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ELL Students and Dyslexia presented at ORBIDA 2008 Annual Conference Literacy Across the Spectrum


presented at ORBIDA 2008 Annual Conference Literacy Across the Spectrum Julie Esparza Brown Portland State University jebrown_at_pdx.edu Read This ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ELL Students and Dyslexia presented at ORBIDA 2008 Annual Conference Literacy Across the Spectrum

ELL Students and Dyslexia presented at ORBIDA
2008 Annual Conference Literacy Across the
  • Julie Esparza Brown
  • Portland State University
  • jebrown_at_pdx.edu

Read This
  • ghoughphtheightteeau

a as in neighbor
o as in dough
o as in plateau
  • gh ough phth eigh tte eau

t as in gazette
t as in phthisis
p as in hiccough
What is the word?
How did you approach the task?
  • Did you
  • Struggle to figure out what sounds the letters
  • Feel that you should be able to read it but just
  • Give up?
  • These are the frustrations and emotions that
    individuals with dyslexia experience every time
    they look at written language.

Confusion for ELLs
  • Now consider the ELL student who must figure out
    that the following words are all pronounced
  • Meat
  • Great
  • Threat
  • Or that great and straight rhyme.
  • Or, that sure and shot have the same onset.

The Context
  • Out of every classroom of 30 students
  • 6 are poor and beset by multiple socioeconomic
  • 10 are ethnic or racial minority
  • 6 are language minority students
  • 4 ELL
  • 2 immigrant
  • 4 Spanish-speaking
  • 1 speak an Asian language
  • 1 speaks one of more than 100 other languages

Language Acquisition
  • All language is acquired in stages and all
    children go through more or less the same stages
    at more of less the same time.
  • It is not acquired through simple imitation.
  • Rather, the child infers a system of rules.
  • This supports the hypothesis that human beings
    are genetically programmed to acquire language.
  • Language is not a function of intelligence or
    intellectual abilities.

Two Aspects of Language
  • BICS
  • CALP

Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
  • Language proficiency needed in order to function
    in everyday interpersonal contexts
  • Greetings, words of courtesy
  • Numbers/calculations
  • Playground conversation
  • Communication used in daily routines
  • Communicative capacity all normal children
    acquire which reaches a plateau soon after child
    enters school
  • Not related to academic achievement
  • Universal across all native speakers
  • Typically attained after two-three years in host

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
  • Language needed for literacy and academic success
  • Language required for
  • Solving mathematical word problems
  • Reading academic texts
  • Taking tests
  • Writing exposition on a topic one has read about
  • CALP in L1 and L2 overlap, in spite of important
    differences in the surface features of each
  • Typically attained between five to seven years in
    host country but up to twelve years when native
    language is not used for instruction

Preproduction Stage (No BICS)
  • This stage is sometimes called the silent period
    because students are likely to be quiet listeners
    for much of this period. The student is
    dependent upon modeling, visual aides, and
    contextual clues to obtain and convey meaning.
    Research indicates it is at least four times more
    efficient to teach for comprehension rather than
    production at this stage.
  • Students communicate with gestures and actions
    (communicate their comprehension nonverbally)
  • Students can follow basic instruction and grasp
    main ideas by focusing on key words
  • Teacher utilizes Total Physical Response (TPR)
  • techniques
  • Focus is on listening comprehension and building
  • receptive vocabulary

Early Production (Early BICS)
  • Students begin to produce words and short phrases
    in response to comprehensible (understandable)
    input. Students will understand approximately
    four times the amount of language they can
    produce. Difficulties with syntax and grammar
    will be evident.
  • Common nouns, verbs and adjectives emerge first
  • Vocabulary must be learned in context of themes,
    stories, or personal lives of students
  • Activities should be designed to motivate
    students to produce vocabulary which they already

Speech Emergence (Intermediate BICS)
  • Students have now acquired a limited vocabulary
    and can respond to literal questions which have
    been made comprehensible. Students use simple
    phrases and sentences and will continue to have
    difficulty with syntax and grammar.
  • Errors of omission are common
  • Lessons should continue to expand receptive
    vocabulary through comprehensible input and
    encourage higher level of language use

Intermediate Fluency Stage (advanced
BICS/emerging CALP)
  • Students continue to develop excellent
    comprehension and are beginning to function in
    normal conversation. However, they continue to
    lack the sufficient academic language to compete
    with native English speakers. Their speech will
    still contain some grammatical errors.
  • Students should be presented with opportunities
    to produce responses that require creativity,
    critical thinking skills and complex sentence
  • Students actively initiate and engage in
    communication with fluency
  • Literacy skills and academic language are
    continuing to develop

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Three More Language Concepts
  • Primary Language (L1)
  • Dominant Language
  • Language Proficiency

Primary Language
  • The language
  • that the student learns first and uses most
    frequently in the early stages of language
  • of the home, used to make and establish
    meaningful communicative relationships with their
    family members
  • Best determined through home language surveys and
    carefully conducted parent interviews

Dominant Language
  • The language that
  • the student speaks most fluently
  • the child prefers to speak when given the choice
  • can be situational in nature. For example, a
    child schooled only in English will ultimately
    become dominant in English academic language.
  • may remain dominant in other social situations
    such as church or community events

Language Proficiency
  • The students level of skill or amount of control
    in use of a particular language
  • Defined as the ability to effectively
    communicate or understand thoughts or ideas
    through the languages grammatical system and its
    vocabulary, using its sounds or written symbols
  • Full proficiency in L1 contributes to the
    development of the L2
  • Language proficiency is not a static state but
    rather a constant state of fluctuation.

Opportunities to Develop Languages
  • Many ELL students have immigrated to the U.S. or
    are children of immigrants.
  • Therefore, many ELL students families qualify
    for free and reduced lunch and are economically
  • While these families possess many other
    resources, language opportunities in L1 (as well
    as L2) may be limited.
  • Research (Hart Risley, 1995) has shown that
    socioeconomic status significantly impacts
    childrens L1 language development.

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Normal Second Language Processes NOT Disorders
  • Language loss when the students opportunities in
    L1 are minimized
  • Language test scores similar to those of children
    with language disorders
  • Dysfluencies associated with lack of vocabulary,
    word finding difficulties, sequencing of ideas,
    and tension surrounding expressive attempts
  • Code-switching is a natural stage in second
    language acquisition

Normal Second Language Processes NOT Disorders
  • It is not possible for a bilingual child to have
    a language disorder in L2 and not in L1.
  • A disorder may exist if language is atypical when
    student is compared with peers from same group,
    who speak the same dialect and have had similar
    language opportunities.

Language Delays
  • Sometimes, dyslexic ELL students are not referred
    for assessment because it is thought that their
    difficulties stem from trying to learning a
    second language and trying to learn in that
    second language.
  • This may delay the delivery of appropriate

The Importance of the First Language
  • If ELL students are strong in their first
    language (L1), then expect their linguistic
    strengths to transfer to the language of the
  • If an ELL student experiences fluency and
    phonemic awareness/phonological decoding
    difficulties in L1, then there may be a learning
    disability or dyslexia and the students should be
    assessed in their first language.

Common Underlying Proficiency or CUP (Cummins)
  • A study conducted by Leafstedt and Gerber (2005)
    suggests that phonological processes are
    cross-linguistic processes
  • Therefore, instruction and/or measurement in L1
    provides information regarding performance in L2.

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Comprehensible Input
  • What is Comprehensible Input?
  • It is meaningful language that is available to
    students and is therefore useful in developing
    their proficiency. Language that can be
    understood from context.
  • What is Input 1?
  • It is language to which children are exposed that
    contains some structures a little beyond what
    they are able to understand in the second
  • Why is it important to use authentic language in
  • Children cannot acquire language skills that are
    divorced from context of meaning and use. Use
    whole texts (e.g., stories, books).

Comprehensible Input
  • Use simplified codes
  • Articulate clearly
  • Increase volume on key words
  • Exaggerate intonation
  • Use fewer idioms and less slang
  • Use high frequency vocabulary
  • Use personalized language and nouns (reduce
    pronouns)Use non-linguistic cues
  • Gestures
  • Facial expressions
  • Body language
  • Pantomine
  • Use manipulatives, realia, visuals
  • Videos
  • Pictures, photos, drawings
  • Real objects
  • Hands-on activities
  • Use prior content introduction in the primary
  • Preview, view, review

Brain Research
  • We need to remember that an ELL child is not
    merely coping with the challenges of learning to
    read English, but is also at a fairly early stage
    in developing a bilingual brain circuitry to
    spoken language.
  • Studies have reported overlapping systems for the
    spoken forms of L1 and L2 in fluent bilinguals,
    but the degree of overlap appears to depend
    heavily upon factors such as age of acquisition,
    degree of proficiency in L1 and L2.

Brain Research
  • Highly proficient speakers of L2 show greater
    integration of L1 and L2 in the brain than less
    proficient speakers.
  • Thus, spoken language proficiency in L2, by
    virtue of its effects on brain organization for
    speech, might impact the ways in which reading
    circuits develop as literacy skills as taught
    (Kim et al., 1997, Klein, Milner, Zatoree,
    Meyer, Evans, 1995 Perani et al., 1998).

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  • Do you think there are equal percentages of
    individuals with dyslexia in transparent and
    opaque languages?
  • Why or why not?

  • The incidence of severe reading disabilities is
    around 5 percent in all alphabetic languages
    while the prevalence across languages depends
    upon the transparency of the orthography
    (Snowling, 2000).

What are Transparent and Opaque Phonologies?
  • Transparent phonologically regular orthography
  • Finnish
  • German
  • Spanish
  • Opaque phonologically less regular orthography
  • English

Spanish Phonology
  • Spanish has clear syllables.
  • It also has a small inventory of syllables with
    only 19 structures.
  • There is nearly 11 correspondence between
    letters and sounds with five exceptions
  • c
  • g
  • r
  • ll
  • Y
  • Therefore, Spanish-speaking children master the
    alphabetic principle and develop spelling skills
    relatively early compared to English speakers.

  • New brain imaging techniques show that the brains
    of dyslexic people process language differently.
  • Phonological weaknesses make it hard for students
    to deal with an alphabetic script
  • Research also suggests that rapid automatized
    naming (RAN) seems to be a main characteristic of
    children with RD (Korhonen, 1995 Novoa Wolf,

  • It was found that in both German and Dutch (both
    transparent languages) naming speed was a robust
    predictor of reading performance (Frith, Wimmer,
    Landerl, 1998 de Jong van der Leijk, 2003)
  • Spanish-speaking children with RD also had
    difficulty in reading fluency and orthography.
  • It appears that in transparent languages
    phonological skills are a key predictor of
  • The second key predictor in transparent languages
    is RAN.

Research Across Languages
  • Studies demonstrate that normally progressing
    preschool children demonstrate good
  • Phonological awareness of sylables
  • Onsets
  • Rimes
  • Around the ages of 3-4
  • Syllable awareness
  • Around the ages of 4-5
  • Onset-time awareness
  • Phoneme awareness only develops once children are
    taught to read and write.

What is Needed to Read in Any Language
  • The first step in becoming literate are the
    acquisition of the system for mapping between
    sound and symbol.
  • Mastery of this system allows children to access
    the thousands of words already present in their
    spoken lexicon.
  • The process of learning and applying these
    mappings has been called phonological recoding.

Phonological Recoding Deficits
  • Ziegler Goswami (2005) found in their review
    that deficits in phonological recording underlie
    reading disabilities in all alphabetic languages.
  • Thus, children learning to read in transparent
    languages may master the process of mapping print
    to sound and sound to print more quickly than
    children learning to read in English (or another
    language with opaque orthography).

The Importance of Phonological Awareness
  • Many studies show a language-universal sequence
    in the development of phonological awareness
    (Cicero and Royer, 1995 Durgunoglu and Oney,
    1999 Goswami and East, 2000).
  • Goswami (2001) notes, there is a causal
    connection between a childs phonological
    awareness and his or her reading and spelling
    development (p. 141).

Characteristics of Spanish-speakers with RD
  • Findings by Jimenez and Ramiez (2002)with native
    Spanish readers reinforce the hypothesis that the
    basis of reading problems is a difficulty in
    phonological processing.
  • Implications Speech perception is an effective
    component in phonological training (Ortiz,
    Garcia, Guzman, 2002).

Characteristics of Spanish-speakers with RD
  • Spanish speakers, even those with RD appear to be
    able to divide words into syllables but the
    difficulty comes at the phoneme level.
  • Ortiz et al., (2007) found that the performance
    of Spanish-speaking children with RD was lower
    than age-matched non-disabled readers in
    discriminating initial phonemes.

Characteristics of Spanish-speakers with RD
  • These students consistently display poorer
    phonological awareness skills and use a
    phonological strategy (sounding out) less often
    than peers without RD.

Characteristics of Spanish-speakers with RD
  • Research (Jimenez, 1997 Jimenez
    Hernandez-Valle, 200 Rodrigo Jimenez, 1999)
    has found that purely phonological deficits are
    less common in Spanish.
  • Poor readers in Spanish often read words with
    accuracy but their main problem is decoding
    unusual or low-frequency words and nonwords
    (Escribano, 2007).
  • Assessing rapid serial naming appears to be very

Naming Speed in Transparent Languages
  • It was found that in both German and Dutch
    (transparent languages) naming speed was a robust
    predictor of reading performance (Frith, Wimmer,
    Landerl, 1998 de Jong van der Leij, 2003).

The Importance of Early Intervening
  • McCardle et al. (2005) report that ELL students
    are identified as having a learning disability
    most often in grades 4 through 6, 2 3 years
    later than most English-only children.
  • It is probable that this delay may ultimately
    affect their academic success.

Transferable Skills
  • Manis, Lindsey and Bailey (2004) found that
    children were able to transfer phonological
    awareness and word-decoding skills from Spanish
    to English
  • However, their development was slower in English
    vocabulary and memory for sentences.
  • The amount of exposure to printed materials in
    Spanish is the primary predictor of later
    English-reading skills.
  • It appears that in transparent languages
    phonological skills are a key predictor of
    reading and the second predictor being RAN.

High PA in Spanish is a Transferable Skill
  • Children with high phonological awareness in
    Spanish can be expected to develop phonological
    awareness more quickly than other children in
  • This reflects their metalinguistic insights about
    onsets, rimes, phonemic units and so forth, and
    knowledge of shared spelling-sound consonants.

Progression of PA in Spanish-speakers
  • The developmental progression of PA in Spanish
    appears to be similar to that in English.
  • Manrique and Signorini (1998) and Leafstedt and
    Gerber (2005) divide these into two levels
  • First level rhyming, syllable awareness, and
    sound matching (all of these are usually learned
    indirectly through songs, words games, etc.)
  • Second level segmental awareness skills such as
    sound-letter identification, blending, phoneme
    segmentation and manipulation, spelling and
    reading (usually learned through formal literacy

Instructional Implications
  • Students failing to make progress in reading
    English words despite instruction in English
    might benefit from direct, intensive instruction
    in Spanish phonological skills.

Teaching PA in Spanish
  • Rhyming practice, songs, poetry (for earliest
    stages only)
  • With ESL students do lots of rhyming pair with
    picture cards
  • Use poems. Poems are great for immigrant
    children (especially from Mexico) since they are
    used to memorizing poems within their country's
    educational system.
  • Segmenting Syllables
  • Students clap or tap once for each syllable they
  • Students name or other familiar words can be used
  • Teacher models, does it with the students, then
    students do it themselves
  • Practice segmenting and blending with thematic
    word lists or word walls

Teaching PA in Spanish
  • Blending Syllables
  • Teacher pronounces words in a syllable
    individually, but smoothly (paaa-to)
  • Students pronounce words as a unit
  • Related to sounding out words
  • Phoneme Segmentation
  • Students learn to say a word slowly and smoothly
    (stretch the word mmmeeesssaa)
  • Teacher models, leads, students then do it
  • Start with known word - how do we stretch it out?
  • Phoneme Blending
  • Teacher says the word in the stretched version

Teaching PA in Spanish
  • In Spanish you start mostly with two syllable
    words since there are very few one syllable
    words. They should have continuous consonant
    sounds (sol, mano) rather that "stop" sounds
  • Easier words begin with single initial consonants
    rather than blends (e.g., pez not primo, gusto no
  • Use estimated spelling (aka"Inventive
  • Teacher models the skill first
  • Students say a word slowly and write the sounds
    they hear
  • Students will probably be able to record only the
    first or final consonant in the beginning stages
  • Sound out words smoothly
  • Middle School recent immigrant should also
    practice phonemic awareness activities but these
    are often done through spelling.

  • Barahona Center for the Study of Books in Spanish
    for Children and Adolescents
  • http//www.scusm.edu/csb

Assessment Issues
  • Assessment depends on the levels of proficiency
    in L1 and L2.
  • L1 assessment may provide a more accurate
    inventory of a childrens knowledge and skills.
  • It is imperative, however, to know the childs
    educational history and language(s) of

  • Assessment should include
  • Knowledge of letter names and sounds
  • Phonological awareness
  • Rapid naming
  • Word reading accuracy
  • Word reading efficiency
  • Reading comprehension

Assessment Must Reflect instructional History
  • If a child has had literacy instruction in L1
    prior to literacy instruction in English, it is
    imperative to assess the childs skills in L1.
  • If the child has acquired literacy in L1 and then
    fails to acquire English literacy, this is
    probably more of an issue related to the quantity
    and quality of English literacy and language

Assessment Must Reflect instructional History
  • If a child has not developed literacy skills in
    L1 and has had adequate opportunity to do so,
    then there is a likelihood of a phonological core
    deficit when the language is alphabetic.
  • Assessment in only one language can give an
    incomplete picture of a students knowledge,
    skills and needs.

  • Metalinguistic awareness does not need to be
    learned separately for each language.
  • The ability of multilingual students to
    manipulate and reassemble words can be measured
    reliably in the majority language.

Assess Expressive Language
  • Expressive language was found to show a stronger
    within- than across-language relationship to
    later reading.
  • Children at risk for poor reading might be
    identified based on their expressive language
    performance on a screening battery in L1.

Assessment of Word Recognition in L1
  • It is often believed that poor reading
    performance is the result of poor oral language
  • Research does not support this (Juel, Griffith
    Gough, 1986, Durgunoglu, Nagy Hancin-Bhatt,
  • Implication Professionals should not wait to
    assess reading skills until oral language
    proficiency is strong.

  • Practice in phoneme discrimination in words or
    syllables (the trainer presents a set of five
    words oralloy, of which only one is different,
    e.g., pala, pala, pala, tala, pala and the
    children put their hands up when they hear the
    different word)

  • Word pair categorization (e.g., the children hear
    a pair of words and give a response of same or

  • Word phonological identification (e.g., the
    children listen to a word, e.g., /pala/, and have
    to match it with one of two different pictures,
    e.g., pala-bala). Syllable and word pairs should
    differ in terms of a single phoneme. This
    phoneme would be identical in all respects but
    one phonetic feature.

  • Begin speech perception training with the
    discrimination of syllable or word pairs that
    differ in place of articulation, then progressing
    to manner of articulation contrasts, and finally
    working with voicing contrasts.

Remember to Build Background Knowledge
  • Background knowledge is one of the most critical
    factors in the ability to read stories and then
    retell the story.
  • For optimal instruction, teachers need to build
    such language acquisition in a low-risk and
    low-anxiety environment keeping the affective
    filter low.

Use Good ELL Methodology
  • Teachers must good ELL methodology such as using
    repetitive language and routines, all new
    information was modeled rather than just
    explained, and children were provided many
    opportunities to dialogue with the teacher as
    well as practice every skill.

Oracy Component to Interventions
  • Vaughn, Mathes, Linan-Thompson, and Francis
    (2005) found that word study and phonics
    instruction (in L1 or L2) were critical.
  • They also found that reading interventions only
    were not enough to help struggling ELL students.

Oracy Component to Interventions
  • Struggling ELL students needed an additional
    oracy component each day.
  • The oracy component should last for at least 10
    minutes daily in the same language as their
    literacy instruction.
  • This could be in the form of daily read-alouds
    from childrens expository texts.

Their 7 Steps to Intervention
  • Overview of the theme and selected story
  • Preteach two or three identified vocabulary words
  • Read aloud to the students of 200-250 words of
    the text
  • Reread the same passage asking students to listen
    carefully for the new vocabulary words

Their 7 Steps to Intervention
  • 5. Select target students to lead the
    summarization of what was read
  • 6. Ask questions and provide scaffolding to
    process key words and comprehension of text
  • 7. Connect key vocabulary words and concepts
    each day so that students deepen their knowledge
    and understanding of the theme and related

Interventions for ELL Students with Dyslexia
  • The general rule of thumb is to provide then with
    the same continuum of strategic approaches used
    with other struggling readers such as
  • Guided reading
  • Teacher read-alouds
  • Shared reading
  • Literature circles
  • Discussion groups

Intervention for Spanish-speakers with RD
  • Ortiz et al. (2002) showed that a training
    program that integrates speech perception,
    phoneme awareness, and instruction in
    sound-symbol connections improved word reading in
    Spanish children with RD.

The Big 5 Necessary Components for Teaching
Reading to ELLs
  • Phonemic Awareness, letter knowledge, and
    concepts of print
  • Some children must learn a new alphabet system
  • Some children may need to learn to read from left
    to right
  • Research shows that phonemic awareness is a
    transferable skill
  • Phonological tasks with unknown words are more
  • The alphabetic code phonics and decoding
  • Systematic phonics should be linked to spelling
  • If a student is literate in their first language
    they should be fast-tracked to decoding
  • Fast-track decoding skills for students in 4th
    12th grades
  • For beginning English Language Learner readers,
    use wordless picture books.
  • Begin with pattern and predictable books and move
    to decodable books.
  • Fluent, automatic reading of text
  • Fast-track building fluency skills for students
    in 4th 12th grades
  • Vocabulary
  • Teach different tiers of vocabulary
  • Explicit instruction in how to analyze words to
    detect meaning
  • Practice words in meaningful context
  • Text Comprehension
  • Select books that are a close match to your
    students level of language development.

Additional Necessary Components for Teaching
Reading to ELL Students
  • Build background knowledge
  • Literacy in L1 supports English literacy

Phonemic Awareness Instruction for ELL Students
  • It may be difficult for ELL students to hear
    English sounds.
  • For example, some Spanish-speaking students from
    South American have not been exposed to eight
    English phonemes such as the English short vowels
    as in pit, pet, puf.
  • Also, between 46 and 53 consonant clusters in
    English appear in the initial position of the
    word and more than 36 consonant clusters appear
    in the final position, while Spanish is limited
    to 12 consonant clusters that can occur both in
    the initial word and syllable position.
  • Additionally, Spanish has no final consonant
    clusters such as ld and sk (Kramer Rubison,

Phonemic Awareness Instruction for ELL Students
  • Studies indicate that students can be taught to
    hear sounds that do not appear in their L1
    (Kramer Rubison, 1983 Stuart, 1999).
  • Research showed that it was sufficient to train
    children on the most difficult sounds for the
    children to distinguish, rather than on all the
  • Pronunciation differences should not be
    considered incorrect.

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Fluency and ELL Students
  • Repeated oral reading practice and guided
    repeated oral reading practice are effective in
    building reading fluency for children.
  • ELL students may have less opportunity to read
    aloud with feedback than English-only students.
  • Also, reading fluency is bolstered if children
    understand the text they are reading.

Fluency and ELL Students
  • Van Wagenen, Williams, and McLaughlin (1994)
    found that assisted reading is helpful for
    increasing ELLs reading rates, word accuracy and
  • During assisted reading, students read silently
    while listening to a teachers recording of the
    passage, then read the passage aloud, reads the
    passage three times silently with the tape, and
    reads the passage a second time aloud.
  • Their analysis found that assisted reading helped
    students increase the number of words correctly
    per minute, decreased error rates and improved

  • It is clear that a large and rich vocabulary is
    the hallmark of an educated individual (Beck).
  • Vocabulary knowledge is strongly related to
    reading proficiency and school achievement.
  • It is important to attend to vocabulary from the
    earliest grades.
  • The problem is that there are profound
    differences in vocabulary knowledge among
    learners from different ability or socioeconomic
    (SES) group from toddlers through high school.
  • According to research, teachers must make
    vocabulary instruction robust, vigorous, strong
    and powerful to be effective.

  • Vocabulary learning should entail active
    engagement in learning tasks.
  • As many connections as possible should be made
    for specific words.
  • Students reading in their first language have
    already learned 5,000 to 7,000 words before they
    begin formal reading instruction (Biemiller
    Slonin, 2001).
  • They also have a sense of the grammar of the
  • ELL students, however, usually do not have large
    vocabularies in L2 nor a complete sense of its

  • Research by Laufer (2001) shows that students are
    more likely to remember a word they have used in
    an original sentence, or incorporated into a
    composition, than a word they have seen in a
    text, even if they have looked it up in a

Robust Vocabulary Instruction
  • A robust approach to vocabulary instruction
    involves directly explaining the meanings of
    words along with thought-provoking, playful and
    interactive follow-up.
  • Struggling readers do not read well enough to
    derive meaning from text.
  • Thus, depending on wide reading as a source of
    vocabulary growth leaves at-risk students with a
    serious deficit (Beck, 2001).

Ideas for Robust Vocabulary Instruction
  • Introduce the unit theme in an intriguing way
    such as using props, music, actions, riddles,
    analogies, literature...
  • Select the key vocabulary words or key phrases.

Vocabulary Instruction
  • Present words using role play, action, and real
  • Have students be responsible for presenting a
    word after coaching from the teacher. This will
    help create personal connections and make the
    word meaningful to the student.
  • There must be a visual involved. This may be an
    actual object or a picture of someone doing an
    action (a digital camera is very useful).
  • When possible, demonstrate the opposite
  • Words can be presented over several days.

Vocabulary Instruction
  • After words have been presented (in a multimodal
    way), give clues (definitions) to describe the
    words. Individual students can match the
    vocabulary word. Or do this as team competitions.
  • Students can identify the word by simply pointing
    to the word card with the attached visual.
  • Create a word wall or special area for students
    to have access to the words and clues.

Vocabulary Lesson Closure
  • Ask questions relating to the comprehensible
    action. For example if one of the words is
    gushed you may ask What gushed out of the
  • Questions should be phrased so English Language
    Learners at the earliest stage can identify the
    correct answer by pointing and not need to answer

Use the Vocabulary Daily
  • The key vocabulary words or phrases should be
    used daily both in a natural context and through
    short game formats.
  • Establish teams and give points for identifying
    the target word or phrase when used by teacher or
  • Give team points for finding the word in print at
    school or at home in newspapers, books, etc.

Ways to Use the Target Vocabulary
  • Categorize Words
  • Example Make Yes and No columns and begin
    listing some target words. Have students Guess
    the Rule. The words can be grouped by
    beginning/ending sounds, etc. and be done as a
    mini-skills lesson
  • Which One is Missing?
  • Select a few words/phrases with their attached
    visual cue. Have students study them, close
    their eyes, then guess which one is missing

Ways to Use the Target Vocabulary
  • Word Showdown
  • Divide class into two to four groups. Have two
    students come up. State the target word or
    phrase and see who is the first to slap their
    hand on the table to give the definition. They
    can also identify the word by pointing to the
    word card with visual cue on Word Wall.

Ways to Use the Target Vocabulary
  • Think Tank
  • State a target word. Give a palms up signal.
    Everyone at the same time creates as many
    sentences as possible using the word. Each
    student, as well as the teacher, will say their
    sentences aloud.
  • Palms down signal means quiet. Call on a
    student to tell you their sentence.
  • This approach allows students to practice in a
    non-threatening way. They can also hear what
    others are saying and will help refine
    non-auditory learners listening skills.

Ways to Use the Target Vocabulary
  • Create Total Physical Response (TPR) commands
    that require students to interact with the
    pictures focal point.
  • Example If a fire hydrant appears in the
    drawing that illustrate the word gushed, the
    water gushing from the hydrant is the part that
    directly related to the words meaning.
  • Create commands such as Put your finger on the
    water gushing. Use your finger to circle the
    gushing water. Blow over the gushing water.
    Use your thumb to jump into the gushing water.

Ways to Use the Target Vocabulary
  • Play Word Hunt. Hide cards with the target
    words written on them around the room - in books,
    desks, under pencil boxes, etc.
  • When students find them, give their team a point
    if they can give the definition (or for lower
    level English Language Learners, if they can
    match it to the correct card/visual cue on Word
  • If students can read the cards, theyre
    demonstrating recognition recall in a visual

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Three Tiers of Vocabulary Instruction Tier One
  • Tier One words rarely require instructional
    attention (Beck, 2001).
  • They consist of basic words.
  • Examples are baby, clock, happy, walk, jump,
    hop, slide, girl, boy, dog

Tier Two
  • Tier Two words contain high frequency words that
    are found across a variety of domains.
  • Examples are Coincidence, absurd, industrious,
    fortunate, and other Super Duper Words previously
  • Rich knowledge of words in this tier can have a
    powerful impact on verbal functioning

Tier Three
  • Tier Three words are made up of words whose
    frequency of use is quite low and often limited
    to specific domains.
  • Examples are Isotope, lathe, peninsula,
  • These words are best learned when a specific need
    arises such as a geography lesson.

Captioned TV
  • Studies show that watching captioned TV results
    in higher levels of English proficiency and is
    associated with vocabulary learning.

Literacy Development Strategies and Stages of
Language Acquisition - Preproduction/Early
Production Stages
  • Shared reading
  • Concepts about print
  • Read aloud, listening post
  • SSR
  • Chants
  • Choral/Echo Reading
  • Dramatization/Role play
  • Puppetry/finger plays
  • Flannel board stories
  • Recreations
  • Interactive journals
  • Language Experience Approach
  • Alphabet games
  • Book publishing
  • Brainstorming/webbing
  • Cloze activities
  • Compare/contrast stories using illustrations
  • Concentration games

Literacy Development Strategies and Stages of
Language Acquisition Speech Emergence
All of the activities from previous slide, PLUS
  • Guided reading
  • Story mapping
  • Readers theater
  • Innovations
  • Process writing (emphasis on prewriting/drafting)
  • Book talks
  • Critical thinking questions/activities
  • Idiomatic expressions
  • Language focus lessons
  • Literature circles
  • Pair/share writing
  • Pen pals
  • Reciprocal teaching
  • Retelling stories
  • Scripting
  • Syntax Surgery
  • Vocabulary development activities

Literacy Development Strategies and Stages of
Language Acquisition Intermediate/Advanced
All of the activities from previous slide, PLUS
  • Process writing (all steps)
  • Journal writing
  • Readers workshop
  • Directed reading
  • Research projects
  • Creative dramatics
  • Public speaking/formal presentations
  • Use of scaffolding to allow access to grade
    level/age appropriate narrative and expository
  • Continue with (modified-enriched) strategies
    previously introduced
  • Debates
  • Feature analysis
  • Interviews
  • Literature response
  • Word studies (root words, prefixes, suffixes,
    word families)
  • Write directions

Intensive Programs
  • Explicit and intensive teaching are essential
    features of classroom instruction aimed at
    promoting reading success in both L1 and ELL
    children and needs to begin in kindergarten.
  • Additionally, systematic student assessment is
  • Literacy-intensive programs that include
    systematic assessment and that balance explicit
    instruction with basic reading skills training
    can prevent the consequences of underassessment
    and the need for targeted interventions.

Additional Classroom Dynamics
  • ELL students need to be immersed in classroom
    environment with context-rich, interactive, and
    supportive collaborations where there is much
    language exploration and conversational use in
    literacy interactions among peers.

Families as Literacy Partners
  • Research has shown that initial literacy
    instruction should build on the strengths of the
    home language.
  • Families should be considered to be the schools
    literacy partners for all children who have a
    home language different from the instructional
    language of the school.
  • The childrens cultures should be infused into
    lesson presentations.

International Reading Association Position
Statement on Second-Language Literacy Instruction
  • Affirms the right of families to have options in
    regard to their childrens initial literacy
    instruction whether it be in the home language or
    in the primary language of the school.
  • (Language policy, however, is moving away from
    native language instruction.)

International Reading Association Position
Statement on Second-Language Literacy Instruction
  • Most ELL students need more than one year to
    learn English.
  • Educators need to collaboratively seek out as
    many ways as possible to support access to
    initial literacy development in both home and
    school languages.

Factors Involved in L2 Learning and Reading
  • Remember, literacy strategies which are
    successful in helping English-only students learn
    to read in English may not be helpful for ELLs.
  • Teach ELL students the conceptual basis for
    English spelling patterns
  • Word families
  • Root words
  • Work on memorizing high frequency words.
  • Use graphic organizers to aide comprehension of
    story sequence, cause and effect, etc.
  • Focus on the vocabulary that carries the logic of
    the language such as negatives, conjunctions,
    prepositions and abstract words.
  • Help ELL students distinguish important from
    unimportant text segments.
  • Since reading success is so dependent on oral
    language skills, it is imperative to emphasize
    vocabulary and rich language environments.
  • Teaching word reading skills alone will not

What You Need to Know About the Spanish Language
The Spanish Alphabet
  • 29 letters spell 24 phonemes
  • Highly regular and rule governed, with a few
    letras difíciles that have multiple
    phoneme-graphic correspondences
  • There are no double letters ch, ll, rr
    represent a single phoneme. The ñ comes from the
    Latin nn.
  • H is silent and u is silent after g unless it
    carries a diérisis (bilingüe, pingüino) and
    after q (queso)

Spanish Phonics
  • Phonemic awareness
  • Letter-sound correspondences
  • Spelling patterns
  • Syllabification
  • Diphthongs and syllable juncture
  • Categorization of words according to stressed
  • Rules for the use of written accent marks

English Phonics
  • Consonants and vowels
  • Consonant blends and digraphs
  • Long and short vowels
  • R-controlled vowels
  • Vowel digraphs
  • Diphthongs
  • Homophones homographs

Spanish Phonemes Spelled Using Multiple Graphemes
  • Vowel phoneme i is written as i and as y (i
    griega) in diphthongs ending a word (soy, muy)
  • Labiodental /b/ is written as either b or v
    (haba, ave)
  • /k/ is written as c before a, o, u, or as k or as
    qu (casa, kiosco, queso)
  • /s/ is written as c before e, i or as s or as z
    (cerro, silla, zorro)
  • /h/ is written as g before e, i or as j (gigante,
    jinete) and as x (México, Don Quixote)
  • /y/ is written as ie, ll or y (hielo, lleno,

Spanish Graphemes That Spell Multiple Phonemes
  • The letter b spells the bilabial b as in burro
    and the labiodental b as in arriba
  • The letter c spells /k/ as in casa and /s/ as in
  • The letter g spells /g/ as in gallo and /h/ as in
  • The letter y spells the vowel sound i at the end
    of words as in soy and the consonant sound y as
    in yegua

Spanish in Spain and Latin America
  • The x respresents a number of phonemes /h/, /x/
    and in Mexico /sh/ for words from Náhuatl and
  • In Latin America, the ll and y in initial
    position are pronounced the same (llama, yerno)
  • In Spain, the z before a, o u represents a soft
    /th/ sound. This sound is also spelled ce ci.
    Words ending in z change to c when forming the
    plural (pez-peces lápiz-lápices)

Spanish Spelling Patterns
Spanish Structural Analysis
  • Word derivations roots, prefixes and suffixes
  • Inflection and agreement (subject-verb,
    adjectives, possessives)
  • Enclisis (combining two classes of words)
  • Contractions (conjunción)
  • Shortened forms of words (apócope)
  • Compound words
  • Cognates

Spanish Syllable Patterns
  • A single consonant occurring between vowels is
    joined to the vowel or vowels that follow.
  • Two separate consonants between vowels are
  • A strong vowel (a,e,o) combined in a syllable
    with a weak vowel (i, u) forming a diphthong or
    triphthong are not separated.
  • Consonant blends (consonant with l or r) are not
  • When s is in a prefix, it forms a syllable with
    the prefix

English Syllable Patterns
  • Closed Short vowel ending with consonant
  • Open Long vowel, no consonant ending
  • Vowel Digraph vowel spelled with 2 letters
  • C-le at the ends of words
  • R-controlled vowel
  • Vowel-consonant-e long vowel pattern
  • Idiosyncratic

Word Study in Spanish
  • Letras difíciles
  • Parts of speech changes of function
  • Singular/plural inflections noun/adjective
  • Classification by syllable stress written
  • Cognates
  • Verb tenses, conjugation and agreement
  • Diminutive and augmentation derivitives (ito, ón,
    ote, ísimo)
  • Enclisis apócope (cualquier, cualquiera, gran,

Word Study in Dual Language Classrooms
  • Picture sorts
  • Concept sorts
  • Letter-sound correspondence sorts
  • Same-vowel word families
  • Mixed-vowel word families
  • Word Hunt
  • Word Bank
  • Word Wall
  • High-frequency word study
  • Word strips
  • Word Study Notebooks
  • Dictation
  • Word games

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Final Thought
  • To teach in a manner that respects and cares for
    the souls of our students is essential if we are
    to provide the necessary conditions where
    learning can most deeply and intimately begin.
  • - bell hooks, Teaching to Transgress
  • To teach in a manner that respects and cares for
    the souls of our students is essential if we are
    to provide the necessary conditions where
    learning can most deeply and intimately begin.
  • - bell hooks, Teaching to Transgress

Thank you!
  • Julie Esparza Brown
  • Portland State University
  • (503) 725-4696
  • jebrown_at_pdx.edu
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