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Year 10 Revision Booklet

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Year 10 Revision Booklet GCSE Geography Edexcel B Dynamic Planet Exam 14th June 2010 8.45 am- 9.45 am Case Studies Here you need to add in any other case study notes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Year 10 Revision Booklet


1
Year 10 Revision Booklet
  • GCSE Geography
  • Edexcel B
  • Dynamic Planet
  • Exam 14th June 2010
  • 8.45 am- 9.45 am

2
Exam structure
  • The exam will last for 1 hour
  • You need to answer ALL questions in Section A
  • The Coastal Change and Conflicts question in
    Section B
  • The Oceans on the Edge question in Section C
  • DO NOT ANSWER QUESTIONS ON RIVER PROCESSES AND
    MANAGEMENT OR EXTREME CLIMATES.

3
Section A Introduction to the Dynamic Planet 1.
Restless Earth
  • What you need to know
  • Earths interior
  • Plates and plate margins
  • Volcanic and earthquake hazards
  • Hazard management

4
Theory
  • 1. How and Why do the Earths tectonic plates
    move?
  • You need to be able to label the sections of the
    Earth. Try labelling this diagram and defining
    the key terms.
  • What are convection currents? How do they work?
    Sketch an example and label it.
  • This is a map of the plate boundaries. Below name
    the 4 different boundaries
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • In the boxes below draw each of the 4 boundaries
    and explain how they work. Do they create
    volcanoes or cause earthquakes?

5
Theory
  • 2. What are the effects and management issues
    resulting from tectonic hazards?
  • Hazards pose a threat to us, but not all
    hazardous events are disasters. This depends on
  • 1. The type of hazards
  • 2. The places vulnerability to hazards (LEDC,
    location, distance from volcano)
  • 3. The ability or capacity to cope and recover
    from a hazardous event
  • Primary Impacts that place at the time of the
    event itself and are directly caused by it
  • Secondary Impacts that follow the event, and are
    indirectly caused by it
  • Capacity refers to the ability of a community to
    absorb, and ultimately recover from, the effects
    of a natural hazard.
  • Hazard Measurement
  • Earthquakes are measured by the RICHTER SCALE and
    the MERCALLI SCALE
  • Volcanoes can be measured using the VEI (VOLCANIC
    EXPLOSIVITY INDEX)
  • Management
  • Remember there are two ways to manage earthquakes
    this is being prepared (being ready for the
    event) and being able to reduce the impact
    (mitigation).
  • We can also manage the impact of hazards by the
    following

6
Case Studies
  • Here you can make notes on the case studies you
    have studied. Make sure you use the Purple text
    book for extra examples and to fill out your
    notes. You must be able to say where the case
    study is LOCATED, IMPACTS, RESPONSE, WHY IT
    HAPPENED, EFFECTS.

Mauna Loa, Hawaii, a Shield Volcano
Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, a Composite Volcano
7
Case Studies

Here you could make case study notes on the
studies you have done in class.
8
2. Climate and Change
  • What you need to know
  • Past natural change
  • The impacts of past change
  • Present and future change
  • The future challenge

9
Theory
  • 1. How and why has climate changed in the past?
  • you need to be able to describe how climate has
    changed over time? both warm and cold periods
    have existed on Earth over the last 100 million
    years. The last Ice Age was approximately
    1.8million years a go- this is called the
    Pleistocene era. The warm period we are in now is
    called the Holocene and this started 10,000 years
    ago. Read pg 28 to find out more.
  • Natural causes of climate change make sure you
    know how these cause changes in our climate.
  • Orbital changes- long-term
  • Solar Output- medium-term
  • Volcanic activity short-term
  • THE LITTLE ICE AGE pg 30-31
  • What was the little ice age?
  • How do we know the little ice age happened?
  • What were the effects of the little ice age?
  • EXTINCTION OF MEGAFAUNA
  • Megafauna are large animals that became extinct
    at the end of the last ice age (Pleistocene).
    These animals lived in North America and Europe
    (Including the UK). These animals included wolly
    mammoths, sabre-toothed tiger, large wolves and
    large beavers. As many as 135 species became
    extinct.
  • Read page 33 to find out why and make notes
    below

10
Theory
  • 2. What challenges might our future climate
    present us with?
  • What are greenhouse gases? Imagine the world to
    be surrounded by a greenhouse. The glass is a mix
    of the gases Chlorofluorocarbons, Nitrous Oxide,
    Methane and Carbon dioxide. The gases provide a
    shelter, letting heat in, but preventing most
    heat from escaping
  • TASK make 2 spider diagrams that show the human
    and natural causes of greenhouse gases. Use Pg
    34-35 to help. How have the levels of greenhouse
    gases changed over time?
  • The map on page 36 shows countries based on co2
    emissions. China and the USA are the biggest
    countries on the map and its not because of
    population. Why are they so big? Why are Africa,
    Australia and New Zealand so small?
  • The UK has a small population compared to some
    European countries- why is it so big on this map?
  • HINT think about the countries population,
    industry, development and then link to the amount
    of co2 they produce.
  • In 2008, world carbon dioxide concentrations
    passed 380 ppm (parts per million). In 1800, it
    was just 280 ppm. This figure grows by 2ppm every
    year. This is despite efforts made by people and
    governments world wide.
  • Increased wealth in Asia has seen an increase
  • In the amount of methane produced.
  • This is because there is an increasing
  • Demand for meat and dairy in diets.
  • The IPCC (intergovernmental Panel on
  • Climate Change) believes that greenhouse
  • Gases need to be below 550ppm. Pg 37.

11
Case Studies
Climate Change in the UK
Climate Change and sea-level rise in LEDCs.
12
3. Battle for the Biosphere
  • What you need to know
  • Location of biomes
  • Biomes as a life support
  • Threats
  • Management

13
Theory
  • 1. What is the value of the biosphere?
  • You need to be able to describe a minimum of 4
    different Biomes You could revise the following
    but do revise more
  • Deserts
  • Rainforests
  • Savannah
  • Deciduous
  • You should be able to LOCATE them geographically,
    using BOTH longitude and latitude, give examples
    of countries in which they are located and
    describe the CLIMATE and CHARACTERISTICS.
  • There are a number of different factors that
    influence where we find different Biomes these
    are.
  • Latitude
  • Continentally
  • Altitude
  • Temperature
  • Precipitation
  • Geology, Relief and Drainage.
  • Identify which are local and which are global
  • Why do we need to protect the biosphere? Pg 46

14
  • LOCAL FACTORS AFFECTING BIOMES
  • Read page 43- make notes about
  • How local factors affect biomes
  • The biosphere acts as a life support system for
    the planet- it regulates the composition of the
    atmosphere, maintaining soil health and
    regulating the hydrological cycle.
  • The biosphere provides humans with goods and
    services complete the spider diagram below. Use
    page 44-45 to help.

15
Theory
  • 2. How have humans affected the biosphere and how
    might it be conserved?
  • Few places on earth remain free from human
    interference. On the next page is an in-depth
    case study of Amazonia. You need to complete
    these parts as part of this question in the
    specification.
  • Pollution and climate change bring stress and
    change
  • This includes the deliberate removal of forest to
    create space for agriculture is an example of
    direct human actions damaging the biosphere. How
    else can humans cause this? Pg 50.
  • How has the UK changed? You need to be able to
    discuss temperature raises and how the biosphere
    in the UK has changed over time. Think about how
    the wildlife in the UK has also been affected
    e.g. Bird species decline.
  • CONSERVATION AT A GLOBAL SCALE nearly 200
    countries in the world are needing to sign
    agreements for conservation at a global-scale.
  • TASK make a table the shows all the conservation
    schemes globally that says what they aim to do
    and why. Pg 52.
  • Why is it important to conserve wetlands and what
    is the role of the Ramsar convention 1971? Answer
    this in your own words using pg 53 to help.
  • CONSERVATION AT A LOCAL SCALE BIOSPHERE
    MANAGEMENT
  • It is important to sustainably manage all the
    biomes in the local areas as well as globally.
    This is because if you THINK LOCAL YOU CAN ACT
    GLOBAL. Everything has a knock-on effect. This is
    where you need to discuss a local case study- an
    example in the Caledonian Forest in Scotland.

16
Case Studies
AMAZON RAINFOREST location destruction
Soya craze people pressure
Windsor Forest (page 47) An example of deciduous
forest over-use in MEDC
17
Case Studies Use this page to make notes on any
other case studies you have done in class time
18
4. Water World
  • What you need to know
  • Hydrological cycle
  • Human interference
  • Threats
  • Managing water resources

19
Theory
  • 1. Why is water important to the health of the
    planet?
  • It is important that you know all the parts of
    the hydrological cycle and about water stores. Go
    through the key words list that you have in your
    book and make your own hydrological cycle diagram
    and label as you draw.
  • The hydrosphere is made up of all water stores
    including oceans, rivers, lakes and streams.
    These interact and link together the atmosphere,
    lithosphere and biosphere. Without one you cant
    have the others- WHY?
  • UNRELIABLE WATER COMPULSORY CASE STUDY
    AUSTRALIA
  • Flows within the hydrological cycle vary over
    different time scales these are seasonal
    variations, longer natural cycles and climate
    change. Pg 58.
  • TASK make a spider diagram that compares both
    the Sahel region in Africa and Australia as
    places with unreliable water. Use different
    colours to help compare.
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE WORLDS WATER SUPPLIES
  • Climate change could make places DRIER and
    experience droughts OR it could make places
    WETTER where more evaporation has taken place...
    Remember what goes up must come down!! Use pg
    60-61 to say how climate change is affecting
    water in Asia and America.

AMERICA
ASIA
20
Theory
  • 2.How can water resources be sustainably managed?
  • How can water be polluted? Humans put enormous
    pressure on rivers- they are used for transport,
    industry, drinking and sewerage disposal. The
    three most damaging types of pollution are on pg
    62.
  • Water supplies can also be disrupted by human
    actions
  • Changing flows? deforestation may lead to
    over-supply of water to rivers. This can lead to
    flooding. Drainpipes in urban areas also can lead
    to accelerated supply to rivers.
  • Changing stores? these are naturally recharged
    when it rains. They are essential for human
    existence. If water is taken from these stores
    too quickly they will not have a chance to
    re-charge and they will dry up. This is called
    over abstraction.
  • Coca-cola and the Plachimada aquifer? an example
    of over abstraction in an LEDC by a
    trans-national corporation. Pg 63.
  • Water can be managed on two scales large and
    small scale. You need to know an example of each
    scale. The text books has examples of the
    Colorado River in America and a hand-pump in
    Tanzania. You may have also looked at the Three
    Gorges Dam in China and researched a
    Northamptonshire example of small-scale water
    management.
  • You must think about SUSTAINABILITY when you are
    answering any question about management. Does it
    consider the SOCIAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC and
    POLITICAL aspects?
  • INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY? this is a management
    strategy that can be used in poorer countries. It
    allows them to install appropriate, small-scale
    practical solutions that local people can apply
    and maintain themselves. This includes hand
    pumps, lined wells and rain barrels or pumpkin
    tanks.

21
Case Studies
  • AUSTRALIAS UNRELIABLE WATER
  • Where is the desert in Australia located?
  • Why are there water shortages here?
  • What are the impacts of this water shortage?

22
Case Studies
  • Colorado River? large-scale water management
  • Location of Colorado and dam
  • Background information

Afridev handpump in Tanzania? small-scale water
management Location Background
information
23
Case Studies Here you need to add in any other
case study notes from lessons
24
Section B Small-scale Dynamic Planet Coastal
Change and Conflict
  • What you need to know
  • Geology and landforms
  • Geomorphology and processes
  • Coastal erosion
  • Managing the coast

25
Theory
  • 1. How are different coastlines produced by
    physical processes?
  • The shape of a coastline can be affected by two
    main things geology and wave erosion. There are
    two types of coastline, define what they are like
    below (use the table pg 70 and 71)
  • Concordant Coastline?
  • Discordant Coastline?
  • Coasts can also be formed by erosion remember
    the anagram CASH to recite the types of erosion
    (MARINE PROCESSES)
  • C
  • A
  • S
  • H
  • In your notes, draw a diagram that shows the
    landforms that are created by this type of
    erosion.
  • WAVES ? define these key terms in your notes

26
Theory
  • Landforms at the coast can also be caused by
    cliff retreat. These features and landforms
    include WAVE-CUT NOTCHES AND PLATFORMS. At the
    Seven Sisters in Kent, the cliffs are 160 metres
    high and the wave-cut platform extends 540 metres
    out to sea!
  • WEATHERING? there are 3 types of weathering also
    called SUB-AERIAL PROCESSES
  • Mechanical weathering? salt crystal growth can
    increase cracks in rocks causing stress
  • Chemical weathering? Co2 dissolves in water
    causing acidic water- this can react with the
    minerals in rocks to dissolve it
  • Biological weathering? roots of vegetation and
    burrowing animals can cause stress in rock cracks
  • MASS MOVEMENT? there are 2 forms of mass movement
    at the coast. These can dramatically change the
    coastline even overnight!
  • Rock fall? sudden movements, rocks collect at the
    base
  • Slumping? happens when the bottom of a cliff is
    eroded away by waves. The cliff can become weak
    and slide downwards. This can be triggered by
    heavy rain. This can be a rotational movement.
  • How else can coastlines be affected? Fill in the
    notes below
  • 1. Changing sea levels and storm activity
  • 2. Storms at sea causing coastal flooding

27
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28
Theory
  • 2. Why does conflict occur on the coast, and how
    can this be managed?
  • Read pages 76-77 in your text book to find out
    about rates of cliff retreat and the effects it
    has on people and businesses.
  • There are many ways to manage coastal erosion and
    these are split into HARD and SOFT (holistic)
    ENGINEERING.
  • In your notes create a table the shows the
    advantages and disadvantages of each coastal
    management strategy.
  • Examples of each type of engineering include
  • HARD? sea walls, groyne, rip rap, revetments,
    off-shore reefs
  • SOFT or holistic approaches? beach replenishment,
    managed retreat, cliff regarding
  • ICZM? Integrated Coastal Zone Management? this
    means treating a coastal zone as one managed
    planned development. Read pg 81 to find out more.
  • In the UK local councils and the Environment
    Agency pay for coastal defences. They choose from
    the following 4 options
  • Hold the line? use sea defences to stop erosion?
    EXPENSIVE
  • Advance the line? use sea defences to move the
    coast further into the sea? VERY EXPENSIVE
  • Strategic Retreat? gradually let the coast erode
    and move people away from risks. This may involve
    compensation for some people
  • Do nothing? let nature take its course.
  • You may be asked about these options in the exam
    and be able to link them to a NAMED EXAMPLE. If
    you are asked about which choice might be best or
    worst you must remember to consider the SOCIAL,
    ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS AND THEN LINK
    TO sustainability.

29
Case Studies
  • People and property in Holderness- pg 78-79
  • Answer the following questions to build up a good
    case study
  • Where is Holderness located?
  • Describe what Holderness is like
  • What makes Holderness prone to erosion?
  • What are the options available to people in
    Holderness?
  • What has already been lost in Holderness?
  • Read the opinions on coastal management- put them
    into an order of
  • Strongly for and strongly against coastal
    management
  • What are the costs and benefits to managing the
    coast?
  • What do you think they should do?

Swanage Bay- Costal management Location?
Problems and solutions in Durlston
Bay Problems in Swanage Bay Solutions in
Swanage Bay Impacts compass rose
30
Case Studies Use this space to add notes on any
other case studies you have done in class.
31
Section C Large-Scale Dynamic Planet Oceans on
the Edge
  • What you need to know
  • Threats to the ocean
  • Ecosystem change
  • Increasing exploitation
  • Sustainable management

32
Theory
  • 1. How and why are some ecosystems threatened
    with destruction?
  • The term ecosystem describes a grouping of
    plants and animals that is linked with its local
    physical environment. The oceans, covering
    two-thirds of our planet, are home to marine
    ecosystem communities composed of fish, aquatic
    plants and sea birds- as well as tiny but very
    important organisms such as krill and plankton.
  • HINT make sure you are able to name some values
    of the Oceans e.g. its uses and value to human
    and animal life.
  • TASK make notes and research further the
    importance and value of CORAL REEFS AND MANGROVE
    SWAMPS. Pg 102-103.
  • The way we use Oceans is becoming UNSUSTAINABLE
    this means we aren't treating/using it in a way
    that will preserve it for future generations.
    Within the oceans here is a natural balance
    between all life- these relationships form the
    FOOD WEB. Use page 104 to make a copy of the
    Oceanic food web. It is also important to
    consider the NUTRIENT CYCLE which is the movement
    and re-use of important substances e.g.,
    nitrogen.
  • DISRUPTIONS TO FOOD WEBS? the main three
    disruptions you need to understand are
  • Over fishing?
  • Eutrophication?
  • Siltation?
  • Climate change also disrupts the oceans. Use page
    106 to make notes below to explain how and why
  • Warmer water?
  • More acidic water and bleaching?
  • Higher sea levels?

33
Theory
  • 2. How should ecosystems be managed sustainably?
  • There are two ways that marine ecosystems can be
    managed and that is again, as with the other
    units, at a LOCAL and GLOBAL SCALE.
  • Case study on Firth of Clyde, Scotland (see next
    page to complete this activity). This is an
    example of where humans are putting pressure on
    the marine wildlife and there are plans to make
    the area more sustainable.
  • SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT AT A LOCAL SCALE?
  • Managing coral reefs? reefs are made of living
    animals, each piece contains polyp. They are part
    of a large colony of marine life. The polyp are
    skeletal creatures that form coral in clear, warm
    and sunlight seas.
  • Coral reefs are home to ¼ of the worlds fish
    species. It also acts as natural barriers that
    protect the coastline from erosion. They are also
    great for tourism. However there are
    sustainability issues that come with this.
    Complete the case study6 on Coral Triangle on the
    case study section.
  • SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT AT A GLOBAL SCALE?
  • Global actions are needed to tackle pollution and
    to save threatened species from overfishing and
    extinction. International Organisations play a
    large role in ensuring that the oceans are
    protected.
  • The United Nations Food and Agriculture
    Organisations regulates the management of deep
    sea fisheries.
  • Individuals around the world can also do their
    bit by changing their shopping habits to ensure
    that we only buy sustainably sources fish and buy
    dolphin friendly tuna.
  • TASK use page 114-115 to find out how else we
    are protecting our oceans. Make sure you know
    which Organisations are helping too!

34
Case Studies
  • Pressures in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland page
    109-111
  • The Firth of Clyde is a 60km stretch of water
    along Scotlands West coast. It is home to 40,000
    animal and microbe species. You can often see
    seals, harbour porpoises and basking sharks in
    this area. Leather back Turtles and Killer Whales
    are sometimes seen as well. So it is obviously an
    extremely important ecosystem. Make notes on the
    4 main pressures that humans put on this area.
    Which is the most severe and why?
  • 1. Fishing
  • 2. Tourism and leisure
  • 3. Sewerage disposal
  • 4. Military testing
  • What is the impact of scallop fishing in Lamlash
    Bay?

35
Case Studies
  • Sustainable Management of the Coral Triangle

Shetland Islands Aquaculture
36
Case studies use this space to add notes on any
other case studies you have done in lessons.
37
Practice Questions
  • Restless Earth
  • Using examples, describe some of the hazards of
    living on a destructive plate margin (4)
    Foundation
  • Using an example, outline the impact of a major
    earthquake on people and property in the
    developing world (4) Higher
  • Describe 2 ways in which buildings in developing
    countries can be made more resistant to
    earthquakes (2)
  • Explain how preparation and mitigation could
    reduce tectonic hazards (4)
  • Explain why some areas are more vulnerable than
    others (4)
  • Explain the role magma plays in shaping shield
    volcanoes (2)
  • How do tectonic plates move? (2)
  • Climate and change
  • Describe two human activities which are
    increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the
    atmosphere (4) Foundation
  • Describe two challenges the UK might face in the
    future due to global warming (4) higher
  • Explain one possible good and bad effect of
    global warming (4)
  • What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? (3)
  • Describe one natural cause of climate change in
    the past (2)
  • What is megafauna? (2)

38
  • Battle for the biosphere
  • Describe some of the goods and services the
    biosphere provides humans with (4) Foundation
  • Describe two services the biosphere provides and
    explain why they are important (4) Higher
  • Describe 2 ways the forests are important to
    human life (4)
  • Explain how one biome is being threatened by
    human interference (4)
  • Explain the value of one biome you have studied
    (4)
  • Using examples, explain some ways of conserving
    threatened species (4)
  • Explain how one biome is being threatened by
    human interference (2)
  • Water world
  • Describe how deforestation could affect
    water-cycle processes (4) Foundation
  • Explain how human activity could change the
    amount of infiltration (3) Higher
  • Name the two largest water stores on earth (2)
  • Explain why Australias water is considered
    unreliable (4)
  • Describe two ways in which climate change could
    impact on water supplies (4)
  • Explain why the biosphere and lithosphere are
    important to the hydrological cycle (4)
  • Using a named example, describe how water schemes
    in LEDCs improve quality of life. (4)
  • Describe the causes of river pollution and
    explain how people dealt with it (5)

39
  • Coastal change and conflict
  • Describe the advantages and disadvantages of
    different hard engineering methods used to
    protect coastlines (6) Foundation
  • Explain why some cliffs erode more rapidly than
    others (6) Higher
  • Describe and explain the process of Longshore
    Drift (6)
  • What is a concordant coastline? (2)
  • Describe how changing sea levels can impact
    coastlines (4)
  • Using named examples, explain the effects of
    erosion at the coast on people (6)
  • Using named examples, explain how coastal
    management choices can cause conflict at the
    coast (6)
  • Describe how strategic retreat would work as a
    coastal management strategy (4)
  • Oceans on the edge
  • Using examples, describe the threats facing
    marine ecosystems (6) Foundation
  • Using named examples, explain the short and
    long-term threats facing marine ecosystems (6)
    Higher
  • Describe the type of area a mangrove swamp might
    be found (2)
  • How can an undisturbed mangrove swamp support
    human activities? (2)
  • How could an increase in demand for one type of
    fish impact on the food chain? (6)
  • Explain how the change in ocean scurrents could
    impact marine ecosystems? (6)
  • Explain why the worlds oceans are under threat
    (4)
  • With reference to an example, explain the
    problems and successes of sustainable fishing (4)
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