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Safety & Health Management System Training

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Safety & Health Management System Training Lesson 5 Safety & Health Training Safety Health Management System (SHMS) Webinar Series In this series of webinars ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Safety & Health Management System Training


1
Safety Health Management System Training
  • Lesson 5 Safety Health Training

2
Safety Health Management System (SHMS) Webinar
Series
  • In this series of webinars developed under the
    Susan Harwood Grant, you will learn
  • Lesson 1 - OSHA and the Importance of Having a
    Safety Health Management System (SHMS)
  • Lesson 2 Management Commitment Leadership
  • Lesson 3 Worksite Analysis
  • Lesson 4 Hazard Prevention Control
  • Lesson 5 Safety Health Training

3
Lesson 5 Contents
  • Objectives
  • Identifying Training Requirements
  • Is Training the Solution?
  • Identifying Training needs
  • Training Matrix
  • Records and Documentation
  • Employee Orientation
  • On-the-Job Training
  • Supervisory Training
  • Refresher Training
  • Training Transfer
  • Training Effectiveness
  • S H Training Resources

4
Objectives
  • Learn how to identify your company's OSHA
    training requirements and general training needs
  • Learn how to create and use a training matrix

5
Objectives
  • Learn how to promote transfer of training into
    the workplace
  • Learn how to recognize the characteristics of
    effective training, as well as the importance of
    maintaining training records and documentation.

6
Identifying Training Requirements
  • Many OSHA standards have specific training
    requirements.
  • Training requirements can vary depending on the
    nature of the hazards addressed.
  • For example, a standard may specify the
    following
  • Trainer qualifications, topics to be covered,
    training methods, frequency of refresher
    training, or requirements for documentation and
    recordkeeping.

7
Identifying Training Requirements
  • Examples of S H Standards with Training
    requirements
  • Hazard Communication
  • Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories
  • Noise
  • Bloodborne Pathogens
  • PPE
  • Confined Space
  • Lockout/Tagout
  • Powered Industrial Trucks
  • Fire Safety and EmergencyAction Plan.

8
Identifying Training Requirements
  • Some standards might require different levels of
    training, depending on the worker's level of
    exposure to the hazard.
  • Employees who actually perform the work would
    need extensive training other employees may just
    need to know that the hazard exists
  • Multiple levels of training may be explicitly
    stated.

9
Identifying Training Requirements
  • The Lockout/Tagout standard distinguishes between
    "authorized employee training", "affected
    employee training" and "all other employee
    training".
  • Authorized employee training is for workers who
    perform maintenance on equipment.
  • Affected employee training is for workers whose
    job may require regular use of the equipment but
    not involve maintenance or repair on it.
  • All other employee training is for workers whose
    work operations are or may be in an area where
    lockout/tagout is utilized

10
  • Poll Question 1

11
Identifying Training Requirements
  • Also, some OSHA standards are performance-based
    while others have specific content requirements.
  • Training standards that have performance-based
    criteria define what training must achieve but do
    not define how it is to be done.
  • These standards allow more flexibility in the
    implementation of the criteria than do training
    standards that specify the actual training
    content. (See Examples next slides.)

12
  • Poll Question 2

13
Identifying Training Requirements
  • Performance-Based Training Standard vs. Standard
    with Content Requirement
  • Performance-Based Standard.
  • The Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals
    in the Laboratory (OSHA Standard 1919.1450)
    states "The employer shall provide employees with
    information and training to ensure that they are
    apprised of the hazards of chemicals present in
    their work area.." While there are a few other
    items in the standard related to training, it is
    clear that the approach is different than the one
    below.

14
Identifying Training Requirements
  • Standard with Content Requirements.
  • The Servicing of Multi-Piece Rim Wheels (OSHA
    Standard 1910.177) states specifically that "The
    employer shall assure that each employee
    demonstrates and maintains the ability to service
    rim wheels safely, including performance of the
    following tasks
  • Demounting of tires (including deflation)
    Inspection and identification of the rim wheel
    components, " Note the very specific fashion in
    which content is described.

15
Identifying Training Requirements
  • If your state has a State Plan OSHA, there may be
    specific requirements for those standards that
    are different than the Federal Requirements.
  • Since OSHA training requirements vary with
    different standards, you will need to identify
    the specifications for the standards with which
    your company must comply.

16
Is Training the Solution?
  • Employees should not perform any job unless they
    know how to do it properly and safely.
  • Training, whether it is classroom-based,
    on-the-job or self-instructional, is often an
    effective way to make employees aware of job
    hazards and to teach them proper and safe job
    performance.

17
Is Training the Solution?
  • Training is an appropriate solution to
    performance problems when there is a deficiency
    of knowledge or skills.
  • Suppose your company experiences safety
    performance problems such as employees working
    with guards removed from machinery or not wearing
    the proper personal protective equipment (PPE).
  • Company pressure to work too quickly or improper
    sizing of PPE may be the underlying causes of
    these behaviors, not lack of knowledge.

18
Is Training the Solution?
  • Some experts believe that training should only be
    provided after all other performance issues have
    been addressed.
  • As you evaluate the potential hazards during your
    worksite analysis, try to determine if any other
    issues could be contributing to the performance
    problem before choosing training as the solution.

19
  • Poll Question 3

20
Is Training the Solution?
  • Choose Training as a Solution to a Problem after
  • Identifying the underlying cause of the problem.
  • Making your best efforts to control and/or
    eliminate the circumstances and conditions
    leading to the problem.
  • Determining that a lack of knowledge and skill is
    contributing to the problem.

21
Is Training the Solution? - Exercise
  • Employees in the receiving department at CHC have
    complained about David Rebell (Mark's brother)
    driving his forklift too fast and occasionally
    bumping into shipments.
  • The Operations Foreman, Jack McDonald, has had to
    complete a number of accident reports for damaged
    goods due to David's behavior. Jack asked Mary
    White to sign up David for training in forklift
    operation and safety.

22
Is Training the Solution? - Exercise
  • Mary discovered that David has had forklift
    training twice at CHC and drove a forklift at a
    previous job.
  • What might be an underlying cause for David's
    improper forklift performance?
  • What is the likelihood that additional training
    will improve David's performance?
  • What might be the outcome if Mary decides to send
    David to more training without exploring the
    underlying causes of his behavior?
  • This exercise shows the importance of
    investigating the underlying causes of poor
    performance before applying considerable
    resources to provide training.

23
Identifying Training Needs
  • A training need is a gap in a worker's
    performance that results from lack of knowledge
    or skill in a particular area.
  • Training is an instructional experience that
    helps workers to fill that gap by providing them
    with knowledge and opportunities to practice new
    skills.

24
Identifying Training Needs
  • Even though there is no OSHA ergonomic standard,
    ergonomic risk factors are generally recognized
    as a hazard for musculoskeletal disorders.
  • Therefore, an employer has a responsibility to
    provide training in proper lifting for employees
    who are exposed to this hazard.

25
Identifying Training Needs
  • Your worksite analysis, may help you discover
    additional areas where training will be
    beneficial.
  • Accident investigation of a hand injury may show
    that the employee had not been properly trained
    in lockout / tagout procedures.
  • Self-inspection may show that employees were
    working in confined spaces without having
    received any training in this area.
  • A JHA may show that employees are improperly
    lifting boxes because they have not been trained
    in proper lifting techniques.

26
Identifying Training Needs
  • When multiple worksite analysis methods point to
    the same training need, it is a clear indication
    that training should be provided.
  • Also, employees who are assigned responsibilities
    in the SHMS such as conducting accident
    investigations, workplace inspections and Job
    Hazard Analyses may need training before
    performing these tasks.

27
  • Poll Question 4

28
Identifying Training Needs
  • Prioritizing Needs
  • Employees should be properly trained before
    performing any tasks that could pose a threat to
    their safety and health.
  • Worksite analysis results will help you
    prioritize the delivery of your training.
  • You may apply the same criteria to prioritize
    your safety and health training goals as you did
    to prioritize your company's hazards in Lesson 2.

29
Identifying Training Needs
  • Criteria for Prioritizing Training Needs
  • The likelihood or potential of the hazard
    occurring (very likely, unlikely, etc.)
  • The severity of the hazard (death, serious
    physical harm, etc.)
  • The frequency of the hazard (once per day, once
    per shift, etc.)
  • The number of employees exposed to the hazard (1,
    5, 10, etc.)

30
  • Poll Question 5

31
Training Matrix
  • A training matrix is a tool that helps you
    identify and organize the S H training
    requirements and needs for each job at your
    company.
  • Although the format for a training matrix varies,
    generally it is a grid that associates training
    topics with trainees.
  • It is important that you select a method that is
    most useful to your organization.

32
Training Matrix
  • Training matrices are useful for
  • Distinguishing between training topics that apply
    to a broad audience vs. those that apply to a
    narrower audience (a prioritization criterion).
  • Tracking individual employees' progress toward
    completing their training requirements.
  • Identifying the training needs of new company
    employees and new transfers into a department.

33
Training Matrix
  • A training matrix is an evolving document that
    will change as job positions are added and
    deleted and as training needs shift.
  • For this reason, consider developing your matrix
    in an electronic format that can be easily
    revised.

34
  • Poll Question 6

35
Training Matrix - Assignment
  • Create training Matrix for your organization
  • Start building a training matrix for your company
    using the information you gathered from these
    sources
  • Your accident analysis
  • Self-inspection assignment
  • Comprehensive Survey
  • Your JHA OSHA Training Requirements

36
Records Documentation
  • Documentation includes tracking the dates when
    training events occurred, a content summary or
    topics outline, the training methods used, and
    the names and qualifications of trainers.
  • Training records include attendance records
    (name, department, topic/course name, date of
    training and employee signature), copies of
    performance and written tests, and test scores
    for all participants.

37
Records Documentation
  • Keeping good documentation and records has many
    benefits, including enabling you to
  • (1) determine when annual or required refresher
    training is needed,
  • (2) prove that training has been provided and
  • (3) determine whether lack of training is the
    cause of safety performance issues.

38
Records Documentation
  • Many OSHA standards that require safety and
    health training have specific documentation and
    recordkeeping requirements.
  • These requirements may vary with each standard so
    you will need to consult each standard for
    details.
  • At the very least, obtain the participant's name
    and signature, the training date, the contents or
    summary of the training session, and the
    trainer's name and qualifications.
  • As you learned earlier, some OSHA standards even
    specify that certain topics be covered.
  • While the length of time that training records
    must be kept varies, it is best to keep them for
    at least three years.

39
  • Poll Question 7

40
Employee Orientation
  • Employee orientation is a good way to provide
    much of the initial safety and health training
    that may be required, particularly if
    participation is mandatory for all employees.
  • If your organization already has an orientation
    for new employees that covers items such as
    company benefits and work hours, consider
    including a safety and health training component.
  • If your company's training matrix contains safety
    topics that are required for everyone, then these
    topics are good candidates for orientation.

41
Employee Orientation
  • New Employee Orientation is a good place to
    discuss your company's S H Policy, management's
    commitment to safety and health, and ways in
    which employees are encouraged to participate in
    the SHMS.
  • This is the employee's first opportunity and
    impression of your organization's safety and
    health program.

42
On the Job Training
  • On-the-job training (OJT), as its name implies,
    occurs within the context of the work
    environment.
  • A supervisor or other qualified personnel
    delivers it, often providing opportunities for
    hands-on practice with close supervision.
  • While the delivery format is generally informal,
    the content and learning activities should be
    consistent for all trainees.
  • Training checklists can help ensure this
    consistency. Being contextual, OJT provides a
    high degree of training transfer (discussed
    later), relevance and applicability.

43
On the Job Training
  • On-the-job training can be a good method to
    deliver content that is specific for a particular
    department and would not be covered during
    general employee orientation. For example,
    supervisors should develop a checklist for OJT
    topics for their departments, which might
    include
  • Hazards associated with specific chemicals used
    in the department.
  • Safe usage, handling and maintenance of tools,
    supplies and equipment (including PPE).
  • Proper procedures for safe performance of tasks
    and jobs and handling emergencies.

44
On the Job Training
  • OJT offers opportunities to increase employee
    participation in the SHMS.
  • Seasoned employees with expertise in certain
    areas can help develop the departmental OJT
    checklist and ones who perform their jobs in an
    exemplary manner can help train others.

45
On the Job Training
  • When is OJT appropriate?
  • When new employees (or transfers) enter a
    department where specific knowledge is required
    to perform jobs safely.
  • When new work processes and equipment are
    introduced.
  • When employees need hands-on practice with
    supervision in the work environment.

46
  • Poll Question 8

47
Supervisory Training
  • Supervisors play a critical role in any safety
    program through their daily contact with workers.
  • Top management shows its commitment to the SHMS
    by training supervisors to understand their
    responsibilities for ensuring workplace safety.

48
Supervisory Training
  • Understand S H Standards
  • Supervisors need to understand the safety and
    health regulations that apply to their workplace.
  • Consider having your supervisors attend an OSHA
    10-hour outreach program that covers many of the
    more general standards.
  • These classes are often provided by (1) your
    state safety and health consultation services
    program, (2) local community or technical
    colleges, (3) your state OSHA (state plan states
    only) or (4) by contacting U.S. OSHA.

49
Supervisory Training
  • Prevent or Control Hazards
  • Supervisors need training to recognize hazards in
    their work area.
  • They should be trained in their role in
    conducting accident investigations and Job Hazard
    Analyses as well as identifying hazards during
    workplace inspections.
  • Also, supervisors are the first line of
    communication when employees have a safety issue
    that needs to be resolved.
  • With proper training, supervisors can learn
    suitable methods of hazard prevention and
    control, enabling them to deal swiftly with
    hazards as they arise.

50
Supervisory Training
  • Provide Adequate Training
  • Organizations must inform supervisors of their
    responsibility to provide each employee with
    proper training in a timely manner.
  • Supervisors need to know which of the company's
    safety and health policies apply to their
    employees.
  • Most OSHA standards require that employees be
    trained prior to beginning the work involving the
    hazard.

51
Supervisory Training
  • For example, they need to know how to protect
    themselves from bloodborne pathogens by reading
    the BBP Exposure Control Plan before they have
    this potential exposure.
  • Depending on the organization, they may need to
    know if training programs meet OSHA training
    requirements and how to keep proper documentation
    and records.

52
Supervisory Training
  • Provide Proper Equipment
  • Supervisors need training in their responsibility
    for making sure that all employees within their
    work area always have the proper equipment to
    perform their jobs safely.
  • This would include proper tools, PPE, as well as
    procedures for using the equipment.
  • Supervisors must ensure that PPE is sized
    properly and that all equipment is well
    maintained.

53
Supervisory Training
  • Enforce Safe Work Practices
  • Supervisors need training on the company's safety
    and health policies, guidelines and procedures
    established for day-to-day operations.
  • Supervisors must be involved in addressing safety
    performance issues and taking disciplinary action
    when safety policy is not followed.

54
Supervisory Training
  • They need to learn their responsibilities in this
    area and the company's policies and procedures
    for disciplining employees (e.g., start with
    verbal warnings progress to written warnings as
    a final measure, apply severe disciplinary
    action).
  • Supervisors need to learn effective methods for
    communicating safety and health expectations to
    their workers and for gaining the support of
    seasoned employees in setting high safety norms
    for the department.

55
  • Poll Question 9

56
Supervisory Training
  • Investigate Accidents
  • Supervisors may be responsible for conducting
    most of the initial investigation of accidents
    that occur within their departments (see Lesson
    3).
  • Therefore, they will need training in accident
    investigation and root cause analysis.
  • In addition, they may need training in
    communication skills so that interactions are
    cooperative rather than confrontational.

57
Refresher Training
  • Some skills may be used infrequently or only on
    an "as needed" basis for example,
    cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
  • Other skills require refresher training if
    circumstances or the work environment change.
  • For example, if a department begins using a new
    solvent, employees will need hazard communication
    training on that product.
  • Finally, some skills may need to be monitored to
    make sure safe practices continue and that gaps
    in learning have not occurred (for example, if
    employees are not completing pre-shift forklift
    inspections).

58
Refresher Training
  • Some OSHA standards have specific requirements
    for refresher training while others do not.
  • The standards that require refresher training
    describe what needs to be provided in the
    training. They also vary with respect to
    frequency of the training.
  • Some standards require refresher training on a
    regular basis (for example, every year for
    respirators). Others require it only under
    certain circumstances (for example, Hazard
    Communication requires it when a new chemical is
    introduced).
  • Also, if you find there is a need for refresher
    training even if OSHA doesn't require it, provide
    itthis is just good practice.

59
Refresher Training
  • Examples of S H Standards with Refresher
    Training Requirements
  • Noise
  • Bloodborne Pathogens
  • Lockout/Tagout
  • Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)

60
Refresher Training
  • As you determine your OSHA training requirements,
    note whether or not each standard has a
    requirement for refresher training.
  • This information is usually included in each
    standard, generally with the information on
    training.
  • You may also want to add a separate column for
    refresher training in your training matrix.

61
  • Poll Question 10

62
Training Transfer
  • The ultimate goal of training is for learners to
    meet a certain standard of performance on the
    job.
  • This means that people, who receive training away
    from their jobsite, will transfer their newly
    acquired knowledge and skills to the workplace,
    such as the shop floor, laboratory, or office.
  • This concept is called training transfer.

63
Training Transfer
  • You cannot expect training transfer to occur
    unless training is really an appropriate solution
    to the performance problem.
  • Overcoming the barriers to training transfer is
    important so that trainees won't revert back to
    old behavior patterns when they return to the
    workplace after receiving training.

64
Training Transfer
  • Barriers and Promotional Strategies
  • Common barriers that inhibit training transfer
  • Lack or Management Commitment
  • Conflicting Goals
  • Lack of Equipment
  • Peer Pressure

65
  • Poll Question 11

66
Training Effectiveness
  • Whether you are developing your training in-house
    or contracting out, you will want assurance that
    your company is providing effective training.
  • Effective training follows certain established
    principles and guidelines, which can be adapted
    to your company's needs.

67
Training Effectiveness
  • Identifying Objectives
  • Objectives are precise written statements of the
    desired knowledge, skill or abilities that
    trainees will be able to demonstrate as a result
    of the training.
  • They should be expressed in such a way that the
    learned behavior can be observed and measured.
  • The characteristics of a useful objective are a
    description of the desired knowledge, skill and
    ability (KSA) to be learned
  • The condition under which the learning will be
    demonstrated and
  • The criteria for determining that the KSA have
    been learned.

68
Training Effectiveness
  • Example Objective
  • The forklift operator trainees will demonstrate
    the safe way to operate a forklift in the
    warehouse by successfully completing all of the
    items on the forklift operation checklist.

69
Training Effectiveness
  • Designing the Training
  • Training is well-designed when it effectively and
    efficiently addresses the needs of the defined
    target audience.
  • Training can be proven effective if learners can
    demonstrate mastery of the learning objectives,
    through testing and/or on-the-job performance, at
    the end of the training.

70
Training Effectiveness
  • Designing the Training
  • Target Audience Consider the educational level
    of the training it should not exceed that of the
    learners.
  • Also, do you have a large population of
    non-English speaking employees? If so, the
    training delivery must meet their needs.
  • Or, do you have a large population of persons
    with disabilities that may need various formats
    in order to learn or demonstrate understanding?

71
Training Effectiveness
  • Designing the training
  • Training Design is a broad area, which includes
    determining the content (based on the learning
    objectives)
  • Identifying the learning prerequisites
  • Properly sequencing the material
  • Selecting effective teaching methods and
    appropriate media that support mastery of the
    objectives
  • Providing opportunities for learning activities
    and for practicing new skills and receiving
    feedback
  • Testing learner performance at the end and
  • Evaluating the training effectiveness and
    modifying the training program accordingly.

72
Training Effectiveness
  • Designing the Training
  • Training methods refer to different options for
    delivery of content, such as lecture, discussion,
    demonstrations, hands-on practice, simulation,
    self-instruction and more.
  • Select training methods that support learning the
    desired knowledge or skill.
  • Not all methods are advisable in all situations
    and some OSHA standards specify the learning
    method.
  • For example, training for powered industrial
    trucks requires a number of methods including
    hands-on practical training.
  • While lecture may be one component of the
    training, people learn safe operating practices
    by actually getting behind the wheel and driving.

73
Training Effectiveness
  • Designing the Training
  • Similar to training methods, training media need
    to be selected based on the appropriateness for
    the objectives and target audience.
  • Training media refer to paper-based instruction,
    computer-based instruction, video, audio and
    more.
  • Stand-alone video is a good medium for showing
    demonstrations or presenting lecture material but
    may be a poor choice when spontaneous classroom
    discussion is desired.

74
Training Effectiveness
  • Selecting the Trainer
  • Trainer qualifications are important. Trainers
    must know the subject they are teaching and must
    be able to deliver the training comfortably and
    completely.
  • Some OSHA standards address trainer
    qualifications to make sure they are competent.
  • You may also consider an authorized OSHA trainer
    who has the experience and training to teach
    10-hour or 30-hour courses in construction or
    general industry safety and health standards (see
    the OSHA Outreach Training Program).

75
Training Effectiveness
  • Conducting the Training
  • Training must be conducted in a way that is
    conducive to learning. Things to consider
    include
  • Physical Environment. Is the room large enough?
  • Room Layout. Does the room layout support the
    type of training that will occur?
  • Equipment. Does the trainer need any special
    presentation equipment or setup?
  • Handouts. Are they legible and are there enough
    copies?
  • Accessibility. Will employees with special needs
    such as hearing or visual impairment attend the
    training?

76
Training Effectiveness
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of training can
    occur in a number of different ways (or on
    different levels).
  • Level 1 - perception survey
  • Level 2 - completion of a written quiz or
    demonstration of newly learned skills.
  • Level 3 - how well are the behaviors taught in
    the safety and health training being used in the
    workplace.
  • Level 4 - how well overall performance has
    improved.

77
  • Poll Question 12

78
Management Review Assignment
  • In Lesson 2 you were introduced to the concept of
    management review. Now that you have implemented
    a considerable portion of your SHMS, consider
    conducting a management review to determine if
    any changes are needed to improve worker
    protection and if your safety and health
    performance is continuously improving.
  • During your management review, ensure that your
    SHMS is functioning as intended, is adapting to
    changing circumstances and is effective at
    reducing workplace accidents.

79
Management Review Assignment
  • For your management review, collect the following
    documents to assist in the process
  • written safety and health policy
  • written safety goals and objectives and progress
    toward achieving them
  • statistics on injuries, illnesses, first-aid
    incidents and near-misses
  • corrective actions implemented due to injuries,
    illnesses, first-aid incidents and near-misses
  • worksite analysis results and implementation of
    hazard controls.

80
Conclusion
  • This is the end of Lesson 5, please take the
    post-test and complete the lesson evaluation
    form.
  • In order to get your certificate of completion
    for this series, you must complete all 5 lessons.

81
  • This course, funded by an OSHA-sponsored Susan
    Harwood grant, is designed to assist small and
    medium sized businesses in developing and
    implementing an effective safety and health
    management system.
  • This material was produced under grant
    SH-17814-08-60-F-24 from the Occupational Safety
    Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor.
    It does not necessarily reflect the views and
    policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor
    does mention of trade names, commercial products,
    or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S.
    Government.
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