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Design for Ergonomics

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Design for Ergonomics MPD575 DFX Jonathan Weaver Development History Originally developed by Cohort 1 students: Stephen Earl, Paul Geisler, & Larry Rhein Revised by ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Design for Ergonomics


1
Design for Ergonomics
  • MPD575 DFX
  • Jonathan Weaver

2
Development History
  • Originally developed by Cohort 1 students
    Stephen Earl, Paul Geisler, Larry Rhein
  • Revised by Cohort 2 students Winnie Jimenez,
    Sergio Munoz, Dave Paddock Lester Weitman.

3
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings

4
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings

5
Introduction to DFE
  • Ergonomics is .The science of matching
    things to people.
  • It pays to be precise about how things suit
    people. It is the difference between taking a
    guess and taking a measurement.

6
Introduction to DFE
  • Ergonomics was created in 1949 from the Greek
    words
  • ERGO Work
  • NOMOS Natural laws
  • Scientific study of humans interacting within
    their environment

7
Introduction to DFE
  • Ergonomics considers the physical and mental
    aspects of people in relation to a product.
  • By adding objective data about people into the
    design process, a product or environment can be
    designed so that all users are considered, not
    just those that resemble the designer.

8
Introduction to DFE
  • Ergonomics is all about quality
  • The fact that something can be used is just not
    sufficient it should be easy to use.
  • Just because most people find it easy is not
    sufficient either a large and known percentage
    of people should be able to use it easily.

9
Introduction to DFE
  • The outcome of applying Ergonomics is generally
    one or more of
  • User success
  • User satisfaction
  • Speed
  • Safety
  • Reliability

10
Introduction to DFE
  • Some Dos and Donts of using Ergonomics
  • DONT
  • Dont think about most people or the average
    since that will lead to low standards.
  • Dont speculate. Try to recognize when you dont
    know something about the people you are designing
    for.
  • Dont design the product for yourself. Use
    objective data about people.

11
Ergonomic Differences
  • 50th percentile U.S. male gt 95th percentile
    U.S. female
  • U.S. female stature resembles Japanese male
    stature

1900
1800
1700
Height (mm)
1600
U.S., German Swedish Males
1500
1400
1300
1200
12
Introduction to DFE
  • Some Dos and Donts of using Ergonomics
  • DOS
  • Decide who is going to use the design age, sex,
    reach, strength, etc.
  • Focus on how different the worst-case users are
    from you.
  • Make explicit what the users goals will be as
    they use the product, and what will measure
    success.

13
Introduction to DFE
  • Some Dos and Donts of using Ergonomics
  • DOS
  • Consider what happens to people outside the
    formal design range
  • Work out what users will need to know before they
    can complete the tasks. Build the learning into
    the product, or design out the need for it.
  • Take account of stress and competing demands on
    the users attention. Especially important when
    designing labels.

14
Introduction to DFE
  • Human Factors engineering Ergonomics are
    commonly used interchangeably.
  • Human Factors is a discipline that optimizes the
    relationship between the technology and the
    humans.
  • Anywhere you find technology and people
    interacting together, there will be a need for
    some form of human factors and ergonomics.

15
Introduction to DFE
  • Human Factors engineering Ergonomics considers
    the variation within a user population and manner
    in which this will affect individual and group
    performance for a given task.
  • These variations include gender, age, sex, visual
    mental capabilities, and strength.

16
Introduction to DFE
  • Both Human Factors Ergonomics are
    interdisciplinary sciences that deal with
  • Human characteristics
  • Capabilities and limitations for the purpose of
    designing products to achieve ease of use
  • Comfort
  • Convenience
  • Health and safety

17
Technical Fields that Interact with Ergonomics
Ind. Design
Envir. Medicine
Applied Physiology
Anthropometry
Engineering
Ergonomics
Statistics
Psychology
Dynamics
Oper. Research
18
Introduction to DFE
Psychology - Experimental psychologists who study
people at work to provide data on such things as
Human sensory capacities, Psychomotor
performance, Human decision making, Human error
rates, Selection tests and procedures, Learning
and training. Anthropometry - An applied branch
of anthropology concerned with the measurement of
the physical features of people. Measures how
tall we are, how far we can reach, how wide our
hips are, how our joints flex, and how our bodies
move. Applied Physiology - Concerns the vital
processes such as cardiac function, respiration,
oxygen consumption, and electromyography
activity, and the responses of these vital
process to work, stress, and environmental
influences.
19
Introduction to DFE
Environmental Medicine - Concerned with such
environmental factors as noise, illumination,
temperature, humidity, g-forces, radiation, and
noxious gases and fumes, and their effects on
health and human performance. Engineering -
Provides information on electrical, mechanical,
and chemical characteristics of elements and
systems and principles of design, construction,
and operation of structures, equipment, and
systems. Statistics - For summarizing large
amounts of data on human measurements and human
performance, and to design sampling schemes and
experiments for the conduct of human studies and
performance measurements.
20
Introduction to DFE
Operations Research - Quantitative methods for
the analysis of the performance of manpower,
machinery, equipment, and policies in government,
military, or commercial spheres. Industrial
Design - The design, color, arrangement, and
packaging of equipment to combine functionality
and aesthetically satisfying appearance.
21
Introduction to DFE
Guides to Designing for Ergonomics Standards and
Codes Standards - A set of rules, conditions, or
requirements that define terms classify
components, specify components specify
materials, performance, or operations delineate
procedures or define measurements of the
quantity or quality of materials, products,
systems, services, or practices. Standards can be
classified as being safety or performance
based. Examples of Standards Federal and
Military Standards Company Standards Foreign
Standards
22
Introduction to DFE
Standards cont.- The most commonly used
Standards for use by human-factors professionals
OSHA Standards Prepared by the Federal
Occupational Safety and Health Administration MIL-
STD-1472D Military Standard dealing with
human-factors consideration in the design of
equipment. NASA-STD-3000 Slightly broader range
of topics than the MIL-STD. ANSI/HFS 100-1988 -
Deals specifically with h.f. principals and
practices in the design of visual display and
terminals, associated furniture, and the office
environment in which they are placed.
23
Introduction to DFE
Standards cont.- American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) - The most commonly used and
most well recognized organization for standards.
The organization is a federation of trade
associations, technical societies, professional
groups, consumer organizations, and industries
that serves as the United States clearinghouse
for voluntary standards activity at the national
level. Limitations of Standards Typically
establish only minimum requirements. They are
often too general. They usually have to be
tailored. The do not explain the
Systems-Engineering Process.
24
Introduction to DFE
Codes Primarily concerned with safety matters,
codes contain many regulations and
recommendations that directly or indirectly
address human-factor issues. Examples of
codes National Electrical Safety Code Life
Safety Code BOCA National Building Code BOCA
National Mechanical Code OSHA
25
DFE Process
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings

26
DFE Process
  • Why Ergonomics?
  • Olden Days Tools machinery made by
    individuals for themselves or a select few.
  • 20th Century Mass Production
    designed for the average user.

27
DFE Process
  • Our vehicles are manufactured for the masses.
    They are, therefore, tailored specifically to no
    one.
  • Ford Motor Design Center

(Ford Motor Company quote).
28
DFE Process
  • WHY NOW?
  • Global Markets reaching consumers with wider
    range of physical attributes.
  • More competition can provide customers a choice
    of an easier to use product.
  • Can be severe long term consequences -
    unacceptable level of absenteeism,
    dissatisfaction, complaints, accidents and
    under-use of product.

29
DFE Process
(Six principle areas of Ergonomic study, along
with several examples of each).
30
DFE Process
  • We see that human characteristics are extremely
    relevant to ergonomics, and those that are most
    frequently measured by ergonomists are
  • Physical characteristics
  • Psychological characteristics
  • Biological characteristics

(The 3 primary areas of study).
31
Key Principles of DFE
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings

32
Key Principles of DFE
  • Interface Reference Model (simple but eloquent)

(Primary interfaces are adjacent, others are
secondary).
33
Key Principles of DFE
  • Input / Output Communication Model

(Shows that the outputs of one are the inputs of
the other, and visa versa).
34
Key Principles of DFE
  • System Design Model
  • Statement of objectives
  • Separation of functions
  • Allocation of functions
  • Human devel. User/machine
    Interface Hardware devel.
  • System Integration

(Ergonomics should be part of the complete
process, but are most intense in red areas).
35
Key Principles of DFE
  • Key principles of DFE VDC specific
  • Vehicle Design Center recommends three distinct
    guideline segments
  • Controls Guidelines
  • Display Guidelines
  • Seat Guidelines

36
Key Principles of DFE
  • The Controls Guidelines determine
  • Fundamental Criteria
  • Visibility, Interpretability, Accessibility,
    Operability
  • Mode Criteria
  • Continuous, Discrete, Binary, Data entry
  • Design Recommendations
  • Natural, Convenient, Feedback, Stereotype, Blind
    reach
  • Arrangement Criteria
  • Emergency/Frequency, Grouped, Interference,
    Stereotype

37
Key Principles of DFE
  • The Display Guidelines determine
  • Fundamental Criteria
  • Visibility, Interpretability
  • Mode Criteria
  • Quantitative, Qualitative, Range, Binary status
  • Design Recommendations
  • Simplest, Least precise, Stereotype,
    Distance/angle
  • Arrangement Criteria
  • Emergency/Frequency, Compact, Standards, Grouped

38
Key Principles of DFE
  • The Seat Guidelines determine
  • Comfort Criteria
  • Contour, Suspension firmness, Posture, Support
  • Accommodation Criteria
  • Width, Length, Height, Depth, Angle
  • Convenience Criteria
  • Adjustments, Self-evident, Pivots, Placement
  • Miscellaneous Criteria
  • Entry/Egress, Progressive resistance, Irritants

39
Key Principles of DFE
  • Key principles of DFE generic
  • Identify the clients needs
  • Identify the users needs
  • Consider operator OP/machine IP
  • Consider operator IP/machine OP
  • Identify ergonomic issues affecting design
  • Evaluate ergonomic design effectiveness

40
Key Principles of DFE
  • Process Principles Summary effective
    ergonomic design begins at the onset of the task.
  • Identify the needs of the client user
  • Incorporate into statement of objectives
  • Maintain proportionate ergonomic effort
  • Evaluate ergonomic effectiveness

41
Key Principles of DFE
DFE requires teamwork! Communication is a very
important factor, inside and outside of the
team. Success relies on the knowledge,
resources, and support of people outside your
team and outside your organization (final
customer/user)
42
Ergonomics Team Members
Ergonomics Committee
Purchasing
Management
Materials
Engineering
DFE Team
Accounting
Marketing
Quality
Health and Safety
Medical
43
Reactive Versus Proactive
PD
Job 1
Availability of Funds ()
44
Reactive Versus Proactive
  • The diagram shows the relationship between cost
    and time
  • Ergonomic solutions will be more complex and will
    need more money as the design nears
    completion.
  • Normally, ergonomics analysis is applied to
    existing products and then reaction plans are
    developed.
  • Proactive gives the option to see and resolve
    problems when the resources (people, money, etc.)
    are available
  • The cost of ergonomic changes is inversely
    related to the availability of funds.

45
Ergonomic issues into a Product Development
Milestone
Concept Phase
J1
Final Program Status Lessons Learned are
identified fed forward for Continuous
Process Improvement
Ergo Issues that are Product related
Ergo Issues that are Process related
Assigned to Product Engineers for Evaluation
Resolution
Assigned to Process Engineers/Product Specialists
for Evaluation Resolution
Current Production Jobs in Plant with Similar
Product
Ergonomics Team Assigned to Complete Reviews
Job Improvement Cycle
46
Key Principles of DFE
  • The chart shows the DFE roll into Product
    Development milestone considering similar
    products or processes.
  • Ergonomic issues can be fixed when the cost of
    such fixes is relatively low.
  • DFE gives the option to apply ergonomics
    principles into the PD planning process.

47
DFE Rules for LEAN
  • The change to Lean is a very good opportunity to
    improve ergonomics.
  • The next twelve rules together with a team work,
    are important to improve process ergonomics
  • Avoid bending forward at the waist
  • Keep the work close to your body
  • Avoid twisting your trunk
  • Avoid lifting or working above shoulder height.
  • The work height depends on the task and the
    operator.

48
DFE Rules for LEAN (contd)
  • 6. Keep the duration of muscle effort short
  • 7. Minimize walking distances.
  • 8. Lift or lower only loads less than 40 pounds.
  • 9. Bend the tool not the worker.
  • 10. Maintain your tools and equipment.
  • 11. Keep work in front of worker
  • 12. Changes Postures and motions.

49
EXAMPLES
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings

50
GOOD EXAMPLES
Good ergonomic designs
51
GOOD EXAMPLES
Computer Hardware Design Example The KEYBOARD
The keyboard on the left is the standard
computer keyboard. The keyboard on the right is
called a left handed keyboard, which has the
numeric keypad on the left hand side.
52
GOOD EXAMPLES
Split Keyboards Product on the left has an
integrated mouse feature. Product on the right
has an integrated wrist rest.
53
GOOD EXAMPLES
Adjustment for wrist splay in the horizontal
plan 0-30, continuously variable. Adjustment
for wrist pronation - vertical tenting 0-30,
continuously variable. Keyboard on left has
larger space bars, while keyboard on the right
still incorporates the wrist rests.
54
GOOD EXAMPLES
Larger keys for individual with limited hand
mobility or individuals with large hands. Keys
put in alphabetic order for children. Keyboard on
the right integrates the use of a trackball.
55
GOOD EXAMPLES
Optimal split-your arms go out straight in front
of you. Lateral tilt so thumbs are effectively
elevated. Built-in, padded palm supports.
56
GOOD EXAMPLES
Reduce wrist stresses associated with Carpal
Tunnel Syndrome. Move mouse clicks to your feet.
Macros up to 13 keystrokes.
57
GOOD EXAMPLES
Computer Hardware Design Example Continued The
MOUSE
Various sizes for right and left hand users.
Thumb button for double clicking and scrolling
without moving the mouse.
58
GOOD EXAMPLES
Designed as a pilot stick, it encourages a
natural, vertical hand position with the thumb
pointing upwards. A full 1.5 inches of length
adjustment and low lateral profile and a raised
palm rest.
59
GOOD EXAMPLES
Is the trackball for user preference or another
attempt to redesign a bad problem?
60
GOOD EXAMPLES
Computer Hardware Design Example The KEYBOARD
and MOUSE FIXERS
Wrist rests for the keyboard and mouse.
61
GOOD EXAMPLES
Reduce wrist stresses associated with Carpal
Tunnel Syndrome. If the keyboard and mouse were
designed correctly in the first place, would you
need to correct them?
62
BAD EXAMPLES
Examples of where Ergonomics was not applied
63
BAD EXAMPLES
There are two problems with these doors. Handles
are designed for pulling rather pushing. The two
sets of doors work in opposite ways.
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
64
BAD EXAMPLES
Commonly used handle types for this style of door.
The problem is you dont know which end of the
handle to push.
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
65
BAD EXAMPLES
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
Manufacturers package both the shampoo and
conditioner in nearly identical bottles. Should
be able to easy separate the two without too much
difficulty.
66
BAD EXAMPLES
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
Other than the letter difference in these labels,
these two bottles of Insulin types. This could be
serious if one selects the wrong type.
67
BAD EXAMPLES
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
The problem is that the handle to move the
cabinet is very close to the top drawer and is
more obvious than the actual drawer handle.
68
BAD EXAMPLES
Which light would choose ?
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
There are so many traffic lights at this
intersection, one would have to wonder how many
people get confused when they arrive at this
intersection.
69
BAD EXAMPLES
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
The outlet here is just below the mirror over a
sink. You cannot plug it as shown as it hits the
mirror, and you cannot flip it up-side-down
because the prongs do not match up.
70
BAD EXAMPLES
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
These cupholders block access to the radio and
cassette player. Not only hard to use the radio,
but increase the risk of spilling something into
the cassette player.
71
BAD EXAMPLES
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
Two very common mechanical pencils. The problem
with the top one is that you would constantly be
taking off the cap and when you use the eraser
you would keep advancing the lead. The bottom one
has a simple button to advance the lead.
72
BAD EXAMPLES
Frustrated with VCR cases ?
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
It is suppose to be easy when you return the VCR
tape back to the holder. Very common mistake
people make when returning the tape to the case
is that there is only one way to put it back into
the case.
73
BAD EXAMPLES
OUTCH watch out for that bar
How many times have you been in this situation ?
Most turn styles like this one do not take in
consideration the various heights of individuals.
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
74
BAD EXAMPLES
IS IT 40 MPH OR 40 RPM ?
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
This poorly designed instrument cluster has the
speedometer and the tachometer using the same
scaling. The only item helping in choosing
between the two is the odometer.
75
BAD EXAMPLES
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
The older stove top controls on the left are more
difficult to determine which one controls each of
the four burners, while the newer style on the
right matches the pattern of the burners.
76
BAD EXAMPLES
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
People generally expect the controls to be close
to the device. Here the CD buttons are close to
the tape player and the tape player controls are
close to the CD player.
77
BAD EXAMPLES
TRUNK
FUEL
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
Separating these controls would make inadvertent
opening of the trunk less likely. The greater the
separation, the less likely it would be to
accidentally open the trunk lid when opening the
fuel door.
78
BAD EXAMPLES
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
Which button should I push ? There are so many
different labels and displays on these pumps, it
makes it very difficult to find the start button.
79
BAD EXAMPLES
The first required action to use this Glue Stick
product is the removal of the cap. The cap in
this case is the small dark end, typically
leading consumers to try to remove the large
white feed-end first. Solution label, resize.
80
BAD EXAMPLES
The two vertical controls are difficult to
differentiate due to location, lighting, and
texture. Being the primary switch for the vehicle
dome light, the left control could be more
accessible. Solution relocate or change texture.
81
BAD EXAMPLES
The left control makes excellent use of color to
identify temperature-mix. The right control makes
no use of color, perpetuating waste by
inadvertent use of the vehicle AC compressor.
Solution add color indicators.
82
BAD EXAMPLES
The solid arrow on the left indicates the
direction to push to engage the windshield washer
pump, but so do the hollow double arrows on the
right. Solution reposition hollows arrows.
83
BAD EXAMPLES
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
Two different wiper controls made by the same
manufacturer, the only problem is that they are
not consistent in their operation.
84
BAD EXAMPLES
Traditionally, rearview mirror levers give no
indication of which position is normal and
which is for filtered viewing. Have you ever
experienced this anomaly? Solution add symbols,
different mechanism.
85
BAD EXAMPLES
As can be seen from these examples, gas cap
location may differ from vehicle to vehicle,
sometimes even within the same manufacturer.
86
BAD EXAMPLES
Photograph courtesy of www.baddesigns.com
This gas cap door is hard to determine which end
you would select to open the door. Good designs
would have a lip on the door to grab onto.
87
BAD EXAMPLES
A real life example of bad visual effects which
we have all seen and most of us are guilty of.
If it doesnt convey the message, is it worth
putting in?
88
BAD EXAMPLES
Everyone is E237 has had initial difficulties in
determining which switch controls the projector
screen, and just which lights the other switches
control. Solution label or reposition.

89
BAD EXAMPLES
This steering wheel exhibits good and bad
ergonomic design. The cruise controls are
lighted, well textured, and easily defined. The
horn button is unlit, not easily defined, yet is
more likely needed during an emergency.
90
BAD EXAMPLES
While a display may be artistically balanced,
this is not a guarantee of good ergonomic design.
Note the same degree of smudge on the green label
as on the yellow switch. Solution combine,
reposition, change colors.
91
GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES
Good and bad ergonomic designs
92
GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES
This is a bad application of ergonomics because
lifting put a strain on the back of the user
This is a good application of ergonomics because
it puts less strain on the back of the user
93
GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES
This is a bad application of ergonomics because
in order to operate this device the User need to
apply pressure downward on the handle in order to
raise the vehicle placing strain on the upper arm
and shoulder as well as the back
This is a good application of ergonomics because
you rotate the handle placing less strain on the
arm and back muscles.
94
GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES
This is a bad application of ergonomics because
in order to make juice you must apply a twisting
pressure on the orange that places a strain on
the wrist
This is a good application of ergonomics because
you simply utilize downward pressure that doesnt
place a severe strain as the other juicer
95
GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES
This is a bad application of ergonomics because
pulling on a line through a pulley places strain
on the upper arms and back
This is a good application of ergonomics because
you are basically winding the sail up by means of
a winch ratchet arrangement which places less
strain on the upper body
96
GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES
This weed puller shows a good application of
ergonomics because it doesn't place any undue
strain on the user's body.
97
GOOD vs. BAD EXAMPLES
This weed puller is an example of bad application
of ergonomics, because it places a strain on the
upper legs and lower back of the user.
98
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References

99
Design for Ergonomics
  • DFE Software
  • ErgoManagerTM (human perf. analysis)
  • JACKTM (human modeling simulation)
  • SAFEWORK (virtual human modeling)
  • PeopleSize (anthropometry software)

100
ErgoManager
  • What is ErgoManager?
  • ErgoManager is a suite of software solutions for
    use within an office environment
  • ErgoSURE - assesses postural risk.
  • ErgoSentry - a customizable work pacing
    and reinforcement tool for individual workflow
    management and employee training.
  • Surveyor - collects data for reporting on user
    and company-wide ergonomic tendencies.

101
ErgoManager
Ergonomic Management Tools
Keyboarding and Mousing Activity Monitoring and
Break Tool
Postural Assessment Tool
Electronic Data Collection
(The 3 main modules and 6 sub-modules that make
up the ErgoManager software product).
102
Why use ErgoManager?
ErgoManager
  • Improve Office Productivity
  • Improve Worker Efficiency
  • Improve Worker Comfort, and
  • ErgoSURE
  • ErgoSentry ErgoAnalyzer, UserNotes,
    Computer-based Training, Guardian More
  • Surveyor
  • How To Do Manuals

103
Why use ErgoManager ? (cont.)
ErgoManager
  • Interactive Educational Training Tool
  • Customizable
  • Quick easy to use
  • Simple Web-like interfaces (ergonomic)

(An example of typical web-like hypertext is
shown).
104
ErgoSURE?
ErgoManager
  • Just Point and Click!

(ErgoSURE allows easy quantification of
employees work posture).
105
ErgoSURE?
ErgoManager
  • Analyze injury potential
  • Consistent
  • Quick easy to use

(ErgoSURE covers complete upper-body evaluation).
106
ErgoSURE?
ErgoManager
  • Systematically assess posture
  • Record how an employee is working

(Allows easy logging of performance data).
107
ErgoManager
ErgoSURE?
Reporting and analysis from ErgoSure? RULA
Rapid Upper Limb
Assessment Scoring Best Low
Score Worst High Score
(And allows individual and group statistical
tracking and display).
108
ErgoSentry?
ErgoManager
  • Computer-based Training
  • Workpacing Education
  • Ergonomic Monitoring
  • Simple Visual Indicator

(ErgoSentry green bar charts are used to display
higher-stress timeframes).
109
ErgoSentry - ErgoMap
ErgoManager
  • Interactive Training Tool
  • Customizable
  • Quick easy to use

(An example of a click-on Ergo Map used to
educate workers on ergonomic ramifications).
110
Surveyor?
ErgoManager
  • Gather important information from employees
  • Electronic and networked
  • Fully Customizable
  • Quick easy to use

(One example of many surveys and quizzes used to
develop performance and trend metrics from).
111
ErgoManager
Surveyor?
  • Measure ANY influence on productivity

(Metric reporting capabilities on an individual,
group, and division basis are possible).
112
ErgoManager
Surveyor?
  • Measure ANY influence on productivity

(Data compilation and transmittal can be
transmitted to the home base for final
evaluation).
113
ErgoManager
  • ErgoManagerTM Summary EM will improve office
    productivity, worker comfort, reduce risks, and
    achieve compliance.
  • Cornell University Study EM improves users
    productivity 10 to
    40
  • Reduce risks of RSIs and associated costs
  • Reduce employee turnover, provide increased sense
    of well-being and improved morale
  • Compliant with existing and future state and
    federal regulations

114
Design for Ergonomics
  • DFE Software
  • Magnitude (human performance analysis)
  • JACKTM (human modeling simulation)
  • SAFEWORK (virtual human modeling)
  • PeopleSize (anthropometry software)

115
  • JACKTM is an ergonomics and human factors product
    that helps enterprises improve the ergonomics of
    their product designs and workplace tasks by
    providing
  • Biomechanically accurate Digital Humans
  • Placement of DH in your virtual environment
  • Task assignment to DH
  • Performance analysis of DH

116
(Shows blue range for left arm spine back, red
range for right arm spine back forward, and
green range for the summation or virtual
interior).
117
  • Why use Digital Humans? Because many enterprises
    are presently facing a barrage of similar
    problems
  • Shorten design times
  • Reduce development costs
  • Improve quality
  • Increase productivity
  • Enhance safety

118
(DH shows realistic and complex joint and body
interaction with a virtual product concept).
119
  • Digital Humans in product design allows you to
    gain insight about the customer.
  • Positioning and comfort
  • Visibility
  • Ingress egress
  • Reaching and grasping
  • Foot pedal operation
  • Multi-person interaction
  • Strength assessment

120
  • This added customer insight allows you to realize
    these benefits during PD process
  • Faster time to market
  • Higher product quality
  • Reduced development costs
  • Safer products
  • Improved productivity

121
  • The basic principles of JACKTM
  • Build a virtual environment
  • Real-time, CAD/CAE models
  • Create a digital human
  • 68 joints, 33 spine hands, 135 DOF, NASA
    anthropomorphic studies
  • Define DH size and shape
  • SAE, frame, height, body segment extremes
  • Position DH in your virtual world
  • Posture, behavior, environmental relationship
  • Assign your DH tasks
  • Field of view, movement, size and component
    swapping
  • Analyze DH performance
  • View cones, reach, test fit, force, torque

122
(Shows 2 body size reach envelopes from 2
different seat positions, and relationship to
virtual product concept).
123
  • Task Analysis Toolkit
  • Lower back force analysis
  • Strength analysis
  • Metabolic energy expenditure
  • Fatigue/recovery time analysis
  • Posture analysis

124
(Can measure and analyze lower-back stress from
X-repetitions of virtual product ingress/egress
cycles).
125
  • Occupant Packaging Toolkit
  • SAE packaging guidelines
  • Comfort assessment
  • Advanced reach analysis
  • Advanced anthropometry
  • Specialized part libraries

126
(Even sophisticated virtual product scenarios
can be coupled with complex DH interactions).
127
  • JACKTM Summary digital human modeling software,
    supports and promotes
  • Virtual concept evaluation
  • Earlier targeting of population segments
  • DH descriptor combinations
  • Interfaces with CAE CAD work
  • Reduced PD cycle
  • Faster ergonomic product to market

128
Design for Ergonomics
  • DFE Software
  • Magnitude (human performance analysis)
  • JACKTM (human modeling simulation)
  • SAFEWORK (virtual human modeling)
  • PeopleSize (anthropometry software)

129
The Human Modeling Software
for Advanced Ergonomic Design
130
GENICOM CONSULTANTS Inc.
Founded in 1984, Genicom Consultants Inc. is
known as a center of competence in Human Modeling
around the world as well as a development firm.
  • Genicom has basically two divisions
  • RD division in which they develop products such
    as SAFEWORK, the most complete human
    modeling software available commercially
  • Human factors consulting division in which they
    analyze, correct and design workstations.

131
  • SAFEWORK is a software tool which creates virtual
    humans of various percentiles to study fit and
    accessibility in a workstation. Features include
  • Mannequins with 103 anthropometric variables
  • Numerous forms of analysis (postural,reach,
    etc.)
  • Simulate tasks by using animation
  • Transparent interfacing to most CAD systems

132
SOFTWARE BREAKDOWN
  • Anthropometry
  • Postural Analysis
  • Libraries Concepts
  • Vision
  • Animation
  • Collision Detection

133
(No Transcript)
134
(Example of a simulation where the individuals
are entering into a bus).
135
(Highlighted area shows how driver is effected by
the surroundings of drivers area).
136
(User is able to select a given variable and
allowed to edit the various dimensions).
137
(Profile editor allows the user to choose from
the various types of body builds)
138
(Side view of driver station showing the critical
dimensions with the model used)
139
(No Transcript)
140
Basic Scene
(Examples of human models used in the postural
analysis module of the software)
141
Single Range of Motion
(Postural analysis of the human thigh area)
142
Coupled Range of Motion
(Postural analysis of the human thigh area and by
adding movement to leg)
143
Postural score and limitation database
(Statistical data on the area in which the user
is examining)
144
(No Transcript)
145
(Demonstration of the capabilities of the library
functions of the software)
146
(Demonstration of the capabilities of the library
functions of the software)
147
(Demonstration of the capabilities of the library
functions of the software)
148
(No Transcript)
149
(Ambinocular vision view of what the user would
see if sitting at the control desk)
150
(Vision attribute selection window allowing the
user various display options)
151
(No Transcript)
152
(Animation editor allow the user modify, delete,
and add various animations
153
(No Transcript)
154
(Collision detection editor allows used to see
interferences with in a product)
155
(Collision detection editor allows used to see
interferences with in a product)
156
(No Transcript)
157
Summary of Why People Use SAFEWORK ?
  • User Friendly Environment
  • Full 3D Mannequin Representation
  • Access to Standard Population Statistics
  • Posture Analysis
  • Virtual Viewing
  • Animation Capabilities

158
Design for Ergonomics
  • DFE Software
  • Magnitude (human performance analysis)
  • JACKTM (human modeling simulation)
  • SAFEWORK (virtual human modeling)
  • PeopleSize (anthropometry software)

159
  • What is PeopleSize ?
  • PeopleSize is .. a software package which gives
    data on human sizes through a virtual interface.
  • The main advantage of of the program is that you
    visualize the item you are designing in relation
    to the human body.

160
  • How does the process work?
  • Point and click three step process
  • Select the measurements you want by pointing and
    clicking on any triangle of the color
    illustrations of the human body
  • Visualize the item you are designing in relation
    to the human body

161
Step One
Select the nationality, age group, and percentile
value. Example UK male, 18-64, 1st percentile
162
Step Two
Click on the icon you desire to see the larger
illustration. Choose from full body views to
individual body parts to even full body infant
views. Views available vary depending on
population data.
163
Step Three
Click on the various triangles to select the
dimension you want. Each triangle is a
measurement landmark. Over 280 dimensions to
choose from.
164
Output Dialog
As you select each dimension, the output dialog
gives you dimensions for the population you
specified in Step One. Automatic adjustments are
added for clothing and sitting slump.
165
Examples
Full body, front view seated position Each arrow
represents a critical measurement
166
Examples
Full body, front view Each arrow represents a
critical measurement
167
Examples
Head front view Each arrow represents a
critical measurement
168
Examples
Hand positions various Each arrow represents a
critical measurement
169
Examples
Hand front view Each arrow represents a
critical measurement
170
Examples
Full body, side view (infant) Each arrow
represents a critical measurement
171
Client List companies using PeopleSize -
American Airlines - London Transport - British
Airways - Ministry of Defense - British Rail
Research - Motor Industry Research - Ford Motor
Company - Nissan Motor Group - Hewlett Packard -
Scandinavian Airlines - Jaguar - Transport
Research Labs - Land Rover - Volvo BV
172
Summary of PeopleSize
  • Check current designs against different
    populations and user groups
  • Ensure new designs fit the desired percentages
    of the population
  • Look-up data to create or justify designing
    specifications
  • Saves time by having all the data in one package
  • See the effects of clothing on your users

173
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings

174
DFE Hardware
  • IETM (Interactive Electronic
  • Technical Manuals)
  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • Vehicle Bucks
  • NVH Partial-Mannequin
  • Anthropomorphic Mannequins
  • Articulating Mannequins

175
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Process
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings

176
DFE Case Studies
  • DFE Case Studies
  • IETM (Interactive Elect. Tech. Manuals)
  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • Jaguar X
  • OSHA Refrigerator Assembly

177
DFE Case Studies
  • DFE Case Studies
  • IETM
  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • Jaguar X
  • OSHA Refrigerator Assembly

178
DFE Case Studies
  • Why IETM? (Interactive Electronic Technical
    Manual)
  • Aircraft innovation rise
  • Demanding civilian, military, and FAA
    requirements
  • Aircraft maintenance plateau
  • Increased demands on mechanics
  • Unmanageable technical manual volumes
  • Greater risk potential
  • Need for Innovation in aircraft maintenance

179
DFE Case Studies
(Aircraft maintenance is a layered problem)
180
DFE Case Studies
( as well as a circular problem).
181
DFE Case Studies
182
DFE Case Studies
  • Transitional Milestones
  • Hardware
  • Existing record playback equipment
  • Software
  • User/media interaction - hypertext, hypermedia
  • Ergonomics (Key)
  • Technician OP / Device IP
  • Device OP / Technician IP
  • Customer
  • Tech, Civilian, Military, FAA

(As of 1998, filled stars indicate solutions,
empty stars indicate areas still needing
resolution).
183
DFE Case Studies
  • Ergonomics (Key)
  • Technician OP / Device IP
  • Speech recognition, joysticks, head-mounted gyro

184
DFE Case Studies
  • Ergonomics (Key)
  • Device OP / Technician IP, HDMs

(Consumer PD finally delivered a translucent
monocular which could meet OP/IP needs).
185
DFE Case Studies
  • Milestone Achievements
  • Hardware
  • Record personal playback
  • Software
  • User/media interaction, hypertext, hypermedia
  • Ergonomics
  • IP / OP IP / OP
  • Customer
  • Technician, Civilian Military aviation, FAA

(Since 1998, ergonomics has delivered a complete
solution, now under Customer review).
186
DFE Case Studies
  • IETM Summary a quality ergonomic solution will
    more likely to result in
  • Increased morale
  • Maintained quality level
  • Increased productivity
  • Improved safety
  • Improved competitive position

187
DFE Case Studies
  • DFE Case Studies
  • IETM
  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • Jaguar X
  • OSHA Refrigerator Assembly

188
DFE Case Studies
  • Why the Third Age Suit?
  • To gain insight into the physical capabilities of
    customers in the 3rd age demographic
  • To let young engineers and designers experience
    the effects of the aging process, by actually
    wearing the suit
  • To attempt to maintain our competitive position

189
DFE Case Studies
  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • (Show Video if Possible)

190
DFE Case Studies
  • Third Age Suit Summary
  • To proactively improve our overall design process
    by taking advantage of promising new tools and
    methodologies to stay competitive.
  • To more accurately consider the needs of the
    population in the 3rd age range.
  • Though not easy to properly fit to ones
    individual body, the insight gained from the
    accelerated aging effect is extremely worthwhile.

191
DFE Case Studies
  • DFE Case Studies
  • IETM (Interactive Elect. Tech. Manuals)
  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • Jaguar X
  • OSHA Refrigerator Assembly

192
DFE Case Studies
  • Jaguar X-Type
  • Recognized ergonomics would provide competitive
    advantage.
  • Provided owners with extensive seat steering
    wheel adjustability.
  • Carefully positioned all control switches.
  • Even designed in switch feel sound.

193
DFE Case Studies
  • Jaguar X-Type

194
DFE Case Studies
  • DFE Case Studies
  • IETM (Interactive Elect. Tech. Manuals)
  • Third Age Suit - Design Center
  • Jaguar X
  • OSHA Refrigerator Assembly

195
DFE Case Studies
  • OSHA Recommendations for Assembly
  • Use slip resistant gloves to avoid increasing
    grip force required for lifting.
  • Reach zones gt waist lt shoulder
  • Trigger Grips gt2 fingers distributes force
  • Use cushioned mats (anti-fatigue) to reduce lower
    back injuries.
  • Rotate people thru different operations, to avoid
    stressing one muscle group.

196
DFE Case Studies
  • OSHA Refrigerator Assembly

197
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Procedures
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings

198
References
  • Burgess, John H (1986). Designing for Humans
    The Human Factor in Engineering, Petrocelli
    Books, Princeton, New Jersey.
  • Woodson, Wesley E. and Conover, Donald W. Human
    Engineering Guide for Equipment Designers,
    Second edition, University of California Press,
    Berkley,1964.
  • Chapanis, Alphonse (1965). ManMachine
    Engineering, Wadsworth Publishing, London.

199
References
  • Chapanis, Alphonse (1996). Human Factors in
    Systems Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
    New York, NY, USA
  • Kantowitz, Barry and Sorkin, Robert (1983). Human
    Factors, Understanding People-System John Wiley
    and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, USA
  • McCormick, Ernest J (1970). Human Factors
    Engineering, McGraw-Hill Co., New York, NY, USA

200
References
  • OBrien, Thomas G. and Charlton, Samuel G.
    (1996). Handbook of Human Factors Testing and
    Evaluation Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
    Publishers, Mahwah, New Jersey, USA
  • Andreasen, Myrup/S. Kahler/T. Lund "Design for
    Assembly", Second edition, IFS Publications/Spring
    er-Verlag, Berlin, Heildelberg, New York, Tokio.
    1988

201
References
  • Woodson, Wesley E. and Conover, Donald W. Human
    Engineering Guide for Equipment Designers,
    Second edition, University of California Press,
    1964
  • OReilly Associates, Inc. 2000
    www.patientcenters.com/wheels/news/adaptive.html
  • SAE 2000-01-0169 Ergonomic Consideration in
    Steering Wheel Control
  • SAE 2000-01-2167 A Generic Process for Human
    Model Analysis

202
References
  • SAE 1999-01-1913 Measuring of Human
    Anthropometry, Posture and Motion
  • SAE 2000-01-2156 Digital Humans and
    Electromagnetic Motion Capture
  • SAE 2000-01-2165 Application of the 3-D CAD
    Manikin RAMSIS to Heavy Duty Truck Design at
    Freightliner Corporation
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics, Wright State
    University, www.web2.cs.wright.edu

203
References
  • NexGen Ergonomics, www.nexgenergo.com
  • Cornell University Ergonomics, www.ergo.human.corn
    ell.edu
  • Human Factors International, www.humanfactors.com
  • Darnell, M. J. Bad Human Factor Designs,
    www.baddesigns.com
  • Open Ergonomics, PeopleSize 2000, www.openerg.com
  • SAFEWORK, www.safework.com

204
References
  • Ford Adv. Engrg Design Dept., 1997, A Human
    Factors Design/Evaluation Manual
  • Galer, Ian A. (1987), Applied Ergonomics Handbook
  • University of Pennsylvania, Center for Modeling
    Simulation, http//www.upenn.edu/computing/printou
    t/archive/v12/4/jack.html

205
References
  • University of Pennsylvania, JACK Home Page,
    http//www.cis.upenn.edu/hms/jack.html
  • EAI, Engineering Animation Inc.,
    http//www.transom.com/ 
  • Magnitude, Computer Ergonomic Software,
    http//www.magnitude.com/main/about.html
  • Human Factor Issues in Aircraft,
    http//members.aol.com/geo13/ietm.htm

206
References
  • The Ergonomics Society http//www.ergonomics.org.u
    k
  • Ergonomics
  • http//www.ergonomics.org
  • Human Factors Ergonomics Society
    http//www.hfes.org
  • OSHA (Success stories case abstracts)
  • http//www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/index.
    html

207
Design for Ergonomics
  • Introduction to DFE
  • DFE Procedures
  • Key Principles of DFE
  • Examples
  • DFE Software
  • DFE Hardware
  • DFE Case Studies
  • References
  • Supplemental Readings

208
Supplemental Readings
  • 1996 Human Factors Ergonomics Societys 40th
    Annual Proceedings Presidential Address
  • Good Ergonomics is Good Economics by Hal W.
    Hendrick
  • Available _at_ www.hfes.org

209
Supplemental Readings
  • The Ergonomics Societys overview of ergonomics,
    from their web homepage Available _at_
    www.ergonomics.org.uk
  • Additional articles identified by Cohort 2
    students will be made available as further
    readings.
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