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Chapter 7 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGET’S THEORY AND VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWPOINT

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Title: Chapter 7 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGET’S THEORY AND VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWPOINT


1
Chapter 7 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGETS THEORY
AND VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWPOINT
2
PIAGETS THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Genetic epistemology experimental study of the
    origin of knowledge
  • What is intelligence?
  • A basic life function that helps an organism
    adapt to the environment
  • Cognitive equilibrium balance between thought
    processes and the environment
  • Constructivist approach child constructs
    knowledge

3
PIAGETS THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Gaining Knowledge Schemes and Processes
  • Schemes mental patterns (thought/action)
  • Organization combine existing schemes into
    new/complex schemes
  • Adaptation adjustment to environment
  • Assimilation new information into existing
    schemes
  • Accommodation modify existing schemes for new
    information

4
  • Table 7.1 A small sample of cognitive growth from
    Piagets perspective

5
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Invariant developmental sequence
  • Sequencing fixed
  • Individual differences entering/emerging stages

6
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years)
  • Coordinate sensory inputs and motor skills
  • Transition from being reflexive to reflective
  • Development of Problem-Solving Abilities
  • Reflex activity (birth 1 month)
  • Primary circular reactions (1-4 months)
  • first motor habits, repetitive

7
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Secondary circular reactions
  • (4-8 months)
  • Repetitive actions with objects beyond the body
  • Coordination of secondary reactions
  • (8-12 months)
  • Coordinate 2 or more actions to achieve an
    objective (intentional)

8
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Tertiary circular reactions -12-18 months
  • Active experimentation, trial error
  • Symbolic problem solving -18-24 months
  • Inner (mental) experimentation

9
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Development of Imitation
  • Novel responses by 8-12 months of age
  • Deferred imitation 18-24 months
  • Research now shows 6-month-olds are capable of
    deferred imitation

10
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Development of Object Permanence
  • Objects continue to exist when they are no longer
    visible/detectable
  • Appears by 8-12 months of age
  • A-not-B error search in the last place found,
    not where it was last seen
  • Complete by 18-24 months

11
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Challenges to Piaget Account
  • Neo-nativism
  • Infants are born with substantial innate
    knowledge
  • Require less time/experience to be demonstrated
  • Young children seem to possess some object
    permanence, memory

12
  • Table 7.2 Summary of Piagets account of
    sensorimotor development

13
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Challenges to Piagets Approach
  • Theory theories
  • Combination of neo-nativist and Piagetian
    perspective
  • Infants are prepared at birth to make sense of
    some information
  • Beyond this, Piagets constructivist approach is
    generally accurate

14
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • The Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)
  • Symbolic function / representational insight
  • One thing represents another
  • Language
  • Pretend (symbolic) play developmentally a
    positive activity
  • New views on symbolism
  • Dual representation think about an object in 2
    ways at one time (3 years)

15
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Deficits in preoperational thinking
  • Animism
  • Attribute life/life like qualities to inanimate
    objects
  • Egocentrism
  • View world from own perspective, trouble
    recognizing others point of view

16
  • Figure 7.2 Piagets three-mountain problem.
    Young preoperational children are egocentric.
    They cannot easily assume another persons
    perspective and often say that another child
    viewing the mountain from a different vantage
    point sees exactly what they see from their own
    location.

17
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Deficits in preoperational thinking
  • Appearance/reality distinction
  • Cannot distinguish between the two
  • Dual encoding
  • Representing an object in more than one way at a
    time

18
  • Figure 7.3 Maynard the cat, without and with a
    dog mask. Three-year-olds who met Maynard before
    his change in appearance nonetheless believed
    that he had become a dog.

19
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Deficits in preoperational thinking
  • Lack of conservation do not realize properties
    of objects do not change just because appearance
    does
  • Lack of decentration concentrate on more than
    one aspect of a problem at the same time
  • Lack of reversibility mentally undo an action

20
  • Figure 7.4 Some common tests of the childs
    ability to conserve.

21
  • Figure 7.5 Reversibility is an important
    cognitive operation that develops during middle
    childhood.

22
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Did Piaget Underestimate the Preoperational
    Child?
  • New evidence on egocentrism
  • Piagets tasks were too complex
  • Another look at childrens reasoning
  • Animism not routine among 3-year-olds
  • Can preoperational children conserve?
  • Can be trained at 4 years (identity training)

23
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • The Development Theory of Mind (TOM)
  • Belief-desire reasoning
  • Understand behavior is based on
  • What an individual knows or believes
  • What they want or desire
  • Develops after preschool age
  • False-belief task desire, not belief
  • Based on lack of cognitive inhibition
  • Improves with interaction with siblings

24
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • The Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)
  • Cognitive operations
  • Internal mental activity to modify symbols to
    reach a logical conclusion
  • Conservation capable of
  • Decentering
  • Reversibility

25
  • Table 7.3 A comparison of preoperational and
    concrete operational thought

26
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Relational logic capable of
  • Mental seriation
  • Transitivity
  • Horizontal decalage different levels of
    understanding that seem to require same mental
    operations
  • Based on complexity
  • Limited to real or tangible aspects of experience

27
  • Figure 7.7 Childrens performance on a simple
    seriation task. If asked to arrange a series of
    sticks from shortest to longest, preoperational
    children often line up one end of the sticks and
    create an incomplete ordering (a) or order them
    so the top of each successive stick extends
    higher than the preceding stick (b). Concrete
    operators, by contrast, can use the inverse
    cognitive operations greater than (gt) and less
    than (lt) to quickly make successive comparisons
    and create a correct serial ordering.

28
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • The Formal Operational Stage (11-12 )
  • Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
  • Ability to generate hypotheses and use deductive
    reasoning (general to specific)
  • Inductive reasoning
  • Going from specific observations to
    generalizations

29
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Personal and Social Implications of Formal
    Thought
  • Thinking about what is possible in life
  • Stable identity
  • Understanding of others perspectives
  • Questioning others
  • Thinking of how the world ought to be

30
PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Does Everyone Reach Formal Operations?
  • Early Piaget Yes, at least some signs by 15-18
  • Other researchers No. Lack of education
  • Later Piaget Yes, but only on problems that are
    either interesting or important
  • Seem to be more adolescents at this level than 30
    years ago

31
  • Figure 7.8 Expertise and formal operations.
    College students show the greatest command of
    formal-operational thought in the subject area
    most related to their major. ADAPTED FROM DE LISI
    STAUDT, 1980.

32
AN EVALUATION OF PIAGETS THEORY
  • Piagets Contributions
  • Founded cognitive development
  • Stated children construct their knowledge
  • First attempt to explain development
  • Reasonably accurate overview of how children of
    different ages think
  • Major influence in social and emotional
    development, and education
  • Influenced future research

33
AN EVALUATION OF PIAGETS THEORY
  • Challenges to Piaget
  • Piaget failed to distinguish competence from
    performance
  • Does cognitive development really occur in
    stages?
  • Little evidence of broad stages
  • Does Piaget explain cognitive development?
    more of an description
  • Little attention to social/cultural influences

34
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • The Role of Culture in Development
  • Ontogenetic development development of an
    individual over his or her lifetime
  • Microgenetic development change over relatively
    brief periods of time
  • Phylogenetic development changes over
    evolutionary time
  • Sociohistorical development changes in ones
    culture

35
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Tools of Intellectual Adaptation
  • Born with elementary mental functions (attention,
    memory)
  • Culture transforms these into higher mental
    functions
  • Culture specific tools allow the use of the basic
    functions more adaptively (language, pencils)

36
  • Table 7.4 Chinese and English number words from 1
    to 20. The more systematic Chinese numbering
    system follows a base-ten logic (i.e., 11
    translating as ten one shi yee) requiring
    less rote memorization, which may explain why
    Chinese-speaking children learn to count to 20
    earlier than English-speaking children.

37
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • The Social Origins of Early Cognitive
    Competencies
  • Many discoveries active learners make occur in
    collaborative dialogue with a tutor
  • The Zone of Proximal Development
  • Difference between what a learner can do
    independently and what can be done with guidance

38
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Scaffolding tendency to tailor support to a
    learner near the limit of capability
  • Guided participation/apprenticeship
  • May be very formal and context dependent
  • May occur in day-to-day activities

39
  • Figure 7.9 Some functions of shared remembering
    in childrens memory development. Source
    Gauvin, M (2001). The social context of cognitive
    development. New York Guilford, p. 211.

40
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Working in the Zone of Proximal Development in
    Different Cultures
  • Cultures where adults and children are
    segregated, learning is in schools
  • Cultures where adults and children are together
    most of the day, learning is through real life
    observation
  • Verbal versus nonverbal emphasis of instruction

41
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Playing in the Zone of Proximal Development
  • More likely to engage in symbolic play when
    others are present
  • Cooperative social play of preschoolers is
    related to later understanding of others feeling
    and beliefs

42
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Implications for Education
  • Active, not passive learning
  • Assess what is known to estimate capabilities
  • Guided participations structured by teachers who
    would gradually turn over more of activity to
    students
  • Cooperative learning exercises help each other
    very effective!

43
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • The Role of Language in Cognitive Development
  • Primary method of passing modes of thinking to
    children
  • Becomes important tool of intellectual adaptation

44
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Piagets Theory of Language/Thought
  • Egocentric speech
  • Self-directed utterances
  • Reflected ongoing mental activity
  • Shifted to communicative speech with age
  • Little role in cognitive development

45
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Vygotskys Theory of Language/Thought
  • Egocentric is really an illustration of
    transition from prelinguistic to verbal reasoning
  • Private speech communicative speech for self
  • Serves as a cognitive self-guidance system does
    not disappear, becomes inner speech

46
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Which viewpoint should be endorsed?
  • Vygotsky
  • Social speech gives rise to private speech
  • More common with difficult tasks
  • Self-instruction improves performance
  • Does tend to turn into inner speech

47
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Vygotsky in Perspective Summary
  • Cognitive development involves
  • Dialogues with skilled partners within the zone
    of proximal development
  • Incorporation of what tutors say into what they
    say to themselves
  • Expect wide variations in development across
    cultures

48
VYGOTSKYS SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Vygotsky in Perspective Evaluation
  • Not yet received intense scrutiny
  • Verbal guided participation may be less adaptive
    in some instances than others
  • Collaborative problem solving can undermine
    performance
  • More a perspective, not a theory with as many
    testable hypotheses as Piaget

49
  • Table 7.5 Comparing Vygotskys and Piagets
    theories of cognitive development
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