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THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH

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Title: THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH


1
THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORKAPPROACH
  • Keerti Bhusan Pradhan
  • Keerti.health_at_gmail.com
  • 9501119651

2
What is LFA?
  • LFA is a systematic planning procedure for
    complete project cycle management
  • It is a problem solving approach which takes into
    account the views of all stakeholders
  • It also agrees on the criteria for project
    success and lists the major assumptions

3
History of LFA
  • Developed in response to poor planning and
    monitoring of Development projects
  • The first logical framework developed for USAID
    at the end of 1960s
  • GTZ was responsible for the development of ZOPP
    or Zielorientierte Projekt Planung
  • NORAD made a significant contribution in 1990
    with their handbook

4
LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX
5
KEY FEATURES OF LOGFRAME MATRIX
  • The LOGFRAME MATRIX is a participatory Planning,
    Monitoring Evaluation tool whose power depends
    on the degree to which it incorporates the full
    range of views of intended beneficiaries and
    others who have a stake in the programme design.
    It is a tool for summarizing the key features of
    a programme and is best used to help programme
    designers and stakeholders

6
Summary of the logical framework
Intervention Logic
  • Goal
  • The higher level objective towards which the
    project is expected to contribute (mention target
    groups)
  • Purpose
  • The effect which is expected to be achieved as
    the result of the project.
  • Outputs
  • The results that the project management should be
    able to guarantee (mention target groups)
  • Activities
  • The activities that have to be undertaken by the
    project in order to produce outputs.

7
Cause-effect relationship among objectives at
several levels
Goal
Purpose
Outputs
under full control of project management
Activities
beyond control of project management
Inputs
8
Summary of the logical framework
Assumptions and Preconditions
  • Assumptions
  • Important events, conditions or decisions outside
    the control of the project which must prevail the
    goal.
  • Important events, conditions or decisions outside
    control of the project management necessary for
    the achievement of the purpose.
  • Important events, conditions or decisions outside
    control of the project management necessary for
    the production of outputs.
  • Important events, conditions, decisions outside
    control of the project management necessary for
    the start of the project.

9
Summary of the logical framework
Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVI)
  • Goal
  • Measures (direct or indirect) to verify to what
    extent the goal is fulfilled.
  • Purpose
  • Measures (direct or indirect) to verify to what
    extent the purpose is fulfilled.
  • Outputs
  • Measures (direct or indirect) to verify to what
    extent the outputs are produced.
  • Activities (Inputs)
  • Goods, people and services necessary to undertake
    the activities

10
Summary of the logical framework
Means of verification (MOV)
  • Goal
  • The sources of data necessary to verify status of
    goal level indicators.
  • Purpose
  • The sources of data necessary to verify status of
    purpose level indicators.
  • Outputs
  • The sources of data necessary to verify status of
    output level indicators.
  • Activities
  • The sources of data necessary to verify status of
    activity level indicators.

11
Objectively Verifiable Indicators
  • Indicators must be valid, reliable, precise,
    cost-effective and stated independently from
    other levels.
  • Indicators should make clear how the target group
    will benefit from the realisation of outputs.
  • Indicators should be specific in terms of
  • Quality (what?) - Q
  • Quantity (how much?) - Q
  • Time (when, how long?) - T
  • Target Group (who?) - T
  • Place (where?) - P

12
Objectively Verifiable Indicators
  • The process of defining indicators forces us to
    clarify our objectives. A good indicator at this
    level is,
  • a. Plausible measuring what is important in the
    project
  • b. Attributable measuring changes caused by the
    project
  • c. Cost-effective involving data that may be
    collected and analyzed inexpensively
  • d. Independent not inherent to the project
  • e. Targeted how much.., what kind of.., by when
  • f. Verifiable to reach agreement

13
Key Features of Logframe Matrix (contd)
  • Develop a common understanding of the
    expectations of a programme by delineating a
    hierarchy of aims
  • Define indicators of success and establish
    criteria for monitoring and evaluation
  • Define critical assumptions on which the
    programme is based and
  • Identify means of verifying programme
    accomplishments

14
LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX
A tool for planning, appraisal, monitoring
and evaluation. The framework Vertical
Logic
GOAL PURPOSE OUTPUTS ACTIVITIES
15
Hierarchy of Aims
  • The GOAL is a bottom line condition of
    well-being of individuals, families, or
    communities. It is usually described in terms
    of quality of life improvement towards which the
    country programme will contribute
  • The PURPOSE is determined by asking the question
    how will this goal be achieved
  • The OUTPUTS are the deliverables through which
    the purpose will be achieved.
  • The ACTIVITIES are the main elements of component
    projects through which the outputs are achieved

16
CORE CONCEPT OF LOGFRAME MATRIX MEANS AND END
LOGIC
  • The main concept underlying the Logical
    Framework is means and end. The better the means
    and end linkages between each level of aims, the
    better the programme design.
  • By definition, each programme has a if-then
    or means-and-end logic embedded in it. If we
    produce certain results under certain conditions,
    then we can expect to achieve certain other
    outcomes.

17
LogFrame-Horizontal logic
  • Aims measured by indicators through information
    collected and presented in specified means of
    verification

18
THE LOGIC OF A PROGRAMME A SET OF LINKED
HYPOTHESES
then
GOAL
then
PURPOSE
if
OUTPUTS
then
if
ACTIVITIES
if
19
PLAN DOWNWARDS
PLAN DOWNWARDS
Goal
Assumptions
Purpose
Assumptions
Outputs
Assumptions
Activities
Assumptions
AND THEN
Inputs
THINK UPWARDS
20
THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX
  • Clear statement of
  • What we can accomplish (outputs) and
  • The important results we expect in the short to
    medium-term (purpose) and in the long term (goal)

21
Making the Programmes linked hypotheses
explicit improves the programme design
  • Goal
  • Contribute to improved Eye Health
  • Purpose
  • Contribute to increased utilization of Eye Health
    services and knowledge
  • Outputs
  • 1. Increased Access to Eye Health Services
  • 2. Provision of cost-effective, comprehensive
    and high quality EH services

22
Outputs (Contd)
  • 3. Increased community awareness and support for
    EH.
  • 4. Enhanced planning and management capacity in
    MOH.
  • 5. Development of comprehensive eye health
    policies and standards of practice.
  • 6. Increased capacity to carry out research on
    EH, and to collect, analyze and utilize data.

23
Making the Programmes linked hypotheses explicit
improves the programme design (contd)
  • Activities
  • 1. Training
  • 2. Procurement of Consumables and equipment
  • 3. Refurbishing clinics/hospitals
  • 4. Organizing seminars for HRD
  • 5. Production of IEC materials
  • 6. Organizing data collection activities and KAP
    surveys.
  • 7. Development of MIS

24
OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS (OVI)
  • The quantitative, qualitative, and time-bound
    measures that constitute evidence of the extent
    to which the aims have been met at the four
    levels of the hierarchy.
  • OVIs
  • Indicate how to recognize success at each level
    of aim

25
Objectively Verifiable Indicators (contd)
  • Assist to refine and clarify aims
  • Facilitate monitoring and take remedial actions
    if required
  • Facilitate end of programme evaluation to
    determine delivery of outputs and progress made
    in achieving goal and purpose.

26
How to select indicators
  • Tomorrow????????

27
Objectively Verifiable Indicators (Quantity
Quality)
  • Indicator -Increase CSR
  • Add Quality -CS with IOL increased from 60 to
    90
  • Add Quality -CS with SICS technique
  • increased from 60 to 80
  • Add time -CSR increased from 4000 to 6000 by 2005
  • Add place -in x region/district

28
Means of verification
  • The specific sources from which the status of
    each of the indicators can be ascertained

29
ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS
  • Assumptions and risks are external conditions
    that are outside the control of the programme.
    The achievement of aims depends on whether or not
    assumptions hold true and the risks do not
    materialize.
  • If cause and effect is the core concept of
    good programme design, necessary and sufficient
    conditions are the corollary. The sufficient
    conditions between the levels in the hierarchy of
    aims are the Assumptions. This is the external
    logic of the programme.

30
Assumptions and Risks (contd)
  • When working on a programme, we make
    assumptions about the degree of uncertainty
    between different levels of aims. The lower the
    uncertainty that certain assumptions will hold
    true, the stronger the programme design. Any
    experienced manager will agree that the
    assumptions - the failing assumptions - can
    derail a programme as often as poorly executed
    outputs.

31
Assumptions and Risks (contd)
  • Logframe demands that all hypotheses, assumptions
    and risks relevant to a programme are made
    explicit.
  • By implication, this then further demands that
    the appropriate action is considered (and if
    necessary taken) before problems materialise.
  • How important are the assumptions
  • How big are the risks
  • Should the programme be redesigned?
  • Should elements of the proposed programme be
    abandoned?

32
ALGORITHM TO ASSESS EXTERNAL FACTORS
Is the external factor important?
No
Yes
Will it be realised?
Do not include in logical framework
(e.g. as the result of another project by
external donor)
Almost certainly Do not include in
logical framework Likely
Include in logical framework as
Assumption


(fourth
column) Unlikely
Is it possible to redesign the country

Programme to influence the external
factor?
yes
No
The assumption is a killer assumption. From a
technical point of view the programme is not
feasible, unless the political authority finds a
solution to get around the assumption or
transform it into an acceptable assumption.
  • Redesign the programme
  • add activities and/or results
  • change programme purpose

33
LOGFRAME MATRIX SERVES THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS
  • A tool for planning a logical set of
    interventions
  • A tool for appraising a Programme document
  • A concise summary of the Programme
  • A tool for monitoring progress made with regard
    to delivery of outputs and activities
  • A tool for evaluating impact of Programme
    outputs, e.e. progress in achieving purpose and
    goal.

34
  • Thank you.
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