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Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood: 6-11 Years Chapter 12 THE THINKER,,,,of sorts

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Chapter 12 THE THINKER,,,,of sorts I. Concrete Operations II. Memory--METACOGNITION III. Intelligence IV. Schooling GOOD MORNING! LITERACY DISCUSSION INFORMATION FOR ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood: 6-11 Years Chapter 12 THE THINKER,,,,of sorts


1
Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood 6-11
YearsChapter 12THE THINKER,,,,of sorts
  • I. Concrete Operations
  • II. Memory--METACOGNITION
  • III. Intelligence
  • IV. Schooling

2
GOOD MORNING!
  • LITERACY DISCUSSION
  • INFORMATION FOR CLASS TODAY WILL BE ON THE FINAL
    EXAMSEE STUDY GUIDE
  • KNOW EXAMPLES TO EXPLAIN POTENTIAL AND RESILIENCY

3
METACOGNITION
  • Thinking about your thinking. I know or I dont
    knowtherefore. Metacognition!
  • I know.
  • I know that you know.
  • I know that you know that I know.

4
Storing and Retrieving InformationRead and List
(need paper)
  • Cake
  • Book
  • Shoe
  • Car
  • Ball
  • Dish
  • Clock
  • Fish
  • Tree
  • Chair
  • Bike
  • Egg

Tell me your strategies
5
Part 2 Retrieving and Storingread and write
  • Dog
  • Cat
  • Pig
  • Cow
  • Grape
  • Pear
  • Orange
  • Peach
  • Shirt
  • Pants
  • Shoe
  • Socks

Tell me your strategies
6
Metacognitive Knowledge
  • When you try to remember things, do you remember
    some things better than others? What kings of
    things are hard to remember? What ones are
    easier to remember? Why?
  • If you wanted to call a friend on the phone and
    someone told you the phone number , would it make
    a difference if you called right away or if you
    got a drink of water first? Why?

7
COGNITIONThinking Strategies
  • EXAMPLES OF HOW CHILD THINKS
  • Can do cognitive self-regulation (monitoring) of
    their thinking.
  • they will continually monitor progress
    of an activity, checking how they are doing,
    redirecting or redoing unsuccessful efforts.
  • Examples are reread a sentence she does not
    understand, attends to directions of the teacher
    or her mother, relate new information to what
    they already know..
  • In the early stages, may not always monitor on
    own, need hints and training and reminders.
  • Children who can use these thinking strategies,
    do well in school.

8
Cognitive DevelopmentConcrete Operational
Thinking
  • Can focus on more than one attribute when doing a
    task.
  • Less as self-centered.
  • Likes to solve problems
  • Focus is more on solving problemslikes puzzles.
  • Like to make and do things.

9
Piagets Theory Achievements of the
ConcreteOperational Stage ( logical, flexible,
organziedneed to know with examples
  • Conservationways to understand mental
    operations obey logical rules of thinking.
  • Decentration- focusing on several aspects at a
    time
  • Reversibility- work through steps, backwards
  • Classificationputting a set of objectives into
    categoriessimilarities and differences pg 428
    321
  • Seriation- put a set of sticks in order from
    smallest to largest
  • Spatial Reasoning pg 429
  • Directions move from using their own
    orientation, to looking at from other
    perspectives
  • Mapslandmarks a drawn in a logical order, can
    read from different persectives.

10
Piagets Theory Limitations of Concrete
Operational Thought
  • Operations work best with objects that are
    concretethat is objectives and manipulatives
  • Problems thinking about abstract ideas
  • Horizontal décalage
  • Master concrete operational tasks gradually---
    learn in steps

11
Attention in Middle Childhood
  • Attention becomes more
  • Selective
  • Adaptable
  • Planful

12
Promoting CognitiveSelf-Regulation in Children
  • Point out special demands of tasks
  • Encourage use of strategies
  • Emphasize value of self-correction

13
Language Development in Middle Childhood
  • Meta-linguistic awareness increases
  • Vocabulary
  • Increases fourfold during school years
  • 20 new words a day
  • Grammar
  • Passive voice
  • Infinitive phrases
  • Pragmatics
  • Adjust to people and situations
  • Phrase requests to get what they want

14
Spelling Test
  • List of words
  • Study 5 minutes
  • Administer test
  • Write Reflectionyour thinking
  • What monitoring strategies did you use?
  • What were you saying to yourself?
  • Self-talk

15
Metacognitive Knowledge, cont.
  • Suppose you want to go skating with your friend
    after school tomorrow. You want to be sure to
    bring your skates. What can you do to be certain
    that you wont forget to bring your skates to
    school? How many ways can you think of?
  • Suppose you lose your jacket at school. How
    would you go about finding it? How many ways?

16
Metacognitive Knowledge, cont.
  • Suppose I tell you a story and ask you to
    remember it. Would it be easier to remember it
    word for word or in your own words? Why?
    Other ways?

17
Memory Strategies
  • These are deliberate strategies to store and
    retain information.
  • Rehearsal of information repeat information.
  • Organizing information grouping ideas together.
  • Elaboration of information (can practice at this
    point still difficult) creating meaning and
    shared relationships.
  • Chunking information.
  • Children need hints.
  • Should we be teaching these strategies to
    children as a part of the school curriculum?

18
I. Concrete Operations
  • Operations are mental actions that obey logical
    rules, including
  • Reversibility (the most important one)
  • Arithmetic functions
  • Serial ordering
  • Each is an internal rule (or scheme) about
    objects and their relationships

19
  • Areas of development
  • Identities (conservation)
  • Decentering on tasks
  • Classification (class inclusion)
  • 20 Questions task
  • Logic
  • Preschool Transductive logic (preoperational)
  • Middle childhood Inductive logic (concrete
    operations)
  • Adolescence Deductive logic (formal operations)

20
  • Post-Piagetian research
  • Expertise (specific knowledge) due to culture and
    schooling plays an important role.

21
II. Memory
  • Changes in thinking efficiency in terms of
  • gets faster with age
  • Strategies become more efficient and
    elaboratemore ways to choose from.
  • Rehearsal
  • Organization
  • Elaboration

22
  • Development of memory strategies
  • Available schemes to use as mnemonics
  • Spontaneous use of mnemonics Metacognition
  • Children need hints.
  • Children need to learn mnemonics

23
DEVELOPMENT OF MEMORY SKILLS
Mnemonic hint
Recall
No hint
K
2nd
6th
Grade
D. Dietrich 11/96
24
ORGANIZING A LESSON
  • Gain students attention
  • Bring to mind or review relevant prior to
    learning
  • ( e.g., review information from previous unit or
    field trip)
  • Point out important information. (e.g., handout,
    PP)
  • Present information in an organized manner.
  • Show students how to categorize (chunk or webbing
    or outlining) related information.
  • Provide opportunities for students to elaborate
    on the new information. (e.g., look for
    similarities and differences among ideas and
    concepts) (Practice)
  • Assignments Children think, write, draw,
    diagram, create rather than complete a 1 minute
    worksheet to show they have learned information.
    Create

25
Organizing Informationpt 2
  • Show students how to use coding when memorizing
    lists ( e.g., make up silly sentences with first
    letter of each word)
  • Provide for repetition of learning (from short
    term to long term memory).
  • Provide opportunities for overlearning of
    concepts and skills (repeated exposure).

26
Group Exercise Running for School Board
  • You are running for election to the school board.
  • Prepare a position statement on one of these
    issues (Ill assign to your group)
  • The use of IQ tests in the schools.
  • How to make schools more effective.
  • Be prepared to defend your position (using text
    concepts) against me, your election opponent.

27
Intelligence
  • Binets task
  • IQ MA/CA x 100
  • WISC
  • Stability and predictive value
  • Reaction range
  • Race
  • Sternbergs triarchic theory
  • Gardners multiple intelligences

28
IQ and Race Debate
Black
White
100
85
29
  • Sternbergs triarchic theory
  • Gardners multiple intelligences

30
Find Examples Parents/Daycare and Teachers
  • 1. Example of conservation
  • A.Decentration-
  • B.Reversibility-
  • Seriation-
  • Classification
  • Spatial Reasoning
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