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THE UN GLOBAL COMPACT

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Title: THE UN GLOBAL COMPACT


1
THE UN GLOBAL COMPACT
  • MODULE 4FROM PRINCIPLE TO PRACTICE
  • Session 2 The GC Toolkit Environmental
    Principles

2
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Introduction and Overview
  • The GC Tools have the following essential
    functions
  • Provide a methodology for collecting and
    organising information
  • Improve knowledge and understanding of
  • the dynamics of the system
  • the drivers of behaviour
  • the reasons for failure
  • Provide a description of accepted levels of
    performance and/or prompts the setting of
    performance targets
  • Identify proven means for modifying behaviour to
    reach these performance targets
  • Provide the means for monitoring and reporting on
    progress in improving performance
  • Some managers intuitively see the challenge
    and the correct solution without the conscious
    help of tools

3
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Introduction and Overview
  • Different types of Environmental Sustainability
    Tools
  • Environmental Management Tools
  • Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Environmental Monitoring and Auditing Tools
  • Environmental Reporting and Communication Tools
  • Note the next few slides provide some examples
    of specific tools for each of these broad general
    types. Each of these types of tools is then
    linked to the UNGC Performance Model introduced
    in the previous Module.
  • A comprehensive Framework for Action is provided
    in Appendix 1 of the Manuals, showing the
    inter-relationship between the various tools, the
    GC principles, the training modules and the
    Performance Model.

4
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Introduction and Overview
  • The response of a hypothetical company What
    tools and when?
  • Decision to manage environmental risks by
    implementing EMS
  • Strategy of Cleaner Production (CPOA)
  • This leads to one or more of the following
  • - Environmental auditing
  • - Pollution and waste audits
  • - Supply chain audits and assessments
  • - Ecological foot-printing
  • Environmental performance indicators may then be
    developed, which in turn may require more
    detailed assessments including for example
  • Environmental impact assessment
  • Eco-efficiency
  • Life-cycle assessment
  • Industrial ecology
  • Total cost assessments
  • Environmental technology assessment.
  • Results could then be communicated by reporting.

5
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Introduction and Overview
  • Different types of Environmental Sustainability
    Tools
  • Environmental Management Tools
  • Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Environmental Monitoring and Auditing Tools
  • Environmental Reporting and Communication Tools

Environmental Management Tools Environmental
Management Systems e.g. ISO 14001 or
EMAS Environmental Management Strategies Cleaner
Production, Sustainable Consumption and
Eco-efficiency Life-cycle management Design for
the Environment/ Eco-design Product stewardship
Product-services systems Industrial ecology UNEP
APELL 
6
From Principle to Practice Relating
environmental management tools to the GC
Performance Model
GC TOOLS Environmental Management Strategies
(e.g. Cleaner Production, Life Cycle Management,
Design for Environment)
GC TOOLS Environmental Management System (E.g.
ISO14000)
Environmental Management System
Environmental Management System
Internal Communication (as part of an EMS)
Environmental Management Tools (E.g. Life-Cycle
Management)
Environmental Management Tools (E.g. Product
Stewardship, Product-Services Systems)
7
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Introduction and Overview
  • Different types of Environmental Sustainability
    Tools
  • Environmental Management Tools
  • Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Environmental Monitoring and Auditing Tools
  • Environmental Reporting and Communication Tools

Environmental Assessment Tools Environmental
Impact Assessment Environmental Risk
Assessment Cleaner Production Opportunity
Assessment Environmental Technology
Assessment Life-Cycle Assessment Total Cost
Assessment
8
From Principle to Practice Relating
environmental assessment tools to the GC
Performance Model
GC TOOLS Environmental Assessment Tools (E.g.
Risk Assessment, CPOA, LCA, TCA)
GC TOOLS
Environmental Assessment Tools (E.g. Risk
Assessment, EnTA)
Environmental Assessment Tools (e.g. Supply Chain
Assessment, Life-Cycle Assessment)
Environmental Risk Assessment
9
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Introduction and Overview
  • Different types of Environmental Sustainability
    Tools
  • Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Environmental Management Tools
  • Environmental Monitoring and Auditing Tools
  • Environmental Reporting and Communication Tools

Monitoring and Auditing Tools Environmental
Performance Indicators Environmental
Auditing Pollution and Waste Audits Supply chain
audits and assessments
10
From Principle to Practice Relating monitoring
and auditing tools to the GC Performance Model
GC TOOLS Environmental Auditing Monitoring Tools
GC TOOLS
Environmental Monitoring Tools (e.g. KPIs)
Environmental Monitoring Auditing Tools
Environmental Auditing Monitoring Tools (e.g.
Supply Chain Audits)
11
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Introduction and Overview
  • Different types of Environmental Sustainability
    Tools
  • Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Environmental Management Tools
  • Environmental Monitoring and Auditing Tools
  • Environmental Reporting and Communication Tools

Reporting and Communication Tools Corporate
Environmental / Sustainability Reports Stakeholder
engagement activities   Developing partnerships
for progress Environmental labelling
programmes Ecological footprints
12
From Principle to Practice Relating reporting
and communication tools to the GC Performance
Model
GC TOOLS Communication Tools (e.g. Stakeholder
engagement)
GC TOOLS Communication Tools (E.g. Stakeholder
engagement)
Communication Tools (E.g. Stakeholder engagement)
Communication Tools (e.g. Eco-labelling)
Environmental Reporting Communication
Tools (E.g. Sustainability Reporting)
13
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Environmental Management Systems
  • An EMS is the part of the overall management
    system that includes organizational structure,
    planning activities, responsibilities, practices,
    procedures, processes and resources for
    developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing
    and maintaining the environmental policy. Key
    examples include ISO 14001 and EMAS.
  • EMS are used to
  • Help companies to identify and prioritise their
    key environmental impacts in a structured and
    systematic manner
  • Provide a framework for setting clear objectives
    and targets for managing these impacts
  • Ensure that structured processes and procedures
    are in place for measuring and monitoring
    performance
  • The type of EMS depends on the nature, size
    and complexity of the companys activities,
    products and services

14
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
ISO 14001 Environmental Management System
Plan
Continual Improvement
Act
Do
Check
15
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
ISO 14001 Environmental Management System
  • Plan
  • Identify aspects and impacts, hazards and risks
  • Document legislation and other requirements
  • Set objectives and measurable targets
  • Policy and management programme

Continual Improvement
Act
Do
Check
16
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
ISO 14001 Environmental Management System
  • Do
  • Structure and responsibility
  • Training, awareness and competence
  • Communication
  • EMS documentation
  • Document control
  • Operational control
  • Emergency preparedness response

Plan
Continual Improvement
Act
Check
17
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
ISO 14001 Environmental Management System
Plan
Continual Improvement
Act
Do
  • Check
  • Monitoring, measuring and auditing performance
  • Maintaining records
  • Schedule, plan and conduct system audits
  • Non-conformance and corrective action

18
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
ISO 14001 Environmental Management System
Plan
  • Act
  • Implement corrective actions
  • Track improvement
  • Management review

Continual Improvement
Do
Check
19
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Training and Internal Communication part of an
    EMS
  • Ongoing employee and management training and
    internal communication at all levels is critical
    for ensuring that there is sufficient commitment
    and understanding to integrating principles of
    environmental responsibility into the business,
    and to ensuring that there is a required change
    in attitudes and business behaviour
  • Training and communication should be undertaken
    on issues such as
  • Awareness of the companys environmental impacts
    and aspects
  • Technical understanding on how to manage these
    impacts and aspects
  • Knowledge of current and potential environmental
    liabilities
  • Skills to effectively implement management
    systems and programmes
  • Building and maintaining motivation to address
    environmental concerns

20
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Cleaner Production
  • A preventive environmental approach, aimed at
    increasing resource efficiency and reducing the
    generation of pollution and waste at source,
    rather than addressing and mitigating the
    symptoms.

Conserving raw materials, water and
energy Eliminating toxic raw materials Reducing
the quantity and toxicity of all
emissions Reducing wastes at source
Cleaner Production is the continuous application
of an integrated preventive environmental
strategy to processes, products and services so
as to increase efficiency and reduce risks to
humans and the environment. UNEP
21
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Cleaner Production (CP) Strategy
  • For production processes, CP includes
  • More efficient use of raw materials, water and
    energy
  • Elimination of toxic or dangerous process input
    materials
  • Minimising the volume and toxicity of all
    emissions and waste
  • For products, CP focuses on
  • Reducing impacts through the products life cycle
  • Adapting design, raw material input,
    manufacturing, use, and disposal
  • For services, CP implies
  • Preventive environmental strategy in the design
    and delivery of services

22
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Promoting CP through good management practices
  • Establish senior management commitment for CP
  • Define, communicate and monitor progress against
    performance targets
  • 2. Appoint waste minimisation champion to
  • Review the true cost of waste
  • Motivate the workforce to reduce waste
    appropriate incentives
  • 3. Implement visible monitoring and reporting on
  • Volumes of waste generated/materials used
  • The cost of waste collection and disposal, and
    resource use
  • The total cost of waste and resource use
  • 4. Inform company suppliers of CP commitment, and
    provide assistance
  • 5. Share expertise through a waste minimisation
    club

23
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Implementing a Cleaner Production Management
    Programme
  • Step 1 Planning Organisation
  • Step 2 Preliminary Assessment
  • Step 3 Detailed Assessment
  • Step 4 Feasibility Analysis
  • Step 5 Implementation
  • Step 6 Monitor Progress

24
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
Implementing a CP Management Programme
25
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Eco-efficiency
  • A management strategy that seeks to produce more
    value with less input of energy and material, and
    with reduced emissions
  • Key opportunity areas for business
  • Re-engineering processes
  • Redesigning products
  • Re-valorising by-products
  • Rethinking markets
  • Eco-efficiency measures
  • Reducing the material and energy intensity of
    goods and services
  • Increasing the service intensity of goods and
    services
  • Reducing toxic dispersion
  • Enhancing material recyclability
  • Maximising sustainable use of renewable resources
  • Increasing material/product durability
  • Increasing service intensity

26
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
Implementing CP and Eco-efficiency A Structured
approach
STEP 1 Assign formal responsibilityfor cleaner
production / eco-efficiency
STEP 2 Identify opportunities by undertaking a CP
opportunity assessment
STEP 3 Analyse theinformation
STEP 7 Review theprogress
STEP 6 Implement theaction plan
STEP 4 Consider the various options available
STEP 5 Produce anaction plan
27
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Sustainable Production and Consumption
  • What is Sustainable Consumption?
  • the use of services and products which respond
    to basic needs and bring a better quality of life
    while minimizing the use of natural resources and
    toxic materials as well as the emissions of waste
    and pollutants over the life cycle of the service
    or product so as to not jeopardize the needs of
    future generations.
  • UN CSD, 1995
  • Includes interventions that influence
    consumption patterns (e.g, product stewardship,
    product labelling and information and product
    design)
  • Consumers are increasingly interested in the
    world that lies behind the products. They want to
    know how and where and by whom the products have
    been produced.
  • Klaus Toepfer, UNEP Executive Director

28
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Business Response to Sustainable Production and
    Consumption
  • An extension of the eco-efficiency approach to
    include
  • Technological and social innovations to improve
    quality of life (ESTs, Product-services systems,
    Green Procurement Strategies, etc.)
  • Provide and inform consumer choice
    (Eco-labelling, Green Advertising, etc.)
  • Improved market conditions through appropriate
    legislation and regulation (Extended Producer
    Responsibility, etc.)
  • Attention to the need to reduce resource
    consumption in production and products
    (Eco-design Design for Environment,
    Eco-efficiency, CP, ESTs, Product-services
    systems)
  • To improve the effectiveness and quality of
    product use (Eco-design, etc.)
  • Reducing end-of-life waste (e.g. through
    recycling) (Product Stewardship, etc.)

29
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
Production Chain Schematic - Examples of
strategies to improve Resource Productivity in
Production and Consumption
Processing Industry
Manufacturer of finished products
Extraction of Raw materials
  • Cleaner processing and energy technology
  • More emphasis on material with a favourable
    life course
  • Less material per unit
  • Larger share of materials from recycling
    industry
  • Better moduling of components
  • Cleaner processing
  • and energy technology
  • Cleaner processing
  • and energy technology

30
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
Production Chain Schematic - Examples of
strategies to improve Resource Productivity in
Production and Consumption .
Distribution
Consumption
Waste Management
  • Rationalize link between goods or
  • services and consumer
  • (computer shopping)
  • Better utilization of energy
  • More re-use and recycling
  • A large share of the total
  • consumption should refer to service
  • More sharing
  • Cleaner and more
  • effective transport
  • Possibly spread
  • Production
  • Re-use of transport
  • packaging
  • More systematic
  • Recycling
  • New materials
  • technology

31
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
Life Cycle Thinking for Sustainable Production
Consumption

implies that everyone in the whole chain of a
products life cycle, from cradle to grave, has a
responsibility and a role to play, taking into
account all the relevant external effects.
Klaus Toepfer
32
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Design For The Environment (DFE)
  • Examining a products entire projected lifecycle
    and identifying measures that can be taken to
    minimise the environmental impact of the product
    at its design stage
  • DFE strategies considers design measures to
    reduce the environmental impact in each stage of
    its life cycle
  • Raw materials design measures relating e.g. to
    resource conservation
  • Manufacturing providing for eco-efficiency in
    the production phase
  • Product use making provision in product-use
    phase e.g. for energy and water efficiency,
    reduced material use, and increased durability
  • End-of-life key design considerations include
    design for disassembly, design for durability,
    product re-use, and design for recycling

33
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Eco-Design
  • Eco-Design considers the relation between a
    product and the environment.
  • Common propositions
  • Environmental impacts from products have
    continued to rise relative to production
    processes
  • A life-cycle perspective on the environmental
    impacts of a product captures the whole
    production-consumption chain
  • Of the (life-cycle) impacts from products, 60 to
    80 are determined at the design stage
  • A focus on products is a better way to engage
    business interest and action because it focuses
    on the products' market vulnerability

34
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Cradle-to-Cradle Design A New Paradigm
  • Current Industrial System a one-way
    manufacturing flow a "cradle to grave"
    lifecycle
  • Eco-efficiency minimizing waste, pollution, and
    natural resource depletion- seeks to make the
    current, destructive system sustainable
  • Not a strategy for long-term change
  • True change Designing industrial processes so
    they do not generate toxic pollution and "waste"
    in the first place
  • Long-term prosperity depends not on the
    efficiency of a fundamentally destructive system,
    but on the effectiveness of processes designed to
    be healthy and renewable in the first place -
    William McDonough

35
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Cradle-to-Cradle Design Environmentally
    Intelligent
  • New paradigm modeling human industry on
    natures processes in terms of which
  • WASTE FOOD
  • Materials are viewed as nutrients circulating in
    healthy, safe metabolisms
  • 1) Nature's biological metabolism should be
    protected and enriched
  • all waste food for biological system
    (biodegradable)
  • 2) Technical metabolism enhanced through
    circulation of mineral and synthetic materials
  • All waste food for another industrial system
  • Cradle-to-Cradle by William McDonough Michael
    Bragnaurt
  • http//www.mbdc.com

36
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Cradle-to-Cradle Design Benefits
  • Design for life-time customers products leased
    again again to customer base
  • Risk management risks to environmental and
    human health are reduced by eliminating the
    concept of waste selecting materials that are
    safe to both human and natural systems
  • Cost reduction dramatically reduce legal
    material costs
  • Product differentiation products that offer
    customers excellence by all measurements
  • Cradle-to-Cradle designs have positive effects
    extending beyond the client company to its
    suppliers, customers, communities, and the
    natural world
  • William McDonough

37
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Product-Services Systems
  • Developing a marketable mix of products and
    services that are jointly capable of fulfilling a
    client's need - with less environmental impact
  • A new concept for businesses to improve their
    sustainability performance
  • Analyse the needs of consumers that are fulfilled
    with products and services, and use this as basis
    for innovation
  • A shift in focus from selling products to selling
    the utility provided by the product

38
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Product Stewardship
  • A product-centred approach to environmental
    management, where manufacturers either
    voluntarily or under pressure from government
    take responsibility for the entire life-cycle
    impacts of a product and its packaging
  • Benefits
  • Green marketing opportunities
  • Avoids regulation
  • Achieves environmental goals

39
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Product Stewardship
  • The objective of product stewardship is to
    encourage manufacturers to redesign products with
    fewer toxins, to make them more durable,
    reusable, and recyclable, and using recycled
    materials.
  • Tools of Product Stewardship include
  • Take-back programs
  • Leasing
  • Life-cycle management
  • Shared responsibility
  • Extended producer responsibility
  • Manufacturer responsibility

40
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Product Stewardship
  • Step 1 Evaluate a product from the life-cycle
    perspective

Step 2 Choose one of the stages that seems to
cause major environmental problems and think
about alternative ways of performing that stage
41
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Industrial ecology 
  • An interdisciplinary framework aimed at
    developing industrial systems that mimic natural
    ecosystems, typically achieved through the
    symbiotic co-location of industries so that waste
    from one industry can serve as a raw material
    input into another.

The diagrams above show the application of
industrial ecology thinking in the context of a
brewery. The figure on the left shows the typical
process flow diagram, resulting in waste to
landfill. The diagram on the right shows how this
waste can be an important natural resource for
other processes. Taken from www.zeri.org
42
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • Industrial ecology 
  • Industrial ecology encompasses a variety of
    related areas of research and practice,
    including
  • Material and energy flow studies ("industrial
    metabolism") 
  • Dematerialization and decarbonization 
  • Technological change and the environment 
  • Life-cycle planning, design and assessment 
  • Design for the environment ("eco-design")
  • Extended producer responsibility ("product
    stewardship") 
  • Eco-industrial parks ("industrial symbiosis") 
  • Product-oriented environmental policy
  • Eco-efficiency 

43
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • UNEP APELL is
  • A modular, flexible methodological tool for
    preventing accidents
  • Failing this, to minimise their impacts
  • Explained in the APELL Handbook (1988)
    (www.uneptie.org/apell)
  • Directly supported by the International Council
    of Chemical Associations (ICCA) and numerous
    other partners
  • Achieved by assisting decision-makers and
    technical personnel to
  • Increase community awareness
  • Prepare co-ordinated response plans involving
    industry, government, and the local community
  • Also adapted for specific applications
  • APELL For Port Areas (1996)
  • TransAPELL, Guidance for Dangerous Goods
    Transport Emergency Planning in a Local
    Community (2000)
  • APELL for Mining (2001)

44
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Management Tools
  • The Benefits of APELL are
  • In reducing the likelihood of accidents and
    reducing their impacts
  • In helping to build relationships between a
    company and the community - of benefit over the
    long term
  • In assisting community awareness and
    understanding of the operation and its management
    - should generate the confidence, trust and
    support which companies need whether or not they
    experience an accident

45
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Environmental Impact Assessment
    (EIA)
  • A planning tool aimed at identifying and
    minimising the environmental impacts associated
    with proposed projects
  • Key elements in an EIA
  • Scoping
  • Screening
  • Identifying and evaluating alternatives
  • Mitigating measures, dealing with uncertainty
  • Issuing environmental statements report EIA
    findings

46
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Environmental Impact Assessments
    (EIAs)
  • Aim to
  • Predict environmental impacts at an early stage
    in project planning and design
  • Find ways and means to reduce adverse impacts
  • Shape projects to suit the local environment
  • Present the predictions and options to
    decision-makers
  • Benefits
  • Reduced cost and time of project implementation
    and design
  • Avoided treatment/clean-up costs
  • Avoided impacts of laws and regulations.

47
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA)
  • Typically consisting of Human Health Risk
    Assessment and Ecological Risk Assessment, ERAs
  • Describe a hazard (e.g. a chemical pollutant
    detrimental to human health or habitat loss
    impacting on biodiversity)
  • Describe the potential for exposure to the hazard
  • Estimate the risk, or likelihood of a negative
    effect, based on the hazard and exposures
  • Consider uncertainties which may be inherent in
    arriving at the risk estimate

48
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Environmental Risk Assessment
  • A process which helps answer the following
  • What can go wrong? (risk perception)
  • What is the likelihood and severity of any
    adverse occurrence? (risk assessment)
  • What can be done to manage any significant
    adverse occurrence and who should be involved?
    (risk management and risk communication).

49
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Environmental Technology Assessment
  • A description of the technology, its goal, and
    the likely affected stakeholders
  • An assessment of the environmental pressure and
    impacts of using the technology
  • An evaluation of the environmental risks and
    their significance
  • A comparative assessment of alternative
    technologies
  • Recommendations on technology choices.

50
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • EnTA for Identification and Selection of ESTs
  • Aim to identify environmental, human health
    safety impacts of a new technology investment
  • Require a dynamic, evolving process of
    assessment, transfer, uptake and verification of
    ESTs EnTA
  • EnTA is a systematic procedure to assess
    technology options at the pre-investment stage,
    with a focus on
  • relative environmental performances
  • implications for sustainable development
  • likely cultural and socio-economic consequences
  • EnTA helps all stakeholders reach a consensus on
    the technology intervention that is expected to
    be the most
  • Environmentally sound
  • Socially acceptable
  • Economically viable

51
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Key characteristics of an EnTA
  • Technology focused
  • Focused at enterprise level rather than national
    policy level
  • Designed to ensure consideration of alternative
    technology interventions
  • Simplifying, flexible, largely qualitative and
    often subjective
  • Designed to involve, and reflect the interests
    of, multiple stakeholders
  • Scoping tool - to be used at the idea stage,
    rather than after development of a formal/full
    proposal when it is more appropriate to undertake
    an EIA
  • A proactive environmental management tool
  • Multidisciplinary in approach
  • Comprehensive and integrated with respect to
    the full life cycle and broad implications of the
    technology system
  • Identifies if more sophisticated assessment tools
    should be used
  • Voluntary it is not considered to be a
    regulatory tool

52
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Overview of an EnTA
  • D.I.C.E.
  • Describe - the proposed technology intervention,
    any alternatives, their requirements, and the
    operating environment
  • Identify - the pressures the technology places on
    the environment
  • Characterise - the environmental impacts these
    pressures may cause
  • Evaluate - the overall consequences of the
    impacts, in light of local conditions

53
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • EnTA Preparation
  • Step 1 Technology Description
  • Step 2 Identify Environmental Pressures
  • Step 3 Preliminary Judgement of Impacts
  • Step 4 Comparison of Options
  • Step 5 Consensus and Recommendations
  • Completing the EnTA

54
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • EnTA Identify Environmental Pressures

55
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • EnTA Preliminary Judgement of Impacts

56
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • EnTA Performance Data
  • MaESTRO - http//www.unep.org.jp/index/ietc/index.
    html
  • Technical publications
  • Academic Journals
  • Expert information
  • (Note A full list of reference details is
    provided in Module 4 Session 3 of the
    Delegates Manual)

57
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Cleaner Production Opportunity Assessment
  • A systematic approach to identifying
    opportunities for implementing cleaner
    production/eco-efficiency measures in a company
  • Identify opportunities relating for example to
  • Changing raw material and energy inputs
  • Organisation and management practices
  • Changing equipment and process technologies
  • Re-using and recycling wastes (internally and
    externally)
  • Introducing changes to the product and packaging

58
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
Example of CP worksheet
59
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
Example of CP opportunity checklist
60
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA)
  • A systematic approach to measuring resource
    consumption and environmental releases throughout
    a products life cycle, from extraction through
    to disposal, with the aim of aiding
    decision-making when comparing the relative
    environmental merits of two or more product or
    service categories
  • Key stages in LCAs
  • Identify and quantify environmental loads
  • Assess and evaluate the potential environmental
    impacts of these loads
  • Assess options for reducing environmental impacts

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Life-Cycle Assessment

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Assessment Tools
  • Total Cost Assessment
  • Developed in 1991 by the Tellus Institute as a
    tool for integrating business and environmental
    objectives, TCA seeks to capture costs and
    savings that are generally ignored by traditional
    approaches.
  • It goes beyond traditional accounting by
    examining changes in direct, indirect, contingent
    and less-quantifiable costs and savings over the
    longer term
  • The 5 major TCA Principles
  • Accounting for costs rather than outlays
  • Accounting for hidden costs
  • Accounting for overhead and indirect costs to
    individual services
  • Accounting for past and future costs
  • Accounting for costs according to activities or
    paths

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Monitoring and Auditing Tools
  • Environmental Auditing
  • A systematic, documented verification process of
    objectively obtaining and evaluating audit
    evidence to determine whether specified
    environmental activities, events, conditions,
    management systems, or information about these
    matters, confirm with audit criteria, and
    communicating the results of this process.
  • Environmental audits may assess compliance
    against with e.g.
  • Environmental laws and standards
  • A companys environmental management system (eg
    ISO 14001)
  • A companys environmental/sustainability report

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Monitoring and Auditing Tools
  • Supply Chain Audits and Assessments
  • An assessment by corporate purchasers of the
    environmental and social performance of their
    suppliers. This is a valuable means for the
    larger, more visible, companies to transmit
    pressure for change down the supply chain.
  • Companies committed to sustainability should
    examine supply chains as
  • Most of the innovations they may wish to
    implement internally will depend heavily on the
    quality (and sustainability) of what is coming in
    through their supply chain.
  • Management for sustainability implies a focus on
    long-term risk reduction, and in achieving this
    ones dependence on other companies values and
    performance is critical.

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Monitoring and Auditing Tools
  • Environmental Performance Indicators targets in
    an EMS
  • Quantified information presented as aggregated
    data to provides decision-makers and interested
    parties with an indication of performance trends.
    An important objective of such indicators is to
    provide a summary set of statistics to assess how
    performance is progressing towards stated targets
    and to assist decision-making.
  • Environmental performance indicators can be
    presented as
  • Absolute measures (e.g. total energy use)
    important to indicate an organisations overall
    direct impact on the environment
  • Relative/normalised measures (e.g. energy use per
    unit of output) to highlight the organisations
    efficiency, and for comparative purposes

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Environmental Monitoring and Auditing Tools
  • Ecological footprint
  • A graphic approach for conceptualising the
    environmental impact of a particular individual,
    organisation, product, service or political
    region, and for understanding how this relates to
    the overall carrying capacity of the planet.
  • Ecological footprint analysis provides an
    informative area-based indicator of
    sustainability

67
The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Reporting and Communications Tools
  • Corporate Environmental / Sustainability
    Reporting
  • Increasing community, regulatory and financial
    pressure on companies to report on their
    environmental performance
  • Such reporting should respond to the interests of
    key stakeholders and should report on issues that
    are material to core business
  • The process of reporting should feed into
    development of company strategy, and provide a
    stimulus for continuous commitment and
    improvement
  • The report should provide evidence that the
    company understands its key environmental impacts
    and should demonstrate its commitment to
    addressing these in an effective manner
  • Provision should be included for external
    verification / assurance

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Reporting and Communications Tools
  • Some Key Questions
  • Why report?
  • To whom to report?
  • What to report?
  • How to report?
  • What process to use?

Motivation
Market
Message
Medium
Method
Materiality
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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Reporting and Communications Tools
  • The GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines
  • Environmental Performance Criteria
  • Energy - total use / move to renewables
  • Materials - total material use / specific issues
  • Water - total water use
  • Emissions, effluents and waste
  • Transport - distance and method
  • Suppliers - supply chain management
  • Product services - impact with use
  • Land-use / biodiversity
  • Compliance

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Reporting and Communications Tools
The GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines
  • Reporting in accordance with..
  • Report on numbered elements of Sections 1-3 in
    Part C
  • Include GRI Content Index
  • Respond to core indicators in Section 5 of Part C
  • Ensure consistency with the reporting principles
  • Include statement signed by Board or CEO

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Reporting and Communications Tools
The Global Compact Principles and the GRI
Criteria 
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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Reporting and Communications Tools
  • Stakeholder engagement activities 
  • A well planned stakeholder dialogue
  • Helps to scope and prioritise issues
  • Allows for greater understanding between
    stakeholders and their respective needs and
    constraints
  • Ensures direct engagement of different groups and
    helps forge alliances, collaborative partnerships
    and shared principles
  • Enables people to both recognize and take
    responsibility
  • Encourages synergy and new ideas
  • Manages disagreement and conflict

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Reporting and Communications Tools
  • Stakeholder engagement activities 
  • A stakeholder is any individual or group who is
    affected by, or can influence, the activities of
    another group. Stakeholder engagement refers to
    the process of interaction between an
    organisation and its stakeholders, beyond the
    one-way communication of data.
  • A companys stakeholders typically include (for
    example)
  • Employees and trade union organisations
  • Shareholders and financial analysts
  • Neighbouring communities and civil society bodies
  • Customers and suppliers
  • Business peers
  • Regulators

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Reporting and Communications Tools
  • Environmental Labelling Programmes 
  • e.g. Eco-Labels
  • Why Label?
  • Allows consumers to make informed decisions about
    what they are buying
  • Shows commitment to reduced environmental impact
  • Third party verification gives credibility

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Reporting and Communications Tools
  • Types of environmental labels
  • TYPE I Voluntary label verified by independent
    body, awarded to products fulfilling criteria
    corresponding to the best environmental
    performance within each particular product group.
  • TYPE II Self-declared labels used by
    manufacturers to indicate the environmental
    aspects of a product or service. The label may
    take the form of statements, symbols or graphics
    on product or packaging labels, product
    literature, advertising or similar.
  • TYPE III Label licensed by independent
    organisations, serving as a report card and
    providing information on the possible
    environmental impact of a product, leaving it to
    the consumer to decide which product is best.
    Also known as an Environmental Product
    Declaration.

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The GC Toolkit - Environmental Principles
Reporting and Communications Tools
Environmental Labelling Programmes 
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