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DRAMA OVERVIEW

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drama overview more than any other literary form, drama is a visual & col-laborative medium, designed to be performed by actors in front of an audience. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DRAMA OVERVIEW


1
DRAMA OVERVIEW
  • MORE THAN ANY OTHER LITERARY FORM, DRAMA IS A
    VISUAL COL-LABORATIVE MEDIUM, DESIGNED TO BE
    PERFORMED BY ACTORS IN FRONT OF AN AUDIENCE.

2
DRAMA OVERVIEW
  • GENERALLY SPEAKING, DRAMA IS MORE DOMINATED BY
    DIALOGUE THAN ARE FICTION POETRY.

3
DRAMA OVERVIEW
  • A PLAY (THE COMMON TERM FOR A DRAMATIC
    COMPOSITION) ALSO HAS A NUMBER OF DISTINGUISHING
    CON-VENTIONAL ELEMENTS (DIVISION IN-TO ACTS
    SCENES, STAGE DIREC-TIONS, A LIST OF CHARACTERS,
    AND OTHERS).

4
ORIGINS OF DRAMA
  • WESTERN DRAMA ORIGINATED IN ANCIENT GREECE. THE
    WORD DRAMA ITSELF COMES FROM THE GREEK
    DRANMEANING TO DO, TO ACT.

5
GREEK DRAMA (cont.)
  • FOR SEVERAL CENTURIES BEGINNING AROUND 530
    B.C.E., PLAYWRIGHTS COMPETED DURING RELIGIOUS
    FES-TIVALS RELATING TO DIONYSUS, GOD OF WINE
    FERTILITY.

6
GREEK DRAMA (cont.)
  • PLAYS CAME TO BE PERFORMED IN LARGE OUTDOOR
    AMPHITHEATERS. (THE WORD THEATER COMES FROM THE
    GREEK WORDS FOR SEEING PLACE.)

7
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8
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9
GREEK DRAMA (cont.)
  • ACTORS WORE STYLIZED MASKS THAT SYMBOLIZED THEIR
    CHARAC-TERISTICS.

10
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11
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12
GREEK DRAMA (cont.)
  • ANOTHER CONVENTION OF GREEK DRAMA WAS THE CHORUS,
    WHICH DANCED SANG BETWEEN SCENES IN THE
    ORCHESTRA (THE ROUND AREA AT THE FOOT OF THE
    AMPHITHEA-TER).

13
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14
GREEK DRAMA (cont.)
  • THE CHORUS REPRESENTED THE VALUES OF THE
    COMMUNITY, AND ITS SCENE-ENDING ODES PROVIDED
    COMMENTARY ON THE PLAY AND CLUES TO WHAT WAS TO
    COME.

15
GREEK DRAMA (cont.)
  • ANOTHER CONVENTION WAS THE DEUS EX MACHINA (GOD
    FROM THE MACHINE)AN ELABORATE MECHANISM FOR
    LOWERING ACTORS PLAYING THE ROLES OF GODS ONTO
    THE STAGE.

16
GREEK DRAMA (cont.)
  • THE MOST IMPORTANT GREEK PLAY-WRIGHT WAS
    SOPHOCLES, AUTHOR OF OEDIPUS REX, CONSIDERED BY
    MANY TO BE THE MOST INFLUENTIAL DRAMA EVER
    WRITTEN.

17
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18
ROMAN DRAMA
  • THOUGH ROMAN DRAMA BASICALLY ADAPTED THE
    CONVENTIONS OF GREEK DRAMA, THE PLAYWRIGHT SENECA
    (1ST CENTURY C.E.) HAD A BIG INFLUENCE ON THE
    DEVELOPMENT OF THE 5-ACT PLAY THE REVENGE
    TRAGEDIES (E.G., HAMLET) OF ELIZA-BETHAN ENGLAND.

19
MEDIEVAL DRAMA
  • DURING THE MIDDLE AGES (500-1350) THE CLASSICAL
    TRADITION WAS LOST, AND PLAYS BECAME VEHICLES FOR
    RELIGIOUS EXPRESSION. THE TWO MOST COMMON TYPES
    OF PLAYS WERE MIRACLE PLAYS MORALI-TY PLAYS.

20
MEDIEVAL DRAMA (cont.)
  • MIRACLE PLAYS DRAMATIZED BIBLE STORIES OR THE
    LIFE MARTYRDOM OF A SAINT.

21
MEDIEVAL DRAMA (cont.)
  • MORALITY PLAYS (SUCH AS THE 15TH-CENTURY
    EVERYMAN) DRAMATIZED ALLEGORIES OF THE CHRISTIAN
    SOUL IN QUEST OF SALVATION EMPLOYED PERSONIFIED
    ABSTRACTIONS SUCH AS SHAME, LUST, MERCY, ETC. AS
    CHARACTERS.

22
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA
  • AFTER ITS BIRTH IN ANCIENT GREECE, DRAMAS NEXT
    GREAT PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENT WAS IN ENGLAND
    DUR-ING THE REIGNS OF QUEEN ELIZABETH (1558-1603)
    KING JAMES I (1603-1625).

23
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • EXEMPLIFIED BY THE PLAYS OF WM. SHAKESPEARE,
    DEALING LARGELY W/ THE ACTIONS, INTRIGUES,
    RO-MANCES OF KINGS, QUEENS, OTHER HIGHBORN
    CHARACTERS.

24
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25
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • AS IN GREEK DRAMA, NO WOMEN WERE ALLOWED ON THE
    STAGE.
  • PLAYS OFTEN BLENDED ACTION, HUMOR, VIOLENCE W/
    POETRY PHILOSOPHICAL INSIGHTS.

26
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • EARLY PLAYS WERE PERFORMED IN INNYARDS OPEN
    SPACES BETWEEN BUILDINGS.

27
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • THEATERS WERE CIRCULAR ONLY PARTLY ROOFED, WITH
    THE AUDI-ENCE ON THE SIDES AS WELL AS IN FRONT OF
    THE RAISED STAGE.

28
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • THEATERS HELD UP TO 2500 PEOPLE IN AN INTIMATE
    SETTING, INCLUDING 500-800 GROUNDLINGS
    (COMMON-ERS WHO STOOD IN THE PIT AT THE FOOT OF
    THE STAGE).

29
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • THOUGH SCENERY PROPS WERE LIMITED, COSTUMES
    SOUND EF-FECTS WERE QUITE ELABORATE.

30
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • STAGES INCLUDED A SECOND-LEVEL BALCONY, DOORS AT
    THE BACK FOR ENTRANCES EXITS, A CURTAINED
    ALCOVE, AND A TRAP DOOR IN THE STAGE FLOOR FOR
    THE ENTRANCES EXITS OF SPIRITS.

31
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33
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • ONE CONVENTION WAS THE ASIDE COMMENTS DIRECTED
    ONLY TO THE AUDIENCE THAT MAKE THEM PRIVY TO A
    CHARACTERS THOUGHTS THAT ALLOW THEM TO
    PERCEIVE IRONIES INTRIGUES UNKNOWN TO OTHER
    CHARACTERS.

34
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • ANOTHER CONVENTION WAS THE SOLILOQUY (FROM THE
    LATIN FOR TALKING TO ONESELF).

35
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • A SOLILOQUY, WHICH IS NOT PART OF THE DIALOGUE OF
    THE PLAY, IS A SPEECH DELIVERED BY A LONE ACTOR
    ON THE STAGE FOR THE PURPOSE OF REVEALING HIS OR
    HER THOUGHTS, MOTIVES, INNER NATURE.

36
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • PROBABLY THE MOST FAMOUS SOLI-LOQUY IS HAMLETS
    TO BE OR NOT TO BE SPEECH.

37
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • IN ELIZABETHAN DRAMA, THE CHOR-US OF GREEK DRAMA
    EVOLVED INTO A PERSON WHO SOMETIMES SPOKE THE
    PROLOGUE EPILOGUE OF A PLAY, PROVIDING
    AUTHORIAL COM-MENTARY AS WELL AS EXPOSITION
    REGARDING THE SUBJECT, TIME, SET-TING, ETC. OF
    THE PLAY.

38
ELIZABETHAN DRAMA (cont.)
  • SOME PLAYS HAVE WHAT IS CALLED A CHORAL CHARACTER
    (E.G., THE FOOL IN KING LEAR) WHO STANDS APART
    FROM COMMENTS ON THE ACTION OF THE PLAY.

39
MODERN DRAMA
  • THE MOST POPULAR FORM OF DRAMA IN THE 19TH
    CENTURY, ESPECIALLY IN THE U.S. ENGLAND, WAS
    MELO-DRAMA.

40
MODERN DRAMA (cont.)
  • MELODRAMAS ARE LOVE STORIES ACTION-PACKED,
    INTRIGUE-FILLED PLOTS W/ HAPPY ENDINGS FLAT,
    STEREOTYPED CHARACTERS REPRE-SENTING EXTREMES OF
    GOOD EVIL.

41
MODERN DRAMA (cont.)
  • THE LATE 19TH EARLY 20TH CENTU-RIES SAW THE
    RISE OF REALISM, WHICH PRESENTS THE CRISES AND
    CONFLICTS OF ORDINARY PEOPLES EVERYDAY LIVES
    (WORK, FAMILY, RELATIONSHIPS, ETC.).

42
MODERN DRAMA (cont.)
  • THE PICTURE-FRAME STAGE BECAME THE NORM, OFTEN
    REPRODUCING SETTINGS IN REALISTIC DETAIL.
  • SCENERY PROPS ARE IMPORTANT.

43
MODERN DRAMA (cont.)
  • FOUR-ACT PLAYS BECAME THE NORM, AND CONVENTIONS
    SUCH AS ASIDES SOLILOQUIES FELL INTO DISUSE.

44
MODERN DRAMA (cont.)
  • THE 20TH CENTURY ALSO SAW THE RISE OF THE THEATER
    OF THE AB-SURD, W/ ITS SEEMINGLY UNINTELL-IGIBLE
    PLOTS IRRATIONAL BEHAV-IOR.

45
MODERN DRAMA (cont.)
  • IN WAITING FOR GODOT, FOR IN-STANCE, TWO TRAMPS
    AMUSE THEM-SELVES W/ AIMLESS CONVERSATION
    MEANINGLESS ACTIVITY WHILE WAITING IN A WASTE
    PLACE FOR A PERSON NAMED GODOT WHO NEVER COMES
    (AND WHO MAY OR MAY NOT EXIST).

46
MAJOR TYPES OF DRAMA
  • TRAGEDY FOCUSES ON LIFES SOR-ROWS
    DIFFICULTIES, RECOUNTING A SERIES OF IMPORTANT
    EVENTS IN THE LIFE OF A SIGNIFICANT PERSON,
    TREATED W/ SERIOUSNESS DIGNI-TY, AND
    CULMINATING IN AN UNHAP-PY CATASTROPHE.

47
TRAGEDY (cont.)
  • THE BASIC STRUCTURE PURPOSE OF TRAGEDY WERE
    FIRST DEFINED IN ARISTOTLES POETICS.

48
TRAGEDY (cont.)
  • ACCORDING TO ARISTOTLE, A TRAG-IC HERO IS A GREAT
    MAN OR WO-MAN WHO SUFFERS A REVERSAL OF FORTUNE
    (LIKE OEDIPUS IN OEDIPUS REX) B/C OF A WEAKNESS,
    ERROR IN JUDGMENT, OR ACCIDENT.

49
TRAGEDY (cont.)
  • ARISTOTLE CALLED THIS ERROR ETC. HAMARTIA, WHICH
    DURING THE RENAISSANCE EVOLVED INTO THE CONCEPT
    OF THE TRAGIC FLAW.

50
TRAGEDY (cont.)
  • ARISTOTLE ALSO SAID THAT WATCH-ING THE HEROS
    DOWNFALL (THE CATASTROPHE) AND SEEING THE DRAMAS
    RESOLUTION (RESTORA-TION OF ORDER), . . .

51
TRAGEDY (cont.)
  • . . . THE AUDIENCE EXPERIENCES A CATHARSISI.E.,
    RELIEF FROM THE TENSIONS OF THE PLAY (A PURGING
    OF PITY AND FEAR) AND A SENSE OF HAVING GAINED
    INSIGHT, ENLIGHT-ENMENT.

52
TRAGEDY (cont.)
  • TRAGIC HEROES AROUSE PITY B/C THEY ARE NOT EVIL
    B/C THEIR MIS-FORTUNE EXCEEDS WHAT THEY DE-SERVE
    THEY AROUSE FEAR B/C THE AUDIENCE RECOGNIZES
    THEMSELVES IN THE HERO THE POSSIBILITY OF A
    SIMILAR FATE.

53
TRAGEDY (cont.)
  • PLAYS FROM ELIZABETHAN TO MOD-ERN TIMES HAVE
    DEVIATED GREATLY FROM THE ARISTOTELIAN NORM. FOR
    EXAMPLE, SOMETIMES THE HERO IS NOT A GOOD PERSON
    (MACBETH).

54
TRAGEDY (cont.)
  • ALSO, AFTER THE 18TH CENTURY, TRAG-IC HEROES
    BEGAN TO BE DRAWN FROM THE MIDDLE LOWER CLASSES
    IN WHAT ARE CALLED DOMESTIC TRAG-EDIES, THUS
    LAYING THE FOUNDA-TION FOR MODERN DRAMAS LIKE
    DEATH OF A SALESMAN.

55
TRAGEDY (cont.)
  • COMIC RELIEF WAS ALSO INTRO-DUCED INTO TRAGEDIES,
    AND THE GENRE OF TRAGICOMEDY (ESSENTIAL-LY A
    TRAGEDY W/ A HAPPY ENDING) EVOLVED.

56
TRAGEDY (cont.)
  • SINCE MODERN TRAGEDIES DO NOT ALWAYS FOLLOW THE
    CONVENTIONS OF CLASSICAL TRAGEDY, SOME CRIT-ICS
    ARGUE THAT THEY ARE NOT TRUE TRAGEDIES THAT
    THEIR PROTAGO-NISTS NOT TRAGIC HEROES.

57
COMEDY
  • A COMEDY IS A PLAY OF A LIGHT, AMUSING NATURE IN
    WHICH CHAR-ACTERS OVERCOME ADVERSITY TO ACHIEVE
    SUCCESS A HAPPY END-ING, OFTEN IN THE FORM OF
    MAR-RIAGE.

58
COMEDY (cont.)
  • PROBLEMS ARE EITHER NOT VERY SERIOUS OR ARE
    TREATED IN A LIGHT-HEARTED MANNER, CONVEY-ING THE
    SENSE THAT NO GREAT DIS-ASTER WILL BEFALL THE
    CHARAC-TERS.

59
COMEDY (cont.)
  • THE DISTINCTION IS OFTEN MADE BE-TWEEN LOW COMEDY
    (WHICH IS CRUDE, PHYSICAL, EVEN VIOLENT) HIGH
    COMEDY (WHICH IS MORE THOUGHTFUL INTELLECTUAL
    IN ITS APPEAL).

60
COMEDY (cont.)
  • IN ROMANTIC COMEDY, LOVERS MUST ENDURE HUMOROUS
    TRIALS TRIBULATIONS EN ROUTE TO A LIFE OF
    HAPPILY EVER AFTER (A MID-SUMMERS MIGHT DREAM,
    SLEEP-LESS IN SEATTLE).

61
COMEDY (cont.)
  • A COMEDY OF MANNERS IS A SAT-IRICAL PORTRAYAL OF
    THE CONVEN-TIONS MANNERS OF A SOCIETY, USUALLY
    THE DOMINANT ONE AT THE TIME A PLAY IS WRITTEN.

62
COMEDY (cont.)
  • THE COMEDY OF MANNERS DELIGHTS IN THE FAULTS
    FOIBLES OF HUMAN-ITY, BUT AT THE SAME TIME IS
    MORE REALISTIC CRITICAL THAN ROMAN-TIC COMEDY.

63
COMEDY (cont.)
  • THE COMEDY OF MANNERS WAS HIGH-LY DEVELOPED IN
    THE LATE 17TH CEN-TURY IN WITTY PLAYS THAT
    EXPOSED THE HYPOCRITICAL CONVENTIONS RIDICULOUS
    ARTIFICIALITIES OF HIGH SOCIETY.

64
COMEDY (cont.)
  • THE COMEDY OF MANNERS EVOLVED INTO SATIRIC
    COMEDY, WHICH RIDICULES THE VAIN FOOLISH,
    TREATING THEM W/ SARCASM MAKING THEM SEEM
    LUDICROUS REPULSIVE.

65
COMEDY (cont.)
  • ANOTHER POPULAR FORM OF COM-EDY IS FARCE, WHICH
    PRESENTS EXAGGERATED CHARACTER TYPES IN
    IMPROBABLE OR LUDICROUS SITUA-TIONS, AND EMPLOYS
    SEXUAL MIX-UPS, BROAD VERBAL HUMOR, A LOT OF
    ANTIC PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.
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