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Carrier Ethernet Technology and Standards Update

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Title: Carrier Ethernet Technology and Standards Update


1
Carrier Ethernet Technology and Standards
Update
  • Presented by
  • Rick Gregory
  • Senior Systems Consulting Engineer
  • May 25,2011

2
Carrier Ethernet Evolution, Defined
3
Ethernet Evolution Timeline 1970s to today
  • 1973 Metcalfe Boggs of Xerox PARC invented
    ALOHA packet-based network access protocol over
    a wired shared medium
  • 3 Mb/s operation
  • 1982 The Ethernet Blue Book Digital, Intel,
    Xerox (DIX)
  • 10Mb/s operation based on the Xerox PARC
    concepts
  • 1985 IEEE 802.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access w/
    Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
  • Formal standards definition, based on Blue
    Book
  • 1999 Gigabit Ethernet standards ratified for use
    over copper twisted pair vendors also implement
    fiber optic versions 1000Base-T
  • IEEE 802.3ab
  • 2000s Fiber standards ratified for single and
    multimode fiber speeds evolve to 10, 40 and
    (eventually) 100Gbps

4
Ethernet Evolution Events Effect Carrier
Ethernet becomes Leading Transport Technology
Ethernet over any mediaany service over Ethernet
5
Basic Ethernet Bridging (IEEE 802.1D)
Unknown Destination Multicast Broadcast
A switch builds forwarding table by LEARNING
where each station is (relative to itself) by
watching the SA of packets it receives.
  • Four Important Concepts/Operations (upon switch
    receipt of a packet)
  • LEARNING The Source MAC Address (SA) and port
    number, if not known
  • FORWARDING Looking up Destination Address (DA)
    in table and sending to correct port
  • FILTERING Discarding packets if destination
    port receiving port
  • FLOODING Sending to all other ports if DA is
    unknown, multicast or broadcast

6
Ethernets Evolution
Originally
Now
10 Mbps, then 100M
1 Gbps, 10G, 40G, 100G
Bandwidth
Half Duplex
Full Duplex
Transmission
Yes (CSMA/CD)
No Collisions (Full Duplex)
Collisions
Entire LAN
VLAN Controlled
Broadcast Domain
None
802.1p
Prioritization
Topology
E-LAN, E-Tree, E-Line (Access, Trunks)
Bus
Cabling
Coax
UTP, Optical (Access, Trunks)
Less Than 30 Due to Collisions
Approaching 100
Utilization
Limited by CSMA/CD Propagation Time
Limited Only by Media Characteristics
Distance
7
Standards Current, Forthcoming, and Direction
8
Scaling Ethernetbeyond 802.1ad (Q-in-Q)
  • Preferred Large number of customers
  • Reality One MAC domain for customer and Provider
    results in large forwarding table size
  • 48-bit MAC address (no prefixing as in IP
    address)
  • Every network switch needs to learn Destination
    Address (DA) of customer switches
  • Preferred Customer Isolation/Transparency
  • Reality One L2 broadcast domain for customer and
    provider
  • Broadcast storms in one customers network can
    affect other customers and provider as well
  • Preferred Million service instances
  • Reality Limited VLAN space, i.e., only 4095
    (i.e., 212-1)
  • 802.1ad (Q-in-Q) suggested 16million instances
    but forwarding only to same S-tag (4095!)
  • Preferred Deterministic behavior for services
  • Reality p bit for priority but no bandwidth
    guarantee arbitrary forwarding/backup paths
  • Data plane dependent on address table, vlan
    partition, spanning tree, bandwidth contention

9
Ethernet Transport at Layer 2 2.5 Approaches
to COE
  • VLAN and Stacked VLAN (Q-in-Q) Cross-Connects
  • Explicit forwarding paths using VLAN based
    classification. Tunneling via VLAN tag
    encapsulations and translations. Defined in IEEE
    802.1Q and IEEE 802.1ad specifications. Standards
    completed.
  • Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB-TE) and Provider
    Backbone Bridging (PBB)
  • Explicitly forwarding paths using MAC VLAN tag.
    Tunneling via MAC-in-MAC encapsulations. Defined
    in IEEE 802.1Qay and IEEE 802.1ah specifications.
    Standards completed.
  • E-SPRing
  • Shared Ethernet Ring Topology based Protocol
    mechanism that delivers sub-50ms in IEEE 802.1Q
    and IEEE 802.1ad (Q-inQ) Ethernet Networks.
    Defined in ITU G.8032 specification. Standards
    completed.
  • MPLS VPLS/H-VPLS
  • Widely deployed in the core, less so in the metro
    / access. Uses pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge
    (PWE3) for Ethernet and multi-service tunneling
    over IP/MPLS. Can be point-to-point or
    multi-point (VPLS). Defined in IETF RFC 4364
    (formerly 2547bis) and Dry Martini (IETF RFC
    2026). Standards completed.
  • Provider Link State Bridging (PLSB)
  • Adds a SPB (Shortest Path Bridging) using IS-IS
    for loop suppression to make Ethernet fit for a
    distributed mesh and point to multi-point routing
    system. PBB-TE/PBB along with PLSB can operate
    side-by-side in the same network infrastructure.
    PLSB is optimized for Any to Any E-LAN and Point
    to Multi-Point E-Tree Network Topology Service
    delivery. Defined in IEEE 802.1aq specification.
    Standards to be completed. Target completion
    approximately 2H 2011.
  • MPLS-TP
  • Formerly know as T-MPLS (defined by ITU-T). New
    working group formed in IETF now called MPLS-TP.
    Transport-centric version of MPLS for carrying
    Ethernet services based on PWE3 and LSP
    constructs. Defined in IETF RFC 5654. Standard
    to be completed. Target completion approximately
    1H 2012.

10
Whats Next in Carrier Ethernet ?
802.1aq PLSB
Robust L2 Control Plane
Ethernet Shared Ring Resiliency
G.8032
802.1Qay PBB-TE
Traffic Engineered Ethernet Tunnels
Y.1731 Performance Management
Proactive Performance Management
802.1ag Fault Management
Service and Infrastructure CFM Diagnostics
Scalable, Secure Dataplane
802.1ah PBB
Ethernet has steadily evolved to address more
robust networking infrastructures
11
CESD Technology and Mechanisms OAM And
QOS Ethernet Service Monitoring
  • March 2010

12
Predictable Resilience Create a stable network,
that remains stable as it scales
  • Ciena is the leader in Connection-oriented
    Ethernet (COE) and provides a range of
    carrier-class resiliency schemes (RSTP, MPLS,
    PBB-TE)
  • COE tunnels (PBB-TE, MPLS-TP (future)) are
    connection-oriented and traffic engineered
  • Provides deterministic performance for predicable
    SLAs
  • Better resiliency stability of provider
    networks

PBB-TE domain supporting sub-50 ms protection
(via 802.1ag Connectivity Check Messages)
802.1Q/ad domains protected using 802.1w RSTP
with 50 ms restoration
13
Granular Bandwidth Control Controlled
measurable for predictable QoS
Voice VLAN
CIR/EIR
MAC DA B
  • Specific service identification with rich L1-L2
    classification
  • Segmented bandwidth via a hierarchy of virtual
    ports
  • Flexible priority resolution for CoS mapping
  • Traffic profiles and traffic management at all
    levels in the hierarchy
  • Specify CIR/CBS, EIR/EBS, Color Aware profiles
  • Allows efficient service upgrades

20/0
50/100
L2VPN
10/100
80/200
20/100
IP SA 192.168.1.23
MAC SA A
30/100
DENY
TCP port 80
10/40
20/55
Flow Interface (e.g. Combo of TCP/UDP port, IP
DSCP, MAC, etc.)
Sub-Port (e.g. Dept VLAN range)
Logical Port (e.g. all the client ports of a
Business)
Enhance revenue with Service Stratification
14
Comprehensive OAM Reduce the cost to run the
network and keep services profitable
  • Complete standards-based Operations,
    Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) offering
    provides visibility, manageability, and controls
  • Proactive SLA assurance, rapid fault isolation
    and minimized downtime
  • Includes L2 and L3 based performance measurement
    capability as a way to differentiate services

IETF RFC 5357 TWAMP Two-Way Active Measurement
Protocol
Layer 3 SLA Monitoring Metrics Delay, Jitter
ITU-T Y.1731 Ethernet OAM
Layer 2 SLA Monitoring Metrics Delay, Jitter,
Frame Loss
IEEE 802.1ag CFM Connectivity Fault Management
Service Heartbeats, End-to-End Hop-by-Hop fault
detection
IEEE 802.3ah EFM Physical Link
Enhanced troubleshooting, rapid network discovery
15
Technology Options for Packet Transport
  • Routing, i.e., forward IP packets
  • IP -over- IPsec, GRE -over- MPLS
  • IP -over- IPsec, GRE -over- IP
  • MPLS -over- L2TPv3 -over- IP
  • Ethernet -over- L2TPv3 -over- IP
  • Bridging, i.e., forward Ethernet frames based on
    MAC DA
  • Ethernet -over- Ethernet PBB
  • Ethernet -over- MPLS VPWS VPLS
  • Switching, i.e., forward of Ethernet frames based
    on tunnel label
  • Ethernet -over- Ethernet PBB-TE
  • Ethernet -over- MPLS-TP

MPLS (L3)
IP
PBB
MPLS (L2)
PBB-TE
MPLS-TP
Goal cost-effective, high-performance transport
16
Mechanisms to Build the Carrier Grade Enterprise
Ethernet Network

PBB
PBB-TE
Ethernet OAM
17
Performance Monitoring and Connectivity Fault
Management
18
Maturing Ethernet OAM into a Transport Technology
True Ethernet transport must maintain important
functions from the TDM Transport Environment
A Partial List of Completed and Evolving Standards
Fault Management Functions
Y.1731
802.1ag
CCM Continuity Check
P
P
  • Traffic Engineering for deterministic bandwidth
    utilization
  • Network planning Bandwidth resources traffic
    placement
  • Performance monitoring statistics collection
  • Fault sectionalization propagation mechanisms
  • Trace loopback facilities
  • Local Link Management
  • Control plane for automated end-to-end
    provisioning and resiliency

LBM/LRM Loopback
P
P
LTM/LTR Link Trace
P
P
  • IEEE 802.1Qay for PBB-TE Connection Oriented
    Ethernet
  • IEEE 802.3ah EFM defines link level diagnostics
    and OAM
  • ITU Y.1731 OAM functions and mechanisms for
    Ethernet based networks
  • IEEE 802.1ag Connectivity Fault Management, a
    subset of Y.1731
  • MEF10 and Y.1731 describe Packet PM
  • MEF16 describes Ethernet-Local Management
    Interface (LMI)
  • ITU G.8031 Ethernet Protection Switching
  • draft-fedyk-gmpls-ethernet-PBB-TE-01.txt for
    Control Plane

AIS Alarm Indication Signal
O
P
RDI Remote Defect Indication
P
P
LCK Locked Signal
O
P
TST Test Signal
O
P
MCC Maintenance Comms. Channel
O
P
VSM/EXM Vendor/Experimental OAM
O
P
Performance Management Functions
Y.1731
802.1ag
FLR Frame Loss Ratio
O
P
FD Frame Delay
O
P
FDV Frame Delay Variation
O
P
802.3ah (2005) Link Management Functions
Discovery
Link Monitoring
Remote Failure Detect
Rate Limiting
Remote Loopback
MEF UNI and LMI
E LMI Status
E-LMI VLAN mapping
E-LMI BW Admission
MEF-ENNI
Remote Loopback
19
PBB / PBB-TE management 802.1ag Properties
  • 802.1ag has the concept of maintenance levels
    (hierarchy). This means that OAM activity at one
    level can be transparent at a different level.
  • 802.1ag has clear address and level information
    in every frame. When one looks at an 802.1ag
    frame, one knows exactly
  • Where it originated from (SA MAC)
  • Where is it going (DA MAC)
  • Which maintenance level is it
  • What action/functionality does this frame
    represent.
  • Design Inherently address the OAM aspects for
    MP2MP connectivity (e.g. VLANs)

20
The New Ethernet OAM
Standards-based IEEE 802.1ag and ITU Y.1731
802.1ag Maintenance levels/hierarchy
Maintenance End Point MEP Maintenance
Intermediate Point MIP
  • Continuity Check (Fault)
  • Multicast/unidirectional heartbeat
  • Loopback (MEP/MIP Fault Connectivity)
  • Unicast bi-directional request/response
  • Traceroute (MEP/MIP Link Trace - Isolation)
  • Trace nodes in path to a specified target
  • Discovery
  • Service (e.g. all PEs supporting common service
    instance)
  • Network (e.g. all devices common to a domain)
  • Performance Monitoring
  • Frame Delay
  • Frame Delay Variation
  • Frame Loss

MEP
MEP
MIP
  • Conceptually
  • monitor the trunk or the service
  • or both

Service
Trunk
802.1ag
802.1ag
Built-in and on-switch
21
Carrier Ethernet Technology and Standards
Update PBB/PBB-TE/E-SPRing G.8032/PLSB and
MPLS/VPLS/HVPLS/MPLS-TP
  • Presented by
  • Rick Gregory
  • Senior Systems Consulting Engineer
  • May 25,2011

22
Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB) IEEE 802.1ah
23
Provider Backbone Bridge Introduction
  • IEEE 802.1ah is the Provider Backbone Bridge
    standard
  • Also known as Mac In Mac (MiM) encapsulation
  • PBB solves several of todays Ethernet challenges
  • Service Scalability up to 16 millions VPNs
  • Customer Segregation Overlapping VLANs
    supported
  • MAC Explosion Customer MAC addresses only
    learned at edge
  • Security Customer BPDUs are transparently
    switched

I-SID
B-VID
B-DA
B-SA
802.1ah Provider Backbone Bridges
24
Ethernet FramesBefore and After
Payload
Payload
Payload
Ethertype
Ethertype
Payload
C-VID
C-VID
Ethertype
Ethertype
Ethertype
VID
S-VID
S-VID
Ethertype
Ethertype
Ethertype
Ethertype
Pre-existing (unchanged)
SA
SA
SA
SA
DA
DA
DA
DA
I-SID
New (backbone)
802.1 basic
802.1Q tagged VLAN
802.1ad QinQ Provider Bridge
SA Source MAC address DA Destination MAC
address VID VLAN ID C-VID Customer VID S-VID
Service VID I-SID Service ID B-VID Backbone
VID B-DA Backbone DA B-SA Backbone SA
802.1ah MACinMAC PBB
25
802.1ah PBB Encapsulation Header as used by PBB-TE
DA
SA
58 Bit Tunnel Address
26
PBB Solving Current Ethernet Challenges
Up to 16 million service instances using 24 bit
service ID ISID
Overlapping V-LANs supported
Stops MAC Explosions and Broadcast Storms at
MAC-in-MAC Demarcation Point
Customer MAC is completely separate from Backbone
MAC
Architected to build E-LAN, E-Tree and E-Line
services
27
Provider Backbone Bridging With Traffic
Engineering (PBB-TE) IEEE 802.1Qay
28
PBB-TE (IEEE 802.1Qay)
MPLS Services (RFC 2547 VPN, PWs etc.)
Ethernet Services (EVPL, ELAN, ELINE, Multicast)
PBB-TE
  • Keep existing Ethernet, MPLSFR/ATMANY ALL
    services
  • Capitalize on Ethernet as transport for
    significant savings
  • Existing network-friendly solution!

29
PBB-TE
PBB
E-LINE
Traffic engineered PBB-TE trunks
PBB
Ethernet Metro
E-LINE
  • P2P traffic engineered trunks based on existing
    Ethernet forwarding principles
  • Reuses existing Ethernet forwarding plane
  • Simple L2 networking technology
  • Tunnels can be engineered for diversity,
    resiliency or load spreading
  • 50 ms recovery with fast IEEE 802.1ag CFM OAM

30
PBB-TE Solving Current Ethernet Challenges
Full segregation in P2P model
End to End TE With QoS 50
ms recovery
Disable STP No blocked
links Fast 802.1ag convergence
MAC Explosions Eliminated
Backbone MAC is Completely Different Than
Customer MAC
31
Provider Link State Bridging (PLSB) IEEE 802.1aq
32
Introducing.PLSB
  • PBB-TE is a trivial change to the Ethernet
    dataplane that has huge Benefits
  • Explicit enforcement of configured operation
  • Ability to have non STP based VLANs
  • Similarly PLSB requires a further trivial change
    with huge Benefits
  • Adding loop suppression to make Ethernet fit for
    a distributed routing system
  • PBB-TE, PLSB and existing Ethernet control
    protocols can operate side-by-side in the same
    network infrastructure
  • Consequence of ability to virtualize many network
    behaviors on a common Ethernet base.

33
PLSB Approach
  • If Ethernet is going to be there.use it!
  • Take advantage of Ethernets more capable data
    plane
  • Virtual partitions (VLANS), scalable multicast,
    comprehensive OAM
  • PLSB uses a Single (1) Link State Control Plane
    protocol IS-IS
  • IS-IS topology and service info (B-MAC and I-SID
    information)
  • Integrate service discovery into the control
    plane
  • PLSB nodes use link state information to
    construct unicast and per service (or I-SID)
    multicast connectivity

34
VPLS Operation
Typical VPLS Implementation
Required for Auto-Discovery Separate RR
topologies (to help scale) Eases burden of
statically managing VSI PWEs
Signal PWEs N2 manual session creation
Base LDPs build LSP tunnels Redundant to IGP
(same paths)
Base IGP Topology Required for network topology
knowledge
Physical Links Link layer headers striped off,
label lookup per node
VPLS CONTROL PLANE
35
PLSB Operation
PLSB Implementation
  • One IGP for Topology Discovery
  • One protocol now provides
  • Auto-discovery
  • Fast fault detection
  • Network healing
  • Shortest path bridging
  • Intra-AS only Link State Protocol
  • Dijkstra's algorithm for best path
  • No VSI awareness required at Edge
  • Once Standardized Ciena could deploy
  • Own I.P. from MEN acquisition
  • Target IEEE 802.1aq Ratification 2H 2011

Tunnel VPN Protocols
Physical Links - Link layer headers reused as a
label lookup through every node
Ethernet
Minimizing control plane Minimized complexity
Reduced cost
36
PPB/PBB-TE and PLSB Delivers
E-LINE Point to Point
E-LAN Any to Any
CESD
CESD
Characteristics PLSB 200-500ms
resiliency PBB-TE 50ms resiliency Optimized per
service multicast Feature Rich OAM SLA and
Service Monitoring Latency Monitoring No Spanning
Tree Protocol Value Simplest Operations
Model Less Overhead and Network Layering Most
Cost Effective Equipment Efficient Restoration
E-TREE Point to Multi-Point
CESD
37
Ethernet Shared Ring (E-SPRing) ITU G.8032
38
G.8032 Objectives and Principles
  • Use of standard 802 MAC and OAM frames around the
    ring. Uses standard 802.1Q (and amended Q
    bridges), but with xSTP disabled.
  • Ring nodes supports standard FDB MAC learning,
    forwarding, flush behaviour and port
    blocking/unblocking mechanisms.
  • Prevents loops within the ring by blocking one of
    the links (either a pre-determined link or a
    failed link).
  • Monitoring of the ETH layer for discovery and
    identification of Signal Failure (SF) conditions.
  • Protection and recovery switching within 50 ms
    for typical rings.
  • Total communication for the protection mechanism
    should consume a very small percentage of total
    available bandwidth.

39
ITU G.8032 Ethernet Rings a.k.a. E-SPRing
(Ethernet Shared Protection Rings)
  • E-SPRing Values
  • Efficient connectivity (P2P, multipoint,
    multicast)
  • Rapid service restoration (lt50 msecs)
  • Server layer technology agnostic (runs over
    Ethernet, OTN, SONET/SDH, etc)
  • Client layer technology agnostic (802.1 (Q, PB,
    PBB, PBB-TE), IP/MPLS, L3VPN, etc)
  • Fully Standardized (ITU-T SG15/Q9 G.8032)
  • Scales to a large number of nodes and high
    bandwidth links (GE, 10G, 40G, 100G)

E-Line, E-LAN, E-Tree
Major Ring
Sub Ring
Fault
Sub Ring
Sub Ring
Multi-Layer Aggregation with Dual Homing
Deterministic 50ms Protection Switching
Grow ring diameter, nodes, bandwidth
Full service compatibility
40
The Ciena G.8032 Solution
  • FORWARDING PLANE
  • Utilizes existing IEEE defined Bridging and IEEE
    802.3 MAC
  • Supports IEEE 802.1Q, 802.1ad, and 802.1ah

FORWARDING PLANE
  • MANAGEMENT PLANE
  • Ciena G.8032 solution MIB
  • Generic Information Model
  • Supports Ethernet OAM (802.1ag, Y.1731) fault and
    performance management
  • Operator commands (e.g., manual/force switch,
    DNR, etc.)

MANAGEMENT PLANE
CONTROL PLANE
  • CONTROL PLANE
  • Sub-50ms protection for E-LINE, E-TREE, and E-LAN
    services
  • Guarantees loop freeness with prevention of frame
    duplication and reorder service delivery
  • STANDARDIZED
  • ITU-T Q9/15 G.8032 (ERP)
  • IEEE 802.3 MAC
  • IEEE 802.1Q, 802.1ad, 802.1ah
  • Ethernet OAM IEEE 8021.ag
  • Ethernet OAM ITU-T Y.1731

STANDARDIZED
  • Ciena PORTFOLIO
  • Carrier Ethernet 318x, 3190, 3911, 3916, 3920,
    3930, 3931, 3940, 3960, 5140, 5150
  • Transport OME 6500, OM 5K, OME 6110/6130/6150

NETWORKING
  • NETWORKING
  • Dedicated rings
  • Ring interconnect via shared node and dual node
  • Dual-homed support to provider network
    technologies (e.g., PB, PBB, PBB-TE, MPLS, etc.)

Ciena PORTFOLIO
  • SCALABLE
  • Physical/server layer agnostic
  • Supports heterogeneous rings
  • Leverages Ethernet BW, cost, and time-to-market
    curve (1GbE?10GbE?40GbE?100GbE)

SCALABLE
41
Example G.8032 Network Applications
Wireless Backhaul
Business Services Private Build
Business Services - Access
Business Services DSL Aggregation
42
General G.8032 Concepts
43
What is a Channel Block?
Blocking Port
  • A Channel block can be an ingress/egress rule
    placed on a G.8032 node port
  • The Channel block rule specifies that any traffic
    with a VID received over this port within a given
    VID space should be discarded
  • NOTE The Channel block function prevents traffic
    from being forwarded by the G.8032 node, however,
    it does not prevent traffic from being received
    by Higher Layer Entities (e.g., G.8032 Engine) on
    that node
  • Each G.8032 ringlet needs at least a single
    channel block installed

44
What is a Ringlet (a.k.a. Virtual Ring)?
Ringlet 2
  • A Ringlet is a group of traffic flows over the
    ring that share a common provisioned channel
    block
  • NOTE It is assumed that each traffic flow has a
    VLAN associated with it
  • The traffic flows within a Ringlet is composed of
  • A single ringlet control VID (R-APS VID)
  • A set of traffic VIDs
  • A group of traffic flows over the ring can be
    identified by a set of VIDs
  • Multiple Ringlets on a given Ring can not have
    overlapping VID space

Ringlet 1
45
G.8032 E-SPRing Failure/Restoration
Please view in animation mode
1
2
A
B
C
F
D
E
  • Normal configuration
  • Ring span failure occurs

4
3
A
B
A
B
C
F
C
F
D
E
D
E
R-APS messages
  • LOS detected
  • Port blocking applied
  • APS message issued
  • R-APS causes forwarding database flush
  • Ring block removed

46
V
VI
Recovery Events
VIII
VII
  • When WTR expires, RPL block installed, Tx
    R-APS(NR,RB)
  • Nodes flush FDB when Rx R-APS(NR,RB)
  • Nodes remove port block when Rx R-APS(NR,RB)

47
G.8032 Product Specifications
48
G.8032 E-Spring Interconnections
Phase 1 Standalone Ring
Phase 1 Standalone Rings, LAG interconnect
a
b
Phase 2 Dual-Homed Rings (Major and Minor rings)
Phase 1 If each ring is different Virtual Switch
d
c
Phase 2 Dual-Homed Ring
e
Dual Homing
49
Chaining Rings and R-APS Protocol
Phase 2 Availability Dual-Homed Rings (Major and
Minor rings) are not supported in SAOS 6.8
  • There can be only one R-APS session running for a
    given VID Group on a ring span.
  • Major-Ringlets and Sub-Ringlets are used to chain
    rings.
  • On a Sub-Ringlet, the provisioned block for the
    data path is at the RPL owner (or on each side of
    a link fault), and the control path ALWAYS has
    its blocks where the Sub-Ringlet is open.

Control Path example
Data Path example
Major-Ringlet
Major-Ringlet
Sub-Ringlet
Sub-Ringlet
50
G.8032 Terms and Concepts
  • Ring Protection Link (RPL) Link designated by
    mechanism that is blocked during Idle state to
    prevent loop on Bridged ring
  • RPL Owner Node connected to RPL that blocks
    traffic on RPL during Idle state and unblocks
    during Protected state
  • Link Monitoring Links of ring are monitored
    using standard ETH CC OAM messages (CFM)
  • Signal Fail (SF) Signal Fail is declared when
    ETH trail signal fail condition is detected
  • No Request (NR) No Request is declared when
    there are no outstanding conditions (e.g., SF,
    etc.) on the node
  • Ring APS (R-APS) Messages Protocol messages
    defined in Y.1731 and G.8032
  • Automatic Protection Switching (APS) Channel -
    Ring-wide VLAN used exclusively for transmission
    of OAM messages including R-APS messages

51
Ring Idle State
  • Physical topology has all nodes connected in a
    ring
  • ERP guarantees lack of loop by blocking the RPL
    (link between 6 1 in figure)
  • Logical topology has all nodes connected without
    a loop.
  • Each link is monitored by its two adjacent nodes
    using ETH CC OAM messages
  • Signal Failure as defined in Y.1731, is trigger
    to ring protection
  • Loss of Continuity
  • Server layer failure (e.g. Phy Link Down)

ETH-CC
ETH-CC
RPL Owner
RPL
ETH-CC
ETH-CC
ETH-CC
ETH-CC
Physical topology
Logical topology
52
Protection Switching ? Link Failure
  • Link/node failure is detected by the nodes
    adjacent to the failure.
  • The nodes adjacent to the failure, block the
    failed link and report this failure to the ring
    using R-APS (SF) message
  • R-APS (SF) message triggers
  • RPL Owner unblocks the RPL
  • All nodes perform FDB flushing
  • Ring is in protection state
  • All nodes remain connected in the logical
    topology.

RPL Owner
RPL
Physical topology
Logical topology
53
Protection Switching ? Failure Recovery
  • When the failed link recovers, the traffic is
    kept blocked on the nodes adjacent to the
    recovered link
  • The nodes adjacent to the recovered link transmit
    R-APS(NR) message indicating they have no local
    request present
  • When the RPL Owner receives R-APS(NR) message it
    Starts WTR timer
  • Once WTR timer expires, RPL Owner blocks RPL and
    transmits R-APS (NR, RB) message
  • Nodes receiving the message perform a FDB Flush
    and unblock their previously blocked ports
  • Ring is now returned to Idle state

RPL Owner
RPL
Physical topology
1
2
6
4
3
5
Logical topology
54
Multi Protocol Label Switching (Layer 3 IETF RFC
4364 / aka 2547bis) (Layer 2 IETF RFC 2026 / Dry
Martini) (Layer 2 IETF RFC 5654 /
MPLS-TP) (MPLS/VPLS or PBB/PBB-TE)
55
Ethernet Access Network Choices
  • Legacy Ethernet (No MEF compliance)
  • Carrier Class Ethernet (MEF compliance)
  • Connection-less Ethernet
  • 802.1Q or 802.1ad or 802.1ah VLANs
  • Connection Oriented Ethernet
  • 802.1Qay (PBB-TE) VLANs
  • MPLS-TP Traffic Engineered PWs over LSP
  • IP control plane based IP or MPLS VPNs
  • IP VPN Ethernet over L2TPv3 over IP
  • MPLS VPN Ethernet PW or VLAN over LSP

56
MPLS vs. Ethernet Data Plane (OAM)
  • MPLS metro network
  • L3 (IP/MPLS) terminate Ethernet forward IP
    frames over IP PW in MPLS LSP over Ethernet port
  • L2 (VPLS/VPWS, MPLS-TP) forward Ethernet frames
    over Ethernet PW in MPLS LSP over Ethernet port
  • Multiple, varied data planes IP, PW, LSP,
    Ethernet
  • complex hw/sw interactions resulting in higher
    cost1
  • complex OAM
  • MPLS-TP LSP OAM yet to be defined
  • Ethernet (PBB-TE) metro network
  • L2 forward Ethernet frames over Ethernet EVCs
    over Ethernet port
  • Fewer data planes and OAM levels Ethernet
    Service and Network/Link
  • Simpler hw/sw for gt40 lower cost2
  • IP awareness for dataplane behavior but no need
    for OAM at IP layer
  • Less complex OAM using 802.1ag and Y.1731 for
    Ethernet service and network/tunnel layers
  • Ethernet (PB, PBB) can enable Pt-Mpt and Mpt-Mpt,
    in addition to Pt-Pt

Service
IP, Ethernet
IP, Ethernet
Data Plane
PW
VLAN (EVC)
1 Reid, Willis, Hawkins, Bilton (BT), IEEE
Communications Magazine, Sep 2008 2 (40-60 less)
McKinsey Co., Jan 2008 (40 less) CIMI Corp,
Jul 2008
Network
LSP
Ethernet
Ethernet
Complex
Simpler
57
MPLS vs. Ethernet Control Plane (OAM)
  • MPLS metro network
  • Complex link-by-link label swapping inherent
    source of unreliability1
  • Complex L3 control plane for PW/LSP
    signaling/routing ( PW stitching at core edge)
  • PW/LSP labels LDP or BGP
  • LSP setup RSVP-TE (signaling), OSPF-TE (routing)
  • MPLS-TP can avoid L3 control plane use complex
    NMS-based link-by-link LSP config instead
  • Complex protocol couplings resulting in
    processing complexity and higher opex3
  • Ethernet (PBB-TE) metro network
  • Complete, global Ethernet header
  • BEBs SA/DABVID for tunnel
  • No label switched path setup needed
  • E2E visibility, connectivity verification
  • Simpler L2 control plane for discovery only
  • No distributed routing/signaling needed
  • Metro hub--spoke (vs. core mesh) affords
    explicit failure mode config4
  • lt9 such modes in large metro
  • 12 lower opex (future up to 44)4
  • Simpler OAM reliable lower opex1,3

Ethernet provides just enough control data
plane functionality to meet all service needs
while containing cost and complexity
3 Seery, Dunphy, Ovum-RHK, Dec 2006 4 CIMI Corp.,
Netwatcher newsletter, Jul 2008
58
PBB/PBB-TE or VPLS/MPLS?
Caution Unscientific poll results
Ethernet is the new paradigm
Deterministic Transport with OAMP
Light Reading webinar Building Converged
Services Infrastructure http//www.lightreading.co
m/webinar_archive.asp?doc_id28415
PBB-TE perceived to offer cost advantages
CO-Ethernet is one option
Light Reading webinar PBB-TEs Winning
Ways http//www.lightreading.com/webinar_archive.a
sp?doc_id28511
Light Reading webinar Building Converged
Services Infrastructure http//www.lightreading.co
m/webinar_archive.asp?doc_id28415
59
PB/PBB/PBB-TE and MPLS Tunnel Inter-working
  • Ingress and egress virtual interfaces provide
    greatest flexibility and interoperability
    with existing and
    emerging technologies
  • Dual-tag push/pop/swap enables multi-protocol
    interworking (e.g., PBB-TE, MPLS)
  • Standard IEEE and popular Cisco-proprietary
    protocol handling enable robust L2VPNs

IEEE and Cisco proprietary L2 control frame
tunneling
Access / Aggregation
Metro
Core
Q-in-Q or PBB/PBB-TE
MPLS H-VPLS or PBB/TE
MEF UNI
Dual tag push/pop/swap
EVC (PW)
EVC
MPLS LSP
Q-in-Q or PBB-TE Tunnel
EVC (PW)
EVC
EVC
Q-in-Q or PBB-TE Tunnel
Q-in-Q or PBB-TE Tunnel
Seamless interworking between PB (Q-in-Q),
PBB/PBB-TE and MPLS simplifies the handoff
between domains
60
PBB-TE provides cost-effective robust packet
transport, but why not combine that with
IP/Ethernet service intelligence on one node?
  • i.e. IP Routing isnt deterministic, but it has
    useful service layer functions multicast,
    differentiated services treatment
  • Why not use IP/MPLS nodes?
  • IP for services
  • Multicast
  • L3 Prioritization
  • MPLS for services
  • VPLS Mpt-Mpt
  • VPWS Pt-Pt
  • MPLS-TP for transport
  • Pt-Pt

Because Carrier Ethernet Switches are gt40 lower
cost than IP/MPLS Carrier Ethernet
Switch/Routers (40-60 less) McKinsey Co., Jan
2008 (40 less) CIMI Corp, July 2008
Need a Carrier Ethernet Switch that combines
IP/service-aware switching while retaining
carrier-grade packet transport qualities!
61
Ethernet data plane
62
Ethernet Management plane
63
MPLS Protocols (net-net)
  • MPLS Provides
  • Virtually unlimited service scalability
  • Eliminates MAC table explosions
  • 50 ms resiliency
  • OAM
  • Traffic Engineering
  • Bandwidth guarantees
  • MPLS Requires
  • IGPTE
  • RSVP-TE
  • FRR
  • BFD
  • PWE3 control plane
  • VPLS control plane
  • H-VPLS/ MS-PW for scalability
  • MPLS forwarding plane upgrades
  • MPLS control plane server cards

64
PBB/PBB-TE Protocols (net-net)
  • Carrier Ethernet Service Delivery Provides
  • Virtually unlimited service scalability
  • Eliminates MAC table explosions
  • 50 ms resiliency
  • Service OAM
  • Traffic Engineering
  • Bandwidth guarantees
  • Carrier Ethernet Delivers
  • Provider Backbone Bridging
  • Provider Backbone Bridging with TE
  • IEEE 802.1ag, ITU Y.1731

65
Positioning Carrier Ethernet to Enterprise
Customer
66
Packet Access Comparison
Connection Oriented Ethernet
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Need IWF (L2TP, GRE)
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Need IWF, dry Martini
Need IWF, dry Martini
Need IWF (L2TP, GRE)
L3
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
L2
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
FRR
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
11
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
TBD
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
TBD
?
?
?
?
?
67
Positioning Carrier Ethernet to Enterprise
  • Multiple VPN Tunneling Control Plane Protocols
  • Optimized for Large Carrier Customers with MPLS
    backbone and IP/MPLS knowledgeable and trained
    Engineering Staff
  • Requires Extensive Engineering
  • 2 to 3 9s SLAs Ethernet Service Delivery
  • Second/s to Sub-second Restoration (R-STP/FRR)
  • Q-in-Q Stacked VLANs 4096 maximum
  • High priced MPLS HW and SW based Routers
  • Requires strong L3/IP/MPLS Knowledge/Config
  • Locked into a Vendors MPLS Products/Solution
  • Desire to fill unused capacity
  • Higher sales of L3VPN
  • Solving core not aggregation
  • Desire protocols to provision
  • Techs trained for L3/IP config
  • Difficult to deploy _at_ customer
  • Field techs not trained
  • Higher CPE
  • VPLS/H-VPLS/MPLS
  • PBB/PBB-TE/E-SPRing
  • PBB-TE/PBB/E-SPRing Forwarding Plane Only
  • Optimized for Enterprise Customers looking to
    minimize OPEX and CAPEX spend (low cost plug
    play Network)
  • CCIE type skills Not Required ( Ethernet and
    SONET knowledgeable Engineers Get it !)
  • Need to Lease Fiber (Typically unless you already
    own)
  • High Reliability, Resiliency, Scalability, and
    Simplicity
  • 4 to 5 9s SLAs Ethernet Service Delivery
  • Sub 50ms Protection Switching / Restoration (IEEE
    802.1ag)
  • Ethernet is the single End to End Protocol
    Language Spoken
  • Excellent OAM (Y.1731 and 802.1ag)
    Jitter/Latency
  • Stop MAC/VLAN explosions and Broadcast Storms
    (Separate MAC Tables Customer LAN Backbone)
  • Minimizes MAC Learning and Distribution/Forwarding
    (True MAC learning Demarcation between LAN and
    MAN/WAN)
  • 16 Million VPNs (IEEE 802.1ah Mac-in-Mac), PBB
    only
  • Low CAPEX and OPEX Economics
  • SONET Like Skill sets to Configure and Manage
    Network
  • Ethernet Open Standards 3rd Party Vendor
    Interop benefits
  • Transport over GE Microwave

68
Carrier Ethernet Service Delivery Summary
  • Increased Simplicity with universally
    acknowledgeable Ethernet MAC
  • Ethernet MAC is the single End to End Protocol
    Language (No Multi-Protocol Translation, Ethernet
    only)
  • Improved Reliability with IEEE 802.1ag
  • Sub 50ms Protection Switching / Restoration (IEEE
    802.1ag Network Continuity Message that is
    tunable)
  • QoS (Quality of Service) without Control Plane
    Complexity with IEEE 802.1Qay PBB-TE
  • Traffic engineered tunnels with B-MACs B-VID pcp
    (p-bit) Classification Prioritization
  • Superior OAM with IEEE 802.1ag and ITU Y.1731
  • Monitor Performance End to End (Varying
    Delay-Jitter/Delay-Latency/Loss) in and out of
    Network at Layer 2
  • Loop Back Message / Link Trace Message (SONET
    like) Loopback troubleshoot testing on Ethernet
  • Enhanced Network Control applying IEEE 802.1ah
    MACinMAC Backbone
  • Stop MAC/VLAN explosions and Broadcast Storms
  • Minimize MAC Learning and MAC Distribution
    (Separate MAC Demarc between LAN and MAN/WAN)
  • Massive Scalability with IEEE 802.1ah MACinMAC
    Backbone Frames
  • 24 bit ISID delivers 16 Million VPNs (IEEE
    802.1ah Mac-in-Mac)
  • Only learns and forwards based on Backbone MAC
    Addresses (LAN MAC learning stays in the LAN)
  • Lower OPEX and CAPEX plus Open Standards
    inter-operability benefits

69
Carrier Ethernet Service Delivery Value
Proposition
  • Scalable
  • Eliminate control plane restrictions
  • Deployable on Optical and Broadband NEs
  • Operationally Sound, Easier to Troubleshoot
  • Better OAM tools 802.1ag vs. VCCV/LSP-PING
  • Fewer Moving Parts No IGP, MPLS signaling etc.
  • Consistent Operations Model with PMO
  • Easier transition of workforce
  • Consistent use of Metro OSS systems
  • Number 1 with 20 Market Share in the Layer 2
    CEAD Ethernet over Fiber Market, Light Reading
    July 14, 2010  www.lightreading.com/document.asp?d
    oc_id194390 
  • SLA / Performance Measurement Built In Simplified
    Network Layering
  • Ethernet is the faceplate and network layer
  • Lower CAPEX
  • Ethernet based infrastructure that rides Ethernet
    cost curves

70
Thank you ! (Q A)
71
G.8032 Terms and Concepts
  • Ring Protection Link (RPL) Link designated by
    mechanism that is blocked during Idle state to
    prevent loop on Bridged ring
  • RPL Owner Node connected to RPL that blocks
    traffic on RPL during Idle state and unblocks
    during Protected state
  • Link Monitoring Links of ring are monitored
    using standard ETH CC OAM messages (CFM)
  • Signal Fail (SF) Signal Fail is declared when
    ETH trail signal fail condition is detected
  • No Request (NR) No Request is declared when
    there are no outstanding conditions (e.g., SF,
    etc.) on the node
  • Ring APS (R-APS) Messages Protocol messages
    defined in Y.1731 and G.8032
  • Automatic Protection Switching (APS) Channel -
    Ring-wide VLAN used exclusively for transmission
    of OAM messages including R-APS messages

72
G.8032 Timers
  • G.8032 specifies the use of different timers to
    avoid race conditions and unnecessary switching
    operations
  • WTR (Wait to Restore) Timer Used by the RPL
    Owner to verify that the ring has stabilized
    before blocking the RPL after SF Recovery
  • Hold-off Timers Used by underlying ETH layer to
    filter out intermittent link faults
  • Faults will only be reported to the ring
    protection mechanism if this timer expires

73
Controlling the Protection Mechanism
  • Protection switching triggered by
  • Detection/clearing of Signal Failure (SF) by ETH
    CC OAM
  • Remote requests over R-APS channel (Y.1731)
  • Expiration of G.8032 timers
  • R-APS requests control the communication and
    states of the ring nodes
  • Two basic R-APS messages specified - R-APS(SF)
    and R-APS(NR)
  • RPL Owner may modify the R-APS(NR) indicating the
    RPL is blocked R-APS(NR,RB)
  • Ring nodes may be in one of two states
  • Idle normal operation, no link/node faults
    detected in ring
  • Protecting Protection switching in effect after
    identifying a signal fault

74
Signaling Channel Information
  • ERP uses R-APS messages to manage and coordinate
    the protection switching
  • R-APS defined in Y.1731 - OAM common fields are
    defined in Y.1731.
  • Version 00000 for this version of
    Recommendation
  • OpCode defined to be 40 in Y.1731
  • Flags 00000000 should be ignored by ERP

75
R-APS Specific Information
  • Specific information (32octets) defined by G.8032
  • Request/Status(4bits) 1011 SF 0000 NR
    Other Future
  • Status RB (1bit) Set when RPL is blocked
    (used by RPL Owner in NR)
  • Status DNF (1bit) Set when FDB Flush is not
    necessary (Future)
  • NodeID (6octets) MAC address of message source
    node (Informational)
  • Reserved1(4bits), Status Reserved(6bits),
    Reserved2(24octets) - Future development

76
Items Under Study
  • G.8032 is currently an initial recommendation
    that will continue to be enhanced. The following
    topics are under study for future versions of the
    recommendation
  • RPL blocked at both ends configuration of the
    ring where both nodes Interconnected rings
    scenarios shared node, shared links
  • connected to the RPL control the protection
    mechanism
  • Support for Manual Switch administrative
    decision to close down a link and force a
    recovery situation are necessary for network
    maintenance
  • Support for Signal Degrade scenarios SD
    situations need special consideration for any
    protection mechanism
  • Non-revertive mode Allows the network to remain
    in recovery configuration either until a new
    signal failure or administrative switching
  • RPL Displacement Displacement of the role of
    the RPL to another ring link flexibly in the
    normal (idle) condition
  • In-depth analysis of different optimizations
    (e.g., FDB flushing)
  • Etc.
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