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Basics of Biosafety

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Basics of Biosafety Working Safely with Biological Materials Central Michigan University College of Science and Technology Principles and practices employed to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basics of Biosafety


1
Basics of Biosafety
  • Working Safely with Biological Materials
  • Central Michigan University
  • College of Science and Technology

2
What is Biosafety?
  • Principles and practices employed to protect
    laboratory personnel and the environment from
    exposure or infection while working with living
    organisms, biological materials, or agents.
  • Included are any materials that may be
    potentially infectious.
  • Includes recombinant DNA research

3
Agents and Risks
  • The agent is the what creates risk
  • Risks to the worker or environment are often
    unknown
  • Determining acceptable risk?

4
Assessing Risk
  • There is always risk!
  • The risk must be identified
  • The risk is evaluated
  • The risk must be measured
  • Plan to minimize the risk

5
Who Determines Acceptable Risk?
  • Assessment is conducted by a Biosafety
    Professional in partnership with and based on
    information provided by the Principal
    Investigator
  • The assessment is presented to the Institutional
    Biosafety Committee (IBC) for approval

6
Identifying Risk
  • Understand the biology of the agent
  • Susceptibility and transmission within the host
  • Hazards associated with equipment and procedures
  • Goal
  • Provide the highest practical protection and the
    lowest practical exposure

7
Evaluating Risk Acceptability
  • Worst case scenario -What might happen?
  • Likelihood of an event
  • Seriousness of the incident
  • Actions needed to resolve the problems

8
What is Acceptable Risk?
  • Since there is no such thing as no risk
  • Safe means risk has been judged acceptable
  • Judging risk is a subjective- humans make
    decisions
  • Measuring risk is objective- use available
    guidelines, data, and documentation
  • Keep records of how determinations were made due
    to subjective nature of the process

9
WHO-World Health Organization
  • Agents Assigned Risk Groups
  • RG-1 Unlikely to cause disease in humans or
    animals
  • low individual or community risk
  • RG-2 May cause disease but typically not serious
  • individual risk, low community risk, treatable
  • RG-3 May cause serious disease, usually treatable
  • High individual but low community risk, serious
    respiratory agents
  • RG-4 Serious or fatal, often not treatable,
  • Easy transmission, high individual and community
    risk

10
Biosafety Levels (BSL)
  • Different than the Risk Groups!!
  • Risk groups used in risk assessment
  • BSL are used in risk management
  • BSL are ways to control the agent
  • facilities, safety equipment, practices, PPE,
    etc.
  • Once risk is assessed then the appropriate BSL is
    determined

11
BioSafety Level 1
  • Well characterized, non-pathogenic organisms or
    agents
  • Open bench- no containment
  • Use good laboratory practices, waste disposal,
    and aseptic techniques
  • Example E. coli K-12 strains

12
BioSafety Level 2
  • Agents of moderate hazard to personnel
    or environment
  • Basic lab, but restricted access, containment
    during certain processes (i.e. aerosols, large
    volumes, etc.)
  • Autoclave and Biological Safety Cabinet desired
  • Use good laboratory practices, waste disposal,
    and aseptic techniques
  • Example most non-respiratory, non lethal, agents

13
BioSafety Level 3
  • Agents of high hazard to personnel or environment
  • Respiratory exotic or indigenous agents which are
    easily transmissible causing serious or lethal
    disease
  • All work is contained, engineering controls and
    controlled environments we currently do not have
    the facilities to handle.
  • Example Mycobacterium tuberculosis, SARS, etc.

14
BioSafety Level 4
  • FORGET ABOUT IT!!!
  • Hemorrhagic fever, deadly viruses, etc.
  • Total containment, airtight labs, submarine
    doors, air pumps, water treatment, HEPA
    filtration, etc.
  • Positive pressure moonsuits

15
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAI)
  • Bacterial
  • 76 from clinical labs
  • 8 from research labs
  • Exposure
  • 60 acquired from inhalation
  • Other exposures include
  • digestion, sharps, splashes, direct and
    indirect contact

16
Laboratory Acquired Infections (LAI)
  • Viral
  • 16 from clinical labs
  • 70 from research labs
  • 32 from animal related activities

17
Biohazardous/Medical Waste
  • Waste that is potentially infectious to humans,
    animals or plants. It includes
  • Medical Waste according to MMWRA
  • Regulated Waste by MIOSHA
  • Regulated Waste by CDC/NIH

18
Michigan Medical Waste Regulatory Act (MMWRA)
  • Defines medical waste
  • Requirements for waste handling and disposal
  • Requires generators to register with DEQ and
    implement a Medical Waste Management Plan

19
Michigan Medical Waste Regulatory Act (MMWRA)
  • Defines medical waste
  • Requirements for waste handling and disposal
  • Requires generators to register with DEQ and
    implement a Medical Waste Management Plan

20
Biohazardous Waste Management Plan
  • Must outline how generating facility complies
    with the MMWRA
  • Types of wastes generated
  • Storage and disposal of wastes
  • Contingency plans
  • Training

21
Biohazardous Waste Categories
  • Cultures and stocks of infectious agents and
    associated biologicals
  • laboratory waste
  • biological production waste
  • discarded live and attenuated vaccines
  • culture dishes and related materials
  • contaminated PPE

22
Biohazardous Waste Categories
  • Liquid human and animal waste
  • liquid or semi-liquid blood and blood products
    and body fluids
  • contaminated items that would release blood or
    items that are caked with blood or other
    potentially infectious materials NOT including
    urine or materials stained with blood or body
    fluids
  • infectious animal waste (research)

23
Biohazardous Waste Categories
  • Pathological waste
  • tissues
  • body parts other than teeth
  • products of conception
  • fluids removed by trauma or during surgery or
    autopsy/necropsy or other medical procedure and
    not chemically fixed.

24
And More Biohazardous Waste Categories
  • Animal and plant pathogen waste
  • Recombinant DNA waste
  • Sharps

25
Biowaste vs. Trash
  • 3 basic questions to differentiate
  • Is it contaminated with viable biological
    material?
  • Can blood or other regulated body or biological
    fluids be released?
  • Is it a sharps hazard?

26
Is it contaminated with viable biological
material?
1
  • Examples
  • Contaminated lab waste
  • Personal protective equipment used for handling
    potentially infectious materials (including
    handling infected animals or their products)
  • Wastes from infectious disease research
    (carcasses, body fluids)

27
Can blood or other (regulated) body fluids or
viable biological materials be released?
2
Some Examples
Tubes of blood
Vacuum flasks containing body fluids or cell line
waste
28
Managing Liquid Biohazardous Waste
  • Storage
  • Label and secure bulk vessels if not disposed of
    immediately
  • Treatment
  • Chemical disinfection OR
  • Autoclave
  • Disposal THEN
  • Flush to sewer
  • Use proper PPE!

29
Disinfection
  • 10 bleach solution
  • good for general disinfection
  • High organics use 20
  • Needs to be made weekly
  • Test contact time
  • Ethanol
  • Use 70 solution (most effective)
  • Longer contact time and flammable
  • Should research and know effectiveness and
    contact time for the best disinfectant against
    your agent!

30
WRAPPERS/NON-ABSORBENT MATERIALS CONTAMINATED
WITH BLOOD
31
BANDAGES/OTHER ABSORBENTS SATURATED OR CRUSTED
WITH BLOOD
32
STAINED?. or SATURATED?
33
Managing Non-Sharp Biohazardous Waste
  • labeled container
  • lined with a biohazardous waste bag
  • equipped with a lid.

34
Managing Non-Sharp Biohazardous Waste
  • Securely tie bags for transport to
    treatment/collection site.
  • When moving wastes, use secondary containment
    avoid using public halls and elevators.

35
Breakable Non-sharps Biowaste
  • Store in labeled containers that are
    puncture-resistant, closable and will capture
    leakage, BUT.

Do NOT use SHARPS containers!
36
Effective Waste Autoclaving
  • Leave bag open during autoclaving or loosely
    closed
  • Add water to bag prior to autoclaving if
    primarily dry materials
  • Steam must contact materials
  • Place bag in autoclavable tray with sides

37
Treated Waste Bag Disposal
  • Allow waste bag to cool
  • Use fume hood to reduce odors
  • Securely tie bag shut
  • Place bag in a non-transparent black bag for
    regular disposal

Remember NO ORANGE BAGS IN DUMPSTER!
38
Is it a sharps hazard?
3
  • Examples
  • needles
  • syringes
  • scalpels
  • all biologically contaminated objects that can
    easily penetrate skin (Pasteur pipettes, razor
    blades, etc.)

Place sharps in approved sharps container for
disposal!
39
Syringes in research settings should be disposed
of as a sharp to avoid public relations concerns!
40
Sharps Containers
  • Containers must be leak-proof, puncture-resistant,
    closable labeled with the biohazard symbol.
  • Proper sharps containers must be used for both
    clinic and field work.

41
Proper Use of Sharps Containers
  • Place tops on containers before use on lab bench
  • Dont forget to date the container when first put
    into use
  • Remember sharps containers are a one-way
    disposal system

42
Proper Use of Sharps Containers
  • Use sharps containers for sharps ONLY!
  • No solid biohazardous waste (i.e. gauze,
    un-broken pipettes, gloves)
  • No mercury thermometers

43
Whats wrong with this picture?
44
Sharps Container Disposal
  • Containers must be permanently closed and
    disposed of through the animal facility manager
  • Within 90 days of first use
  • When ¾ full
  • Disposal methods
  • Landfill
  • Incineration
  • We use waste hauler

45
Safety Notes on Sharps Use
  • Do not re-cap sharps
  • Keep sharps container in close proximity to point
    of use (i.e. limit handling) for easy disposal
  • Do not leave needles in pockets of coveralls or
    smocks

46
Carcasses and Body Parts
  • Human tissues
  • Unfixed tissues are medical waste
  • Make waste unrecognizable!
  • Animal tissues, carcasses
  • When generated in infectious disease or
    recombinant DNA research, these are medical waste
  • These items must be stored in biolabeled,
    leakproof containers for incineration.
  • Waste service- see Audrey Brown

47
Managing All That Other Waste
  • Drain bottles of non-hazardous materials before
    disposal in trash
  • lt3 of volume is considered empty
  • Higher volumes must not be thrown in the trash

48
Managing All That Other Waste
Do NOT discard medications in the trash. Return
to source for disposal or seek assistance from
your campus waste group. See Jaime Stock!
49
Any Questions?
Thank You for your attention!
Thanks to Carol Stevens at CMU Robin Mecklem at
MSU for their assistance with this presentation
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