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Chapter 1 Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context

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Title: Chapter 1 Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context


1
Chapter 1Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context
2
Myths and Misconceptions About Abnormal Behavior
  • No Single Definition of Psychological Abnormality
  • No Single Definition of Psychological Normality
  • Many Myths Are Associated With Mental Illness
  • Lazy, crazy, dumb
  • Weak in character
  • Dangerous to self or others
  • Mental illness is a hopeless situation

3
Approaches to Defining Abnormal Behavior
  • Infrequency?
  • Suffering?
  • Strangeness?
  • Behavior Itself?
  • Should Normality Serve as a Guide?

4
Toward a Definition of Abnormal Behavior
  • Psychological Dysfunction
  • Breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral
    functioning
  • Personal Distress
  • Difficulty performing appropriate and expected
    roles
  • Impairment is set in the context of a persons
    background
  • Atypical or Unexpected Cultural Response
  • Reaction is outside cultural norms

5
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR)
  • Widely Accepted System
  • Used to classify psychological disorders
  • DSM Contains Diagnostic Criteria for Behaviors
  • pattern
  • dysfunction or subjective distress
  • specified duration
  • not otherwise explainable

6
Abnormal Behavior Defined
  • Definition
  • A psychological dysfunction associated with
    distress or impairment in functioning that is not
    typical or culturally expected
  • Labels and terminology
  • Psychological disorder or psychological
    abnormality
  • Mental illness (less preferred) term
  • Psychopathology
  • Is the scientific study of psychological disorders

7
Approaches to the Scientific Study
ofPsychological Disorders
  • Mental Health Professionals
  • The Ph.D.s Clinical and counseling
    psychologists
  • The Psy.D.s
  • M.D.s
  • M.S.W.s, CLSWs, LMHCs
  • MN/MSNs Psychiatric nurses
  • The lay public and community groups
  • United by the Scientist-Practitioner Framework

8
Scientist-Practitioner andClinical Description
of Abnormality
  • Presenting Problem
  • Clinical Description
  • distinguish clinically significant dysfunction
    rom common human experience
  • Prevalence Incidence of Disorders
  • Course of Disorders
  • Episodic, time-limited, or chronic
  • Onset of Disorders
  • Acute vs. insidious
  • Prognosis
  • Good vs. guarded

9
Causation, Treatment, and Outcome in
Psychopathology
  • Etiology
  • contributes to the development
  • Treatment
  • How can we help to alleviate psychological
    suffering?
  • Includes pharmacologic, psychosocial, and/or
    combined treatments
  • Treatment Outcome Research
  • How do we know that we have helped?
  • Limited use in explaining etiology

10
The Past Historical Conceptions of Abnormal
Behavior
  • Major Psychological Disorders, Causes, and
    Treatments Have Existed
  • In all cultures
  • Across all time periods
  • Vary depending on prevailing paradigms or world
    views
  • Three Dominant Traditions Include
  • Supernatural
  • Biological
  • Psychological

11
The Past Abnormal Behavior and the Supernatural
Tradition
  • Deviant Behavior as a Battle of Good vs. Evil
  • Middle Ages
  • demonic possession, witchcraft, sorcery
  • Mass hysteria (St. Vitus dance)
  • Treatments exorcism, torture, beatings, and
    crude surgeries
  • Other Worldly Causes of Deviant Behavior
  • Movement of the moon and stars
  • Paracelsus and lunacy

12
The Past Abnormal Behavior and the Biological
Tradition
  • Hippocrates Abnormal Behavior as a Physical
    Disease
  • Hysteria The Wandering Uterus
  • Galen Extends Hippocrates Work
  • Humoral theory of mental illness
  • Treatments crude bloodletting
  • Foreshadowed modern views
  • Linked abnormality with brain chemical imbalances

13
The Past The Biological Tradition Comes of Age
  • General Paresis (Syphilis)
  • Several unusual psychological and behavioral
    symptoms
  • Pasteur discovered the cause A bacterial
    microorganism
  • Led to penicillin as a successful treatment
  • Bolstered the view that mental illness physical
    illness
  • Provided a biological basis for madness
  • John Grey
  • Championed biological tradition in the USA

14
The Past Consequences of the Biological
Tradition
  • Mental Illness Physical Illness
  • The 1930s
  • Biological treatments were standard practice
  • Insulin shock therapy, ECT, and brain surgery
  • The 1950s
  • Medications were becoming increasingly available
  • Neuroleptics (i.e., reserpine) and major
    tranquilizers

15
The Past Abnormal Behavior andthe
Psychological Tradition
  • The Rise of Moral Therapy
  • Key Figures
  • Philippe Pinel and Jean-Baptiste Pussin
  • Benjamin Rush -- Led reforms in the United States
  • Dorothea Dix Led mental hygiene movement
  • Reasons for the Falling Out of Moral Therapy
  • Emergence of Competing Alternative Psychological
    Models

16
The Past Abnormal Behavior andthe
Psychoanalytic Tradition
  • Freudian Theory
  • Structure Function of the Mind
  • Id (pleasure principle illogical, emotional,
    irrational)
  • Ego (reality principle logical and rational)
  • Superego (moral principles)
  • Defense Mechanisms
  • Displacement denial
  • Rationalization reaction formation
  • Projection, repression, and sublimation
  • Freudian Stages of Psychosexual Development
  • Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages

17
Later Neo-Freudian Developmentsin Psychoanalytic
Thought
  • Self-Psychology (Anna Freud)
  • Influence of the ego in defining behavior
  • Object Relations Theory(Klein Kernberg)
  • Children incorporate (introject) objects
  • Objects -- Images, memories, and values of
    significant others
  • Neo-Freudians
  • De-emphasized the sexual core of Freuds Theory
  • Jung, Adler, Horney, Fromm, and Erickson

18
From Psychoanalytic Thought toPsychoanalysis in
Therapy
  • Talk Therapy
  • Unearth the hidden intrapsychic conflicts
  • Therapy often Long Term
  • Techniques
  • Free Association Dream Analysis
  • Transference and Counter-Transference Issues
  • Efficacy Data are Limited

19
Humanistic Theory and the Psychological Tradition
  • Major Players
  • Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and Fritz Perls
  • Major Theme
  • That people are basically good
  • Humans strive toward self-actualization
  • Treatment
  • Therapist conveys empathy, unconditional positive
    regard
  • Minimal therapist interpretation
  • No Strong Evidence That Humanistic Therapies Work

20
The Behavioral Model and the Psychological
Tradition
  • Classical Conditioning (Pavlov Watson)
  • Pairing neutral stimuli and unconditioned stimuli
  • Conditioning to explain fear acquisition
  • Operant Conditioning (Thorndike Skinner)
  • Voluntary behavior is controlled by consequences
  • Both Learning Models influenced the development
    of behavior therapy

21
From Behaviorism to Behavior Therapy
  • Reactionary Movement
  • Against psychoanalysis and non-scientific
    approaches
  • Early Pioneers
  • Wolpe Systematic desensitization
  • Beck Cognitive therapy
  • Bandura Social learning / cognitive-behavior
    therapy
  • Behavior Therapy
  • Tends to be time-limited, direct, here-and-now
    focused
  • Behavior therapies have widespread empirical
    support

22
The Present The Scientific Method andan
Integrative Approach
  • Psychopathology
  • Is multiply determined
  • One-dimensional models are Incomplete
  • Must Consider Reciprocal Relations Between
  • Biological, psychological, social, and
    experiential factors
  • Biopsychosocial Model
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