Clytemnestra).
  • - Freud believed that the only possible way for
    a girl to overcome this conflict would be to
    become pregnant with a male child

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • 4. 6-12 years old Latency stage
  • pleasure is gained through same-sex peer
  • 5. 12 years old Genital stage
  • pleasure is gained through sexual intercourse
    with non-relatives

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Fixation. Freud believed that you can get stuck
    or fixated at a stage if you were either under or
    over stimulated during this stage. According to
    Freud, personality traits are attached to these
    types of individuals.
  • A few examples
  • Oral fixation nail biters, gum chewers, smokers,
    etc. Overly optimistic, dependent, and passive.
  • Anal retentive Excessive need for order,
  • control and neatness. (modern day OCD)
  • Anal expulsive emotionally volatile, unstable,
  • spiteful and vindictive

Chapter 3 Personality
  • Defense Mechanisms
  • 1. Protect the ego from anxiety due to the
    unconscious starting to break through to the
  • 2. Deny or distort reality
  • 3. Operate unconsciously
  • 4. Cause people who are using them to be
    absolutely convinced of the correctness of their
  • 5. can be healthy IF used in moderation.
  • 6. Were originally developed by Anna Freud (she
    never married).

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Defense Mechanisms.
  • Denial blocking external events from awareness.
  • If a situation is too much to handle, the person
  • to experience it. Examples the failure to
    recognize the
  • death of a loved one, or students who fail to
    find out
  • their test grades! ? you know who you are
  • Repression not being able to recall a
    threatening situation, person, or event. Example
    someone almost drowns as a child, but can't
    remember the event even when people try to remind
    him -- but he does have a fear of open water!
    many fears and phobias
  • Displacement the redirection of an impulse onto
    a safer substitute target. For example, someone
    who hates his or her mother may repress that
    hatred and direct it instead towards women in
  • Projection the tendency to see your own
    unacceptable desires in other people. Examples A
    faithful husband finds himself terribly attracted
    to the lady next door. Rather than acknowledge
    his own feelings, he becomes increasingly jealous
    of his wife, constantly worried about her

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Reaction formation what Anna Freud called
    "believing the opposite. Changing an
    unacceptable impulse into its opposite. Example
    I hate Mom becomes I really love Mom a
    lot!!!. The individual will often go above and
    beyond in their expression of love in order to
    alleviate feelings of guilt and anxiety.
  • Regression a movement back in psychological time
    when one is faced with stress. When we are
    troubled or frightened, our behaviors often
    become more childish or primitive. A child may
    begin to suck their thumb again or wet the bed.
  • Rationalization the cognitive distortion of "the
    facts" to make an impulse more acceptable. We do
    it often enough on a fairly conscious level when
    we provide ourselves with excuses. Many of us are
    quite prepared to believe our lies.
  • Sublimation the transforming of an unacceptable
    impulse, whether it be sex, anger, or fear, into
    a socially acceptable and productive form. So
    someone with a great deal of hostility may become
    a hunter, a butcher, a football player, or a
    mercenary. For Freud, all positive creative
    activities were sublimations mostly of the sex

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Limitations of Freuds theory
  • Untestable How can you objectively measure the
    unconscious? Does not follow the scientific
  • - Almost all of his case studies were
    upper-class Austrian women sample bias?
  • Viewed women as inferior
  • Did not allow for prediction of future behaviors
  • Placed too much emphasis on early childhood
    experiences in shaping personality

Chapter 3 Personality When a student asked him
what the significance of his cigar was, Freud
replied sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.
Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Neo-Freudians students of Freud who eventually
    started their own school of thought due to major
    disagreements with some of Freuds ideas.
  • Carl Jung 1875-1961. (pronounced Young).
  • Analytical psychology
  • Born in Switzerland, trained as a psychiatrist
  • Believed Freud placed too much emphasis on
    sexuality as a motive for behavior

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Famous quote
  • Anyone who wants to know the human psyche will
    learn next to nothing from experimental
    psychology.  He would be better advised to
    abandon exact science, put away his scholar's
    gown, bid farewell to his study, and wander with
    human heart throughout the world.  There in the
    horrors of prisons, lunatic asylums and
    hospitals, in drab suburban pubs, in brothels and
    gambling-hells, in the salons of the elegant, the
    Stock Exchanges, socialist meetings, churches,
    revivalist gatherings and ecstatic sects, through
    love and hate, through the experience of passion
    in every form in his own body, he would reap
    richer stores of knowledge than text-books a foot
    thick could give him, and he will know how to
    doctor the sick with a real knowledge of the
    human soul. -- Carl Jung

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Jungs Analytical Psychology broke the
    unconscious down further into 2 parts
  • a. Personal unconscious (similar to Freuds id)
  • b. Collective unconscious (new concept)
  • collective unconscious a kind of universal
    memory bank that contains all the ancestral
    memories, images, symbols, and ideas that
    humankind has accumulated throughout time
  • Jung used the term collective to stress that the
    content of this part of the unconscious mind is
    the same for all humans it is genetic.
  • He placed particular emphasis on one key
    component of the collective unconscious called
    archetypes, which consist of powerful,
    emotionally charged, universal images or concepts
    that are inherited or passed down from generation
    to generation

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • The four main Jungian archetypes are
  • the self
  • the shadow or the dark side of the human psyche
  • the anima (the female counterpart to the male
  • and the animus (the male counterpart to the
    female psyche).

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Other popular Jungian archetypes and examples
    from our culture are
  • The hero as seen in figures like Batman, Luke
    Skywalker, Neo, Beowulf, Jesus
  • The Warrior as seen in historical figures
    such as Gladiators, samurai, Ninja, Vikings, and
  • The Trickster as seen in figures such as
    Bugs Bunny, The Tramp (Charlie Chaplin), the
    devil, and Bart Simpson
  • The Wise Old Man as seen in popular figures
    such as Merlin, Yoda, Gandalf, Chef from South
    Park, The Owl from Winnie the Pooh, and
    Dumbledore from Harry Potter
  • The Anima as seen in the PlayStation2 video
    game Final Fantasy X, Rushs song Animate from
    the album Counterparts, and Joni Mitchells song
    Dont Interrupt the Sorrow.
  • Can you think of a few others examples for each?

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • For example According to Jung, we create war
    and conflict in order to fulfill the needs of the
    collective unconscious.
  • We need the hero! We need the villain!
  • According to Jung, these are all archetypes that
    have been inherited from our ancestors
  • Question Does history repeats itself because
    of the collective unconscious and the archetypes?

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Alfred Adler Individual psychology.
  • 1870-1937 (Vienna, Austria) MD (opthamologist).
  • Behind everyone who behaves as if he were
    superior to others, we can suspect a feeling of
    inferiority which calls for very special efforts
    of concealment. It is as if a man feared that he
    was too small and walked on his toes to make
    himself seem taller. - Alfred Adler
  • Adler coined the term inferiority complex

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Adler came to believe in the importance of
    feelings of inferiority in motivating human
  • To be a human being," he wrote, "means to feel
    oneself inferior." Adler believed that
    inferiority feelings are the source of all human
    striving. All individual progress, growth and
    development result from the attempt to compensate
    for one's inferiorities.
  • Style of life an individuals unique pattern of
    striving for superiority to overcome feelings
    of inferiority
  • Inferiority complex - When an inability to
    overcome inferiority feelings heightens and
    intensifies them.

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • How many of you have ever felt unattractive? like
    you don't belong somewhere? Not strong or fit
    enough? Not smart enough? Not good enough in some
    way? Does the media today fuel these feelings?
  • According to Adler, everyone is trying to
    overcome something that is preventing them from
    becoming what they want to become. What are you
    trying to overcome?

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Biographical information Adler was the 2nd of
    6 children. He couldn't walk until he was 4 years
    old due to rickets. He also suffered from
    pneumonia and was hit by a car at age 5. His
    older brother Sigmund often teased and tormented
    him. Adler recalls feeling small, unattractive,
    and rejected, like he was in constant competition
    with his older brother. http//
  • Many believe that Adlers childhood experiences
    had a major influence on his theory (remember
    the method of the time was called.???)
  • Adler believed that birth order was one of the
    major childhood social influences from which the
    individual creates a style of life. What do
    you think? Does being the oldest make things
    harder? easier? How about the youngest? Middle

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Adler disagreed with Freud about
  • the emphasis on sexuality
  • the importance of the unconscious
  • a stream of consciousness Adler believed that
    all three parts of the psyche are constantly
    interacting do NOT act alone.
  • While Adler believed our childhood experiences
    were important, he also believed in what he
    called teleology or being motivated towards
    future goals.
  • Alder felt Freud placed too much emphasis on the
    past. Some consider Adler the forefather of

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Karen Horney. 1885 1952. nee Hamburg, Germany
  • Studied to be an MD. In 1909 she entered the
    University of Freiburg very unusual for a woman
  • Feminine psychology. Argued strongly against
    Freuds notion of both the Oedipus and Electra
  • Disagreed with Freuds psychosexual stages
  • Did not accept Freuds division of the psyche
    into the id, ego, and superego
  • Countered Freuds idea of penis envy with what
    she called womb envy
  • Agreed with Freud on the importance of the
    unconscious and early childhood
  • Believed that personality could continue to
    develop and change throughout life

Chapter 3 - Personality
Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Horney believed neurosis to be a continuous
    process - with neuroses commonly occurring at
    many different points in a person's life.
  • Key Terms.
  • basic anxiety the insecurity that results when
    children perceive their parents as indifferent,
    harsh, disapproving, or inconsistent in their
  • basic hostility a deep resentment toward the
    parents that arises from basic anxiety and
    motivates one of three different coping
    strategies or patterns of interacting with others
    that she believed to be ineffective
  • 1. Moving against others dominating others
  • 2. Moving away from others withdrawal from
    others, self-focus, aloof, isolation
  • 3. Moving toward others being overly
    compliant, driven by the need to please and gain
    approval from others
  • Horney believed that for both men and women to be
    healthy, they need to let go of the irrational
    neurotic need to be prefect ? !!

Chapter 3 Personality Freud and the
Neo-Freudians Matching Review
  • Believed in the importance of unconscious sexual
    and aggressive urges
  • Came up with the concept of womb envy
  • Originated the defense mechanisms
  • The part of the psyche that is in touch with
  • The part of the psyche that is unconscious
  • The part of the psyche that is concerned about
    being perfect/doing right
  • Neo-Freudian who came up with the concept of the
    inferiority complex
  • Neo-Freudian who further subdivided the id into
    the personal and collective unconscious
  • Getting stuck in a phase of development due to
    either over or under stimulation during childhood
  • The psychosexual stage described as gaining
    gratification through being able to control ones
    bowels or feces
  • The psychosexual stage that occurs from 3-6 years
    of age.
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Anna Freud
  • Alfred Adler
  • Karen Horney
  • Carl Jung
  • The id
  • The ego
  • The superego
  • Fixation
  • Oral stage
  • Anal stage
  • Phallic stage
  • Latency stage
  • Genital stage

Chapter 3 - Review
  • The conflict young boys go through between 3-6
    yrs of age
  • The conflict young girls go through between 3-6
    yrs of age
  • The psychosexual stage that occurs between 6-12
    years of age.
  • The psychosexual stage that occurs between birth
    and 1 ½ yrs of age
  • Began analytical psychology
  • Began feminine psychology
  • Began individual psychology
  • Used concepts such as basic hostility and
    basic anxiety
  • powerful, emotionally charged, universal images
    or concepts
  • Believed in the importance of birth order
  • the oral stage
  • The anal stage
  • The phallic stage
  • The latency stage
  • The genital stage
  • The Oedipus conflict
  • The Electra conflict
  • Alfred Adler
  • Karen Horney
  • Carl Jung
  • archetypes

Chapter 3 Personality Matching Review Defense
  • The redirection of an impulse onto a safer
    substitute target
  • Identifying unacceptable feelings in others that
    are truly your own (jealous of wife when true
    problem is you are considering cheating)
  • Being unwilling to accept reality because it is
    too difficult or painful
  • Not being able to recall a threatening person,
    situation, or event
  • A cognitive distortion of the facts or excuse
  • the transforming of an unacceptable impulse,
    whether it be sex, anger, or fear, into a
    socially acceptable and productive form such as
    writing or art.
  • Changing an unacceptable impulse into its
  • a movement back in psychological time when one is
    faced with stress (e.g. thumb sucking when you
    are 7yrs old).
  • Denial
  • Repression
  • Displacement
  • Projection
  • Sublimation
  • Reaction formation
  • Rationalization
  • regression

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • 6. Behavioral theory.
  • Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1904-1990
  • Operant conditioning
  • Focused on the overt or observable behavior
  • the consequences that follow a behavior were seen
    as critical determinants of future behavior
  • A behavior followed by a reinforcing stimulus
    results in an increased probability of that
    behavior occurring in the future reinforcement.
  • A behavior no longer followed by the reinforcing
    stimulus results in a decreased probability of
    that behavior occurring in the future
  • Skinner did much of his research with animals
    such as pigeons and rats
  • http//
  • Skinner video clip

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Disagreed with the concept of free-will
  • Why are you taking this class? Was it your
  • Invented the Skinner box used primarily to
    train rats
  • Believed in the importance of the
  • use of reinforcement
  • Discovered the different
  • schedules of reinforcement and
  • shaping baby steps
  • http//
  • Precious the cat video

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Applications of Skinners theory to the real
    world are many applied research
  • Operant conditioning is so effective that many
    psychologists were concerned about who should be
    given this information
  • For example It has been used to train pigeons to
    play ping-pong cats to flush the toilet!
  • Thoughts?
  • Just remember the expression
  • mall rat starts here! ?

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • 7. Humanistic psychology.
  • focused on uniquely human issues such as the
    self, health, hope, love, creativity, nature, and
  • Believed in innate goodness born good
  • Derived somewhat from existentialism a strong
    belief in free-will and conscious rational
  • Arose in reaction to behaviorism and
    psychodynamic theory

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Two major figures in humanistic psychology were
  • Abraham Maslow and
  • Carl Rogers
  • We will first look at the core beliefs of Maslow.

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Maslow developed his famous Hierarchy of Needs
  • Differentiated between Deficiency needs and
    Growth needs
  • Deficiency needs are the bottom four levels in
    the hierarchy these needs must be met or filled
    before other growth needs can take over
  • Maslow believed deficiency needs must be met in
    order of the hierarchy e.g. physiological
    1st, safety 2nd, etc.

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Growth needs or being needs the highest motive
    in the hierarchy for human behavior. This motive
    takes over only when all other deficiency needs
    are met
  • Some growth needs that Maslow discussed are
  • - Truth, rather than dishonesty
  • - Aliveness, not deadness or the mechanization
    of life
  • - Uniqueness, not bland uniformity
  • - Perfection and necessity, not sloppiness,
    inconsistency, or accident. - Justice and order,
    not injustice and lawlessness. - Simplicity, not
    unnecessary complexity. - Self-sufficiency, not

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Abraham Maslow. (1908-1970). Born in Brooklyn,
    New York. One of seven children of Russian
    immigrants. Graduated University of Wisconsin
    with PhD (worked with Harry Harlow)
  • Returned to NY to work with Edward Thorndike at
    Columbia University

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • "A musician must make music, an artist must
    paint, a poet must write, if he is to be at peace
    with himself. What a man can be, he must be. This
    is the need we may call self-actualization ... It
    refers to man's desire for fulfillment, namely to
    the tendency for him to become actually in what
    he is potentially to become everything that one
    is capable of becoming ..." - Abraham Maslow

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Maslows Characteristics of Self-Actualizers
  • Reality focused and problem-centered
  • The journey is often more important than the
  • They enjoy solitude, and are comfortable being
  • Enjoy deeper personal relations with a few close
    friends and family members
  • Value autonomy, a relative independence from
    physical and social needs. 
  • They have an unhostile sense of humor --
    preferring to joke at their own expense, or at
    the human condition, and never directing their
    humor at others. 
  • spontaneity and simplicity  They prefer being
    themselves rather than being pretentious or

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • They have a sense of humility and respect towards
  • They have a certain freshness of appreciation, an
    ability to see things, even ordinary things, with
  • They are creative, inventive, and original. 
  • tend to have more peak experiences than the
    average person.  A peak experience is one that
    takes you out of yourself, that makes you feel
    very tiny, or very large, to some extent one with
    life or nature or God.  It gives you a feeling of
    being a part of the infinite and the eternal. 
    These experiences tend to leave their mark on a
    person, change them for the better, and many
    people actively seek them out.  They are also
    called mystical experiences, and are an important
    part of many religious and philosophical
  • Their values are "natural" and seem to flow
    effortlessly from their personalities

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Maslow identified the following historical
    figures as self-actualizers
  • - Abraham Lincoln
  • - Thomas Jefferson
  • - Benjamin Franklin
  • - George Washington
  • - Albert Einstein
  • - Aldous Huxley
  • - William James
  • - Spinoza
  • - Goethe
  • - Pierre Renoir
  • - Robert Browning
  • - Walt Whitman
  • - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
  • - Eleanor Roosevelt

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Who would you consider to be someone who is
    self-actualized in todays world?
  • Oprah?
  • Bono from U2?
  • George Bush?
  • Dali-lama?
  • ???

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Carl Rogers. 1902-1987
  • Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park,
    Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the fourth of six
    children.  His father was a successful civil
    engineer and his mother was a housewife and
    devout Christian.   
  • In 1942, he wrote his first book, Counseling and
  • 1945, he was invited to set up a counseling
    center at the University of Chicago.  It was
    while working there that in 1951 he published his
    major work, Client-Centered Therapy, wherein he
    outlined his basic theory.

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • View of people as basically good
  • The actualizing tendency is the basic force of
    life we are always trying to better ourselves
    in some way
  • True self who you are today
  • Ideal self who you want to become
  • Self-actualization is the process of becoming
    your ideal self

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Unconditional positive regard a feeling of total
    love and acceptance like that of a child for a
    parent, or a pet to its owner. No matter what
    you say or do, you will be loved and accepted.
  • Rogers believed if a child received unconditional
    positive regard, he/she would be able to
    self-actualize and become his/her ideal self
  • If self-actualization is blocked, mental illness
    would ensue

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Conditions of worth ifthen contingencies.
  • I will love and accept you ifRogers believed
    this is another pathway to mental illness
  • The individual who is raised with conditions of
    worth will not actualize into their ideal self.
  • The individual who is raised with conditions of
    worth will actualize into another persons vision
    of their ideal self.
  • How much of what you say and do is based on
    conditions of worth?
  • What must parents do to avoid using conditions
    of worth when raising their children? Society at

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Social-Cognitive Theory.
  • Albert Bandura (1925-present)
  • Albert Bandura was born December 4, 1925, in the
    small town of Mundare in northern Alberta,
  • In 1953, he started teaching at Stanford
    University.  While there, he collaborated with
    his first graduate student, Richard Walters,
    resulting in their first book, Adolescent
    Aggression, in 1959.
  • Emphasis on the cognitive or thoughts covert

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Modeling Vicarious learning Observational
    learning learning by watching others. Thoughts
  • Interested in studying the effect of television
    violence on aggression in children. Bandura is
    most famous for his
  • Bo-Bo doll studies. see video link
  • http//
  • Film woman punching the clown, shouting
    sockeroo!  She kicked it, sat on it, hit it
    with a little hammer, and so on, shouting various
    aggressive phrases.  Bandura showed his film to
    groups of kindergartners who, as you might
    predict, liked it a lot. 
  • what did the observers record afterward  A lot
    of little kids beating the daylights out of the
    bobo doll.  They punched it and shouted
    sockeroo, kicked it, sat on it, hit it with the
    little hammers, and so on.  In other words, they
    imitated the young lady in the film, and quite
    precisely at that.
  • http//
    link to full text study

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Bandura added cognition or thought to the
  • The main person factor that Bandura discussed
    was self-efficacy the belief in your ability to
    perform a certain task or function.

Chapter 3 -Personality
  • Biological theories of personality.
  • Identical twin studies
  • Adoption studies
  • Heritability estimates
  • Family tree or pedigree studies
  • DNA Human genome project
  • Evolutionary forces
  • Can we ever know if nature or nurture is the
    primary force?

Chapter 3 - Personality
Chapter 3 Personality Review
  • The belief in our ability to perform a specific
  • Believed in the importance of the consequences of
    our actions
  • The interaction between environment, person, and
  • Learning by watching others
  • Pedigree studies of personality traits
  • The process of becoming your ideal self
  • Feeling loved and accepted no matter what
  • Ifthen contingencies for love and acceptance
  • Needs that must be satisfied in order when the
    organism is lacking in these such as safety,
    security, love, esteem
  • Needs that are fulfilled in order to achieve
  • Albert Bandura
  • B. F. Skinner
  • Abraham Maslow
  • Carl Rogers
  • Biological theory
  • Reinforcement
  • Extinction
  • Reciprocal determinism
  • Self-efficacy
  • Deficiency needs
  • Growth needs
  • Observational learning
  • Self-actualization
  • Unconditional positive regard
  • Conditions of worth

Chapter 3 Personality Review
  • Proposed the Hierarchy of Needs
  • Believed in innate goodness
  • Responsible for the famous BoBo doll studies
  • Interested in the effects of media violence on
    behavior in children
  • Emphasized the importance of reinforcement on
    future behaviors
  • A behavior followed by a reinforcing stimulus
    results in an increased probability of that
    behavior occurring in the future
  • The person that you are today with all your
  • The person who you would some day like to aspire
    to become
  • Emphasis on identical twin and adoption studies
  • First to emphasize the importance of covert
    cognitive factors on behavior
  • Albert Bandura
  • B. F. Skinner
  • Abraham Maslow
  • Carl Rogers
  • Extinction
  • Reinforcement
  • True self
  • Ideal self
  • Biological theory

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Measures of Personality.
  • reliability consistency or stability of a
    measure over time.
  • Validity accuracy or truth of a measure. Is it
    measuring what it is supposed to?
  • You must have high levels of reliability in order
    to have validity.

Chapter 3
  • Dart Throwing Analogy.
  • The goal is to hit the bulls eye. The person who
    throws the dart and hits the bullseye is a valid
    dart thrower.
  • What would be a reliable dart thrower?
  • Someone who can throw the dart in the same place
    each time.
  • Can you be a reliable dart thrower, but not a
    valid one? ?

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Types of Personality Measures.
  • Two categories
  • Objective paper and pencil self-report tests.
    These measures are clear to all what a specific
    response means.
  • Examples
  • MMPI-2 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
    Inventory. Over 500 item test that is used to
    detect mental illness.
  • CPI California Personality Inventory.
    Self-report measure that is used to detect normal
    and successful patterns of behavior.

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Projective tests intentionally vague or
    ambiguous stimuli are used to encourage
    projection of unconscious materials. Freud
  • a. Rorschach inkblots
  • (Hermann Rorschach, 1927)
  • b. TAT Thematic Apperception Test (Henry
    Murray, 1943)

Rorschach inkblots
  • What do you see?

More blots
  • What do you see?

More blots
Thematic Apperception Test
Thematic Apperception Test
Chapter 3 Personality Optional
  • OPTIONAL Self-Actualization poem by Dunbar
  • Theres no need to strive for perfection Cause
    youre perfect the way you are
  • Theres no need to look for outside affection
  • Cause if you look inside yourself it will not be
  • Theres no need to change
  • To meet the expectations everyone puts on you
  • And though that may seem strange
  • Its because youve been programmed to
  • Believe in a certain way about how you live your
  • And act in a way others think you should
  • But all that does is cause stress and strife
  • And affects you in ways you never thought it
  • Like causing you to think your self-esteem is low
  • Or that youre insecure
  • Then it causes you to doubt what about yourself
    you know
  • And shuts down your efforts to ever go for more
  • So if you think you would like to improve
  • Do it for you and no one else

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • OPTIONAL In case you want to know more about
    Karen Horney.
  • Horney named ten patterns of neurotic needs. The
    ten needs are classified according to her coping
  • Moving Toward People
  • 1. The need for affection and approval pleasing
    others and being liked by them.
  • 2. The need for a partner one who can love and
    solve all problems.
  • Moving Against People
  • 3. The need to restrict life practices to within
    narrow borders to live as inconspicuous a life
    as possible.
  • 4. The need for power the ability to bend wills
    and achieve control over others -the neurotic may
    be desperate for it.
  • 5. The need to exploit others to get the better
    of them. To become manipulative, fostering the
    belief that people are there simply to be used.
  • 6. The need for social recognition prestige and
  • 7. The need for personal admiration for both
    inner and outer qualities -- to be valued.
  • 8. The need for personal achievement though
    virtually all persons wish to make achievements,
    the neurotic may be desperate for achievement.
  • Moving Away from People
  • 9. The need for self sufficiency and
    independence while most desire some autonomy,
    the neurotic may simply wish to discard other
    individuals entirely.
  • 10. Lastly, the need for perfection while many
    are driven to perfect their lives in the form of
    well being, the neurotic may display a fear of
    being slightly flawed.

Chapter 3 - Personality
  • Optional in case you are interested but not
    required for the exam
  • Asceticism the renunciation of needs. Relevant
    today with the emergence of the disorder called
    anorexia. Preadolescents, when they feel
    threatened by their emerging sexual desires, may
    unconsciously try to protect themselves by
    denying, not only their sexual desires, but all
    desires. They get involved in some kind of
    ascetic (monk-like) lifestyle wherein they
    renounce their interest in what other people
  • Isolation or intellectualization involves
    stripping the emotion from a difficult memory or
    threatening impulse. A person may, in a very
    cavalier manner, acknowledge that they had been
    abused as a child, or may show a purely
    intellectual curiosity in their newly discovered
    sexual orientation. Something that should be a
    big deal is treated as if it were not.
  • Altruistic surrender is a form of projection that
    at first glance looks like its opposite Here,
    the person attempts to fulfill his or her own
    needs vicariously, through other people. A common
    example of this is the friend (we've all had one)
    who, while not seeking any relationship himself,
    is constantly pushing other people into them, and
    is particularly curious as to "what happened last
    night" and "how are things going?" The extreme
    example of altruistic surrender is the person who
    lives their whole life for and through another.
  • Undoing involves "magical" gestures or rituals
    that are meant to cancel out unpleasant thoughts
    or feelings after they've already occurred.
    Example if you feel the need to take three or
    four complete showers after sex -- perhaps there
    is more to it.
  • Introjection, sometimes called identification,
    involves taking into your own personality
    characteristics of someone else, because doing so
    solves some emotional difficulty. For example, a
    child who is left alone frequently, may in some
    way try to become "mom" in order to lessen his or
    her fears. You can sometimes catch them telling
    their dolls or animals not to be afraid. And we
    find the older child or teenager imitating his or
    her favorite star, musician, or sports hero in an
    effort to establish an identity.