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Early Identification and Intervention to Prevent Reading

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Title: Early Identification and Intervention to Prevent Reading


1
Early Identification and Intervention to Prevent
Reading Difficulties
Linda Siegel University of British
Columbia Vancouver, CANADA linda.siegel_at_ubc.ca

2
Why Early Identification Intervention
  • 82 of the street youth in Toronto had
    undetected and unremediated learning disabilities
  • All the adolescent suicides in a 3 year period in
    Ontario had undetected and unremediated learning
    disabilities

3
Why Early Identification Intervention
  • 75-95 of individuals in prison have significant
    reading difficulties
  • In Vancouver, 45 of ESL students fail to
    complete high school.
  • Undiagnosed and unremediated reading problems
    result in emotional and social difficulties

4
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5
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6
Critical Issues
  • Recognize and treat dyslexia early
  • Understand the language development of ESL
    students
  • Understand the literacy difficulties of ESL
    students

7
How can we prevent reading difficulties?
8
Prevention
  • Early identification
  • Early intervention
  • Evidence based reading programs

9
Screening
  • We have the techniques to screen children who are
    at risk for learning disabilities at age 5
  • Screening should be universal
  • Easy to administer
  • Brief

10
3 Tier Model
  • 1. Classroom instruction
  • Early screening
  • 2. Resource withdrawal
  • 3. Intensive help

11
Characteristic of the 3 Tier Model
  • Excellent, evidence based classroom instruction
  • Frequent monitoring of performance
  • Help as soon as it is needed
  • Intensive assessment only as a last resort

12
Aims of the Study
  • Identify children at risk for literacy
    difficulties
  • Provide an appropriate intervention
  • Assess the effectiveness of the intervention

13
Longitudinal Study
  • Screening at age 5 when children enter school
  • Tested every year on reading, spelling,
    arithmetic, language and memory skills
  • Results at grade 6 age 12

14
Longitudinal Sample
  • All the children in the North Vancouver School
    District
  • 30 schools
  • Varying SES levels
  • 20 English Language Learners (ELL)
  • Inclusion

15
LANGUAGES IN THE STUDY
  • Japanese
  • Korean
  • Kurdish
  • Mandarin
  • Norwegian
  • Polish
  • Punjabi
  • Romanian
  • Arabic
  • Armenian
  • Bulgarian
  • Cantonese
  • Croatian
  • Czech
  • Dutch
  • Farsi
  • German
  • Greek
  • Hindi
  • Hungarian
  • Indonesian
  • Italian
  • Finnish
  • Russian
  • Serbian
  • Slovak
  • Spanish
  • Swedish
  • Tagalog
  • Tamil
  • Turkish

16
Kindergarten
KINDERGARTEN
L1 English
ELL
GRADE 5
17
Grade 6
KINDERGARTEN
L1 English
ELL
Dyslexic
Dyslexic
Normal
Normal
GRADE 5
18
Screening
  • Effective
  • Brief 15-20 minutes
  • Done by teachers
  • Provide useful information

19
Kindergarten Screening
  • Letter identification
  • Memory
  • Phonological processing
  • Syntax
  • Spelling

20
Letter Identification
  • c r m k b w o
  • s y t a u d q
  • x l g e z n j
  • p h v i f

21
Sentence Repetition
  • Sentences are spoken orally to the child and the
    child is required to repeat them exactly.
  • Examples.
  • Drink milk.
  • I like ice cream.
  • The boy and girl are walking to school.
  • The girl who is very tall is playing basketball.

22
Reading Test
23
the and sit when book
24
anacampersote mithridatism qualtagh ucalegon groa
k
25
Phonological Awareness
  • Ability to break speech down into smaller units
  • ? words
  • ? syllables
  • ? phonemes

26
SYLLABLE IDENTIFICATION
27
RHYME IDENTIFICATION
28
PHONEME IDENTIFICATION
29
ORAL CLOZE
30
Oral cloze
  • Jane ____her sister went up the hill.
  • Dad ____ Bobby a letter yesterday.

31
SIMPLE SPELLING
  • childs name
  • mom
  • dad
  • cat
  • I
  • no

32
Firm Foundations
  • Rhyme detection
  • Initial sounds
  • Segmentation
  • Blending
  • Sound discrimination

33
Firm Foundations
  • Activities and games designed to develop
  • Phonological awareness
  • Letter sound relationships
  • Vocabulary
  • Syntactic skills

34
  • Circle Skills -Teaching the whole class
  • Centre Skills Practicing in small groups
  • Assessment - Working with individual students

35
Literacy Activities
  • Listening to stories
  • Acting out stories
  • Singing songs
  • Letter of the week
  • Letter cookies

36
Other Important Abilities
  • Vocabulary understanding and producing the
    meanings of words
  • Syntax understanding the basic grammar of the
    language
  • Differences between Chinese and English
  • Verb tenses
  • Plurals
  • Articles

37
Reading 44
  • Training reading comprehension strategies
  • Vocabulary
  • Syntax

38
Word Identification
  • cat
  • see
  • book
  • should
  • finger
  • glutton
  • emphasis
  • intrigue
  • usurp
  • idiosyncrasy

39
Word Identification
40
Woodcock Word Attack
  • dee
  • pog
  • ched
  • gouch
  • cigbet
  • bafmotbem
  • monglustamer

41
Word Attack
42
Word Reading Fluency
43
Psuedoword Reading Fluency
44
Phoneme/Syllable Deletion
45
Spelling
46
Pseudoword Spelling
47
Oral Cloze
48
Morphological - Words
  • They need to diversionary
  • diversity
  • diversion
  • diversify

49
Morphological - Pseudowords
  • The car is too rendalize
  • rendal
  • rendment
  • rendify

50
Morphological Task- Words
51
Morphological Task- Pseudowords
52
Stanford Reading Comprehension
53
Experimental Reading Comprehension
54
SES Reading
55
SES Spelling
56
KindergartenSYNTACTIC AWARENESS
57
Grade 6Syntactic Awareness
58
Conclusions
  • It is possible to identify children at risk for
    reading disabilities in kindergarten.
  • It is possible to provide a classroom based
    intervention to bring most of these children to
    at least average levels of reading.
  • Children learning English as a second language
    can perform at L1 levels and bilingualism may be
    an advantage.

59
Conclusions
  • Most ELL dyslexic children have better reading,
    spelling and phonological skills than their
    monolingual peers.
  • Many ELL normal readers have better English
    reading, phonological, and spelling skills in
    their second language than children who have
    English as a first language.

60
Caveats
  • The development of language and literacy skills
    in ESL students requires good teaching
  • First language maintenance is important wherever
    possible

61
Internet Resources
  • http//www.nvsd44.bc.ca
  • Click on Firm Foundations
  • Click on Reading 44

62
Improving Reading Comprehension Skills
63
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64
Reading 44
  • Teaches Reading Comprehension Skills
  • Daily Dozen Reading Strategies

65
ESL Students
  • 1. visual aids
  • - pictures, graphs, objects
  • 2. reinforce vocabulary through games
  • e.g. hiding an object, hot-cold
  • 3. dual language picture dictionary
  • 4. dual language books
  • 5. group work provides models

66
ESL Students
  • 1. Discuss the strategies frequently
  • 2. Daily reading in small groups
  • - Activates prior knowledge
  • - Introduces new vocabulary
  • - Models the reading process
  • 3. Make connections associations
  • 4. Repetition
  • - Text with repetitive vocabulary
  • - Pattern books

67
ESL Students
  • 5. reading at home in first language of parent
  • - read to the child
  • - cloze procedure
  • 6. prereading knowledge building
  • 7. select materials to build confidence
  • - 90-95 word recognition

68
How To Teach Strategies
  • identify strategy
  • discuss reasons
  • demonstrate thinking aloud
  • provide opportunities for practice
  • reinforce it in small groups
  • observe how well the student uses it

69
1. ACCESS BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
  • BRAINSTORMING
  • a) introduce concept and ask the children to
    generate ideas
  • b) teacher records all ideas
  • c) use generated word list on board

70
BUILDING FROM CUES
  • a) teacher shows objects from the story and
    students discuss what the story may be about
  • b) for each object where / when character /
    event
  • c) as each object is presented connect it to the
    plot

71
Vocabulary building
  • a) Select words such as anthropology and
    psychology
  • b) Separate the words into parts
  • c) The students guess what the parts mean
  • d) The students think of other words with the
    same parts e.g., biology

72
3. FIGURE OUT UNKNOWN WORDS
  • W_ w _ ll g _ to the f _ _ m th _ s morn_ _
    _.
  • a) ask students about how they guessed
  • b) as the teacher is writing, ask students to
    make predictions

73
Figure Out Unknown Words
  • a) meaning
  • 1) does it make sense?
  • 2) have you heard a word like that before?
  • b) syntax
  • 1) does it sound right?
  • 2) can you say it that way?
  • c) visual
  • 1) does it look right?
  • 2) what do you see about that word?
  • d) self-correction
  • 1) were you right?
  • 2) what else could you try?

74
4. Self-monitor And Self Correct
  • 5 Finger Rule
  • keep track of the words that they do not know on
    their fingers
  • if there are 5 words in the first 100, get a new
    book

75
5 W Questions
  • To ask yourself while and after reading
  • who?
  • when?
  • what?
  • where?
  • why?

76
5. MAKE MENTAL PICTURES
  • Guided Imagery
  • ? Does it make sense
  • Help! Ask for help
  • ? Read on
  • ? Reread

77
6. CONNECT WHAT YOU READ WITH WHAT YOU KNOW
  • KNOW / WONDER / LEARN
  • a) Present topic
  • 1) KNOW
  • What do I know?
  • 2) WONDER
  • What would I like to know?
  • b) Read selection
  • 3) LEARN
  • What have I learned?

78
  • 7) Determine the most important ideas and events
    and the relationship between them.
  • Extract information from text, charts, graphs,
    maps and illustrations.
  • Identify and interpret literary elements in
    different genres

79
10) Summarize What Has Been Read. 11) Make
Inferences and Draw Conclusions.12) Reflect
and Respond.
80
Early Identification and Intervention to Prevent
Reading Difficulties
Linda Siegel University of British
Columbia Vancouver, CANADA linda.siegel_at_ubc.ca

81
Word ReadingPortuguese L1
82
Word Reading Italian L1
83
Word Reading Arabic L1
84
Word AttackPortuguese L1
85
Word AttackItalian L1
86
Word AttackArabic L1
87
SpellingPortuguese L1
88
SpellingItalian L1
89
SpellingArabic L1
90
Final Conclusion
  • Bilingualism facilitates a childs literacy
    development.
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